chapter 7: memory music: “do you remember” featuring jean paul “never forget you” noisettes

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Chapter 7: Memory Music: “Do You Remember” Featuring Jean Paul “Never Forget You” Noisettes

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Page 1: Chapter 7: Memory Music: “Do You Remember” Featuring Jean Paul “Never Forget You” Noisettes

Chapter 7: Memory

Music: “Do You Remember”

Featuring Jean Paul

“Never Forget You”

Noisettes

Page 2: Chapter 7: Memory Music: “Do You Remember” Featuring Jean Paul “Never Forget You” Noisettes

Agenda 1. Important information for the next test! 2. The Memory System (i) Sensory Memory

From sensory to short-term memory (ii) Short Term Memory

From short-term to long-term memory (iii) Long Term Memory

Forgetting 3. Eye-Witness Testimonies 4. Application: Improving your memory 5. Movie: Beautiful Minds… (5 min.)

Page 3: Chapter 7: Memory Music: “Do You Remember” Featuring Jean Paul “Never Forget You” Noisettes

1. Readings for Midterm #2

Chapter 5 “Variations in Consciousness” Chapter 6 “Learning” Chapter 7 “Memory” Chapter 8 “Language and Thought”

Delete pages 329-344 (Language) Chapter 9 “Intelligence and Psychological Testing”

Delete pages 369-375 Evaluation:

Midterm #2 will be worth 20% of your final grade Same format as Midterm #1 Start studying now!

Page 4: Chapter 7: Memory Music: “Do You Remember” Featuring Jean Paul “Never Forget You” Noisettes

2. The Memory System

Fig. 7.6 p. 290

Page 5: Chapter 7: Memory Music: “Do You Remember” Featuring Jean Paul “Never Forget You” Noisettes

2. Three Key Processes in Memory

Page 6: Chapter 7: Memory Music: “Do You Remember” Featuring Jean Paul “Never Forget You” Noisettes

2. (i) Sensory Memory• Stores a perfect picture of the world, but for a

fraction of a second• See Sperling’s studies p. 290

• Iconic (visual) and echoic (auditory) sensory memories

Page 7: Chapter 7: Memory Music: “Do You Remember” Featuring Jean Paul “Never Forget You” Noisettes

2. (i) Sperling’s Studies

Page 8: Chapter 7: Memory Music: “Do You Remember” Featuring Jean Paul “Never Forget You” Noisettes

From Sensory to Short-Term Memory

How does information get encoded and transferred onto the memory system?

a) Automatic processing No effort required

See implicit memories p. 312

b) Effortful processing Pay conscious effort and attention to hold info. In

short-term memory See explicit memories p. 312

Page 9: Chapter 7: Memory Music: “Do You Remember” Featuring Jean Paul “Never Forget You” Noisettes

2. (ii) Short-Term Memory

Semi-permanent storage Magic number: 7 (+ - 2) Information is lost after 20-30 seconds unless it is

rehearsed Maintenance rehearsal keeps the information there… Elaborative rehearsal brings the information to long

term memory Type of encoding: p.287

Page 10: Chapter 7: Memory Music: “Do You Remember” Featuring Jean Paul “Never Forget You” Noisettes

Type of Encoding

2. (ii) Type of encoding, p. 287

Page 11: Chapter 7: Memory Music: “Do You Remember” Featuring Jean Paul “Never Forget You” Noisettes

2. (ii) From Short-Term to Long-Term Memory

What helps us remember?? a) Type of encoding b) Self-referent encoding (self-schema) c) Imagery d) Mnemonics:

method of loci Acronyms: e.g. Roy G. Biv

Page 12: Chapter 7: Memory Music: “Do You Remember” Featuring Jean Paul “Never Forget You” Noisettes

2. (ii)…To long term memory

e) Chunking: e.g. 1-4-9-2-1-7-7-6-1-8-1-2 (1492) (1776) (1812)

f) Organize information hierarchically g) Spacing effects:

distributed practice leads to better long-term retention

h) Time: over learn! i) Mood-dependent effects

Page 13: Chapter 7: Memory Music: “Do You Remember” Featuring Jean Paul “Never Forget You” Noisettes

2. (iii) Long Term Memory

Where information is stored in relatively permanent form

Capacity is seemingly infinite! 2 memory systems: p. 313

Declarative: Semantic (explicit memories/encyclopedia) Episodic (implicit memories/autobiography)

Non-declarative, procedural “how to”; implicit memories based on practice or habit

Page 14: Chapter 7: Memory Music: “Do You Remember” Featuring Jean Paul “Never Forget You” Noisettes

2. (iii) Independent Memory Systems

p. 313

Page 15: Chapter 7: Memory Music: “Do You Remember” Featuring Jean Paul “Never Forget You” Noisettes

2. (iii) Forgetting

Major reasons: a) failure to encode b) stored memories decay c) retrieval failure d) interference:

Proactive and retroactive p. 304

Page 16: Chapter 7: Memory Music: “Do You Remember” Featuring Jean Paul “Never Forget You” Noisettes

2. (iii) Forgetting: Interference

p. 304

Page 17: Chapter 7: Memory Music: “Do You Remember” Featuring Jean Paul “Never Forget You” Noisettes

2. (iii) Forgetting: The Story of HM The most famous and studied amnesiac

Anterograde amnesia (p. 311)

Page 18: Chapter 7: Memory Music: “Do You Remember” Featuring Jean Paul “Never Forget You” Noisettes

2. (iii) Forgetting e) Motivated forgetting:

Freud’s concept of repression Repressed memory controversy

p. 305-308

Page 19: Chapter 7: Memory Music: “Do You Remember” Featuring Jean Paul “Never Forget You” Noisettes

3. Eyewitness Testimony A case of constructive memory

Discussed by professor in class Another illustration with Loftus http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_RLvSGYxDIs&feature=fvw

Conclusion: “Memories” for non-existent objects can be implanted Memory is surprisingly unreliable

Page 20: Chapter 7: Memory Music: “Do You Remember” Featuring Jean Paul “Never Forget You” Noisettes

4. Improving your Memory a) Pay Attention!

And over learn b) Distributed practice

Take your time, and take time c) Engage in deep processing

Make information personally meaningful Provide examples for yourself

Link to previously acquired knowledge d) Organize information hierarchically e) Learn through several modalities

E.g. use visual imagery (2 codes is better than 1)

f) Use mnemonics (where useful) g) Minimize interference

Page 21: Chapter 7: Memory Music: “Do You Remember” Featuring Jean Paul “Never Forget You” Noisettes

4. Movie: Beautiful Minds...

An amazing case of perfect photographic memory. (5 min.)

http://www.stumbleupon.com/su/2MBBxU