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Characterization of two non-native invasive bark beetles, Scolytus schevyrewi and Scolytus multistriatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) Patricia L. Johnson 1 United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Wallowa Valley Office, Box A, 88401 Highway 82, Enterprise, Oregon 97828, United States of America Jane L. Hayes United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forestry and Range Sciences Laboratory, 1401 Gekeler Lane, La Grande, Oregon 97850, United States of America John Rinehart Eastern Oregon University, One University Boulevard, La Grande, Oregon 97850, United States of America Walter S. Sheppard Department of Entomology, FSHN Building 166, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164–6382, United States of America Steven E. Smith School of Natural Resources, University of Arizona, 325 Biological Sciences East, 1311 East 4th Street, Tucson, Arizona 85721, United States of America AbstractScolytus schevyrewi Semenov, the banded elm bark beetle, and S. multistriatus Marsham, the smaller European elm bark beetle, are morphologically similar. Reliance on adult ex- ternal morphological characters for identification can be problematic because of wide within- species variability and the need for good-quality specimens. The inability to identify developmental stages can also hamper early-detection programs. Using two character identification systems, geni- talic (aedeagus) morphology, and DNA markers (random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR)) to distinguish S. schevyrewi from S. multistriatus, we examined spec- imens from geographically distinct populations of both species collected from infested host trees or semiochemical-baited funnel traps. We found that aedeagus morphology can be used to identify the two species. The use of two oligonucleotide primers in the RAPD-PCR analysis yielded distinct DNA banding patterns for the two species. Species identification using RAPD-PCR analysis was validated by a blind test and used to make species identifications of larval specimens. These tools improve the ability to differentiate between S. schevyrewi and S. multistriatus at immature and adult stages, and could be developed and used for other scolytines as well. Johnson et al. 538 RésuméScolytus schevyrewi Semenov, le scolyte asiatique de l’orme, et S. multistriatus Mars- ham, le petit scolyte européen de l’orme, se ressemblent morphologiquement. L’utilisation des seuls caractères externes des adultes pour l’identification pose un problème, car il y a un fort de- gré de variabilité au sein de chacune des espèces et il est nécessaire d’obtenir des spécimens de bonne qualité. L’impossibilité d’identifier les stades immatures peut aussi nuire aux programmes de détection hâtive. En utilisant deux systèmes de caractères diagnostiques, la morphologie géni- tale (édéage) et des marqueurs ADN (ADN polymorphe amplifié aléatoirement en chaîne par po- lymérase (RAPD-PCR)), pour distinguer S. schevyrewi et S. multistriatus, nous avons examiné des spécimens provenant de populations géographiquement distinctes des deux espèces et récol- tés sur des arbres hôtes infestés ou dans des pièges appâtés de produits sémiochimiques. Nous Can. Entomol. 140: 527–538 (2008) © 2008 Entomological Society of Canada 527 Received 13 May 2007. Accepted 6 May 2008. 1 Corresponding author (e-mail: [email protected]).

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Page 1: Characterization of two non-native invasive bark beetles ... · Characterization of two non-native invasive bark beetles, Scolytus schevyrewi and Scolytus multistriatus (Coleoptera:

Characterization of two non-native invasivebark beetles, Scolytus schevyrewi and

Scolytus multistriatus (Coleoptera:Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

Patricia L. Johnson1

United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Wallowa Valley Office, Box A,88401 Highway 82, Enterprise, Oregon 97828, United States of America

Jane L. HayesUnited States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forestry and

Range Sciences Laboratory, 1401 Gekeler Lane, La Grande,Oregon 97850, United States of America

John RinehartEastern Oregon University, One University Boulevard, La Grande,

Oregon 97850, United States of America

Walter S. SheppardDepartment of Entomology, FSHN Building 166, Washington State University, Pullman,

Washington 99164–6382, United States of America

Steven E. SmithSchool of Natural Resources, University of Arizona, 325 Biological Sciences East,

1311 East 4th Street, Tucson, Arizona 85721, United States of America

Abstract—Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov, the banded elm bark beetle, and S. multistriatusMarsham, the smaller European elm bark beetle, are morphologically similar. Reliance on adult ex-ternal morphological characters for identification can be problematic because of wide within-species variability and the need for good-quality specimens. The inability to identify developmentalstages can also hamper early-detection programs. Using two character identification systems, geni-talic (aedeagus) morphology, and DNA markers (random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerasechain reaction (RAPD-PCR)) to distinguish S. schevyrewi from S. multistriatus, we examined spec-imens from geographically distinct populations of both species collected from infested host trees orsemiochemical-baited funnel traps. We found that aedeagus morphology can be used to identify thetwo species. The use of two oligonucleotide primers in the RAPD-PCR analysis yielded distinctDNA banding patterns for the two species. Species identification using RAPD-PCR analysis wasvalidated by a blind test and used to make species identifications of larval specimens. These toolsimprove the ability to differentiate between S. schevyrewi and S. multistriatus at immature andadult stages, and could be developed and used for other scolytines as well.

Johnson et al.538

Résumé—Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov, le scolyte asiatique de l’orme, et S. multistriatus Mars-ham, le petit scolyte européen de l’orme, se ressemblent morphologiquement. L’utilisation desseuls caractères externes des adultes pour l’identification pose un problème, car il y a un fort de-gré de variabilité au sein de chacune des espèces et il est nécessaire d’obtenir des spécimens debonne qualité. L’impossibilité d’identifier les stades immatures peut aussi nuire aux programmesde détection hâtive. En utilisant deux systèmes de caractères diagnostiques, la morphologie géni-tale (édéage) et des marqueurs ADN (ADN polymorphe amplifié aléatoirement en chaîne par po-lymérase (RAPD-PCR)), pour distinguer S. schevyrewi et S. multistriatus, nous avons examinédes spécimens provenant de populations géographiquement distinctes des deux espèces et récol-tés sur des arbres hôtes infestés ou dans des pièges appâtés de produits sémiochimiques. Nous

Can. Entomol. 140: 527–538 (2008) © 2008 Entomological Society of Canada

527

Received 13 May 2007. Accepted 6 May 2008.1Corresponding author (e-mail: [email protected]).

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trouvons que la morphologie de l’édéage permet d’identifier les deux espèces. L’utilisation dedeux sondes d’oligonucléotides dans l’analyse RAPD-PCR produit des patrons de bandes ADNdistincts chez les deux espèces. Nous avons validé l’identification par l’analyse RAPD-PCR dansun test aveugle; nous l’avons aussi appliquée à l’identification spécifique de larves. Ces outilspermettent de mieux différencier S. schevyrewi de S. multistriatus aux stades immatures etadulte; il serait possible d’en mettre au point et d’en utiliser de semblables pour d’autres scolyti-nés.

[Traduit par la Rédaction]

Introduction

Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Coleoptera:Curculionidae: Scolytinae), the banded elmbark beetle, recently introduced into the UnitedStates of America, is morphologically similar toanother non-native invasive species that is wellestablished in North America, Scolytusmultistriatus (Marsham), the smaller Europeanelm bark beetle (Fig. 1). The two species utilizethe same preferred hosts (species of Ulmus L.(Ulmaceae)) and have been found in the samehost tree (Negron et al. 2005; P.L. Johnson, un-published data). Scolytus schevyrewi has beenknown to attack other hosts such as species ofSalix L. and Populus L. (Salicaceae), Prunus L.(Rosaceae), Elaeagnus L. (Elaeagnaceae), AlnusMill. (Betulaceae), and Quercus L. (Fagaceae)(Wang 1992; Allen and Humble 2002; NorthAmerican Plant Protection Organization (July2003)). Scolytus multistriatus has attacked or-namental cypresses (Cupressus L. (Cupres-saceae)) in Australia (Neuman 1987). Theknown morphological differences betweenS. schevyrewi and S. multistriatus include thegeneral size, shape, and color of the adults, andthe size, shape, and location of the apical spineon the underside of the abdomen (LaBonte et al.2003).

Native to western Europe, the Middle East,and northern Africa (Bellows et al. 1998),S. multistriatus was first recorded in NorthAmerica in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1909(Chapman 1910) and subsequently spread westacross the United States of America and intosouthern Canada (Baker 1972). Scolytusmultistriatus is a primary vector of the Dutchelm disease pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmiBrasier in the United States of America andCanada (Baker 1972; Furniss and Carolin1977). The native range of S. schevyrewi in-cludes Asian Russia, Mongolia, Turkmenistan,Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, southernKyrgyzstan, Korea, and most of China (Wang1992). Scolytus schevyrewi was first identified

in North America in 2003 even though it hadbeen collected from Denver, Colorado in 1994(Negron et al. 2005) and again from New Mex-ico in 1997 (LaBonte et al. 2003). By 2004, es-tablished populations of S. schevyrewi werefound in 21 states across the United States ofAmerica (Negron et al. 2005). Harris (2004)found that up to 96% of S. schevyrewi collectedfrom American elm bolts were infected withDutch elm disease. Scolytus schevyrewi is a po-tential vector of Dutch elm disease (Seybold andLee 2004). The similar morphology and preferredhosts of S. multistriatus and S. schevyrewi are themost likely reasons why S. schevyrewi was notidentified until several years after it became es-tablished in the United States of America (Liuand Haack 2003).

The negative impacts of non-native invasivescolytines such as S. multistriatus andS. scolytus F. (Weber 1990; Haack and Cavey2000; Allen and Humble 2002) and the estab-lishment of S. schevyrewi years before its detec-tion underscore the need to develop additionaltools to distinguish between these species inparticular and other morphologically similarnon-native scolytines at all life stages (Haack2006) in general. The purpose of this study wasto examine alternative techniques and developtools to characterize S. schevyrewi that could beused to distinguish it more easily fromS. multistriatus and other scolytines, particu-larly at early life stages and in different condi-tions. The study included morphometricquantification of the male aedeagus (externalgenitalia) and examination of diagnostic molec-ular markers using random amplified polymor-phic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Male genitalic morphology has beenused qualitatively to identify bark beetle species(e.g., Sharp and Muir 1912; Cerezke 1964; Viteet al. 1974). Molecular genetic markers identi-fied through RAPD-PCR have also been used todifferentiate variation within and between spe-cies, including non-native, invasive insects. Forexample, the genetic relatedness of populations

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of the non-native bark beetle Tomicus piniperda(L.) (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) was traced us-ing RAPD-PCR by Carter et al. (1996), whodetermined that United States populations re-sulted from multiple introductions. Similarly,differences between Asian and European geno-types of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.)(Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), were character-ized using RAPD-PCR (Garner and Slavecek1996; Schreiber et al.1997). Hidayat et al.(1996) showed that two sibling species of grainweevils, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and S. zeamais(Motschulsky) (Curculionidae: Dryophthorinae),could be distinguished not only by variations intheir genitalic morphology but also by RAPD-PCR genetic markers. Cane et al. (1990) andStauffer and Zuber (1998) used externalmorphometrics and molecular genetics to dif-ferentiate between species of Ips De Geer(Curculionidae: Scolytinae). We expected tofind, therefore, that S. schevyrewi andS. multistriatus each exhibit unique genitalicand molecular characters.

Materials and methods

Sample collectionsSamples for this study were collected from

five states across the continental United States ofAmerica: S. schevyrewi from Colorado, Oregon,

and Utah, and S. multistriatus from Kansas,Maryland, and Oregon. Specimens of each spe-cies were reared from American elm (Ulmusamericana (L.) (Ulmaceae)) limbs or collectedfrom semiochemical-baited Lindgren funneltraps. Identification of all specimens was con-firmed by experts using current external mor-phological criteria (La Bonte et al. 2003).Samples used for morphometrics were from allfive states, with five populations (n = 10 perpopulation) for each species. Samples ofS. schevyrewi were reared from elm limbs ob-tained from Lakewood (2004) and Golden(2005), Colorado (CO1 (39°42!N, 105°06!W)and CO2 (39°78!N, 105°22!W)), and La Grande(2005), Oregon (OR3 (45°20!N, 118°06!W)),and trap-collected from Salt Lake City (2005)and Tremonton (2006), Utah (UT1 (40°45!N,111°52!W) and UT2 (41°73!N, 112°19!W)).Samples of S. multistriatus populations wereobtained from trap collections in 2005 and 2006from Crawford County, Kansas (KS1 and KS2(37°30!N, 94°51!W)); Prince George County(2006), Maryland (MD (38°84!N, 76°83!W));and La Grande, Oregon (OR1), plus a popula-tion reared from elm limbs from La Grande(2005), Oregon (OR3). Scolytus schevyrewiused for analysis of molecular genetics werecollected from Lakewood, Colorado (CO1), LaGrande, Oregon (OR3), and Salt Lake City,Utah (UT1). Samples of S. multistriatus foranalysis of molecular genetics were collectedfrom Crawford County, Kansas (KS2), LaGrande, Oregon (OR1), and Elgin, Oregon(OR2 (45°34!N, 117°58!W)). Specimens fromall populations except those obtained fromMaryland and Kansas in 2005 (all specimens ofwhich were used in the experimental analysis)are presently stored at the Forestry and RangeSciences Laboratory, USDA Forest Service Pa-cific Northwest Research Station, La Grande,Oregon; upon completion of this work voucherspecimens will be submitted to Oregon StateArthropod Collection at Oregon State Univer-sity in Corvallis.

Genitalic morphology

Extraction and measurement of the aedeagus

The aedeagus, the intromittent organ of themale insect, is a sclerotized tube at the distalpart of the phallus (Torre-Bueno 1962). Two tofive aedeagi of each species were dissected usinga technique modified from Sharp and Muir (1912)and examined for variation in morphology. A

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Fig. 1. Adult Scolytus spp. from populations in LaGrande, Oregon. (a) Scolytus schevyrewi. (b) Scolytusmultistriatus. Photographs by Patricia L. Johnson.

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comparison of shape and size was made toidentify characteristics that differed betweenspecies. A number of measurements were madeto quantify observed differences and establish aprotocol for this diagnostic technique. Then, foreach species, 50 aedeagus samples from popu-lations from three states across the United Statesof America were analyzed (S. schevyrewi fromCO1, CO2, OR1, UT1, and UT2; S. multistri-atus from KS1, KS2, MD, OR1, and OR3).Five measurements were taken: aedeagus length(AL) and four width measurements at specificlocations on the aedeagus (AW1, AW2, AW3,and AW4) (Fig. 2). AL was measured from thetip of the apex of the aedeagus to the base of itslobes. AW1 was recorded at the apical end below

the opening at the narrowest part of the aedeagus(Fig. 1). For both species, AW2 and AW3 wererecorded at 38% and 69%, respectively, of thedistance between the tip of the apex and thebasal edge of the membrane between the lobesof the aedeagus (Fig. 2). Because the lobes var-ied in length, they were not included whenmeasuring AW2 and AW3 for either species.For both species, AW4 was recorded at thebasal edge of the membrane between the lobes(Fig. 2). Seventy percent ethanol was used topreserve and (or) moisten the aedeagi as theywere being measured. All genitalic-morphologymeasurements were obtained at a magnificationof 80! using a binocular dissecting scope andocular micrometer.

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Fig. 2. Locations (arrows) where measurements on the aedeagi of Scolytus schevyrewi (left) and S. multistriatus(right) were made.

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Data analysis

Aedeagus lengths and widths were not nor-mally distributed and could not be normalizedusing transformation, therefore we chose to usenonparametric procedures in all analyses ofthese data. We determined the statistical signifi-cance of differences in mean length and widthsbetween the species by means of Wilcoxon’stwo-sample test using PROC NPAR1WAY inSAS/STAT software (SAS Institute Inc. 2002).

We used a nonparametric nearest neighbordiscriminant analysis procedure to evaluate theusefulness of the aedeagus measurements in iden-tifying unclassified insects among the taxa stud-ied. The discriminant model was constructedusing all five aedeagus traits with equal weightingin all cases and PROC DISCRIM (METHOD =NPAR, k = 5; SAS Institute Inc. 2002). We eval-uated model accuracy using cross-validation.The model was initially constructed and ana-lyzed using data from all 100 samples. Then, tovalidate its use for identification, the model wasreconstructed sequentially with data that ex-cluded 1 of the 10 populations from the analy-sis, i.e., each new model was based on theremaining 90 insects. Using this model, the 10individuals from the excluded population werethen identified to species and the results werecompared with their previously determinedidentification. This was done for all 10 popula-tions. For all significance tests, P = 0.05.

Molecular geneticsDNA extraction

Total genomic DNA was extracted using theWizard Genomic DNA Kit (Promega, Madison,Wisconsin) and a protocol optimized for barkbeetles (J.L. Hayes and J. Rinehart, unpublisheddata). The extraction protocol was modified foreach of the different types of collection andstorage methods. With the exception of Utah,where only 10 adult specimens of S. schevyrewiwere available, a sample comprising 20 adultindividuals was taken from each population(S. schevyrewi from CO1 and OR3; S. multi-striatus from KS2, OR1, and OR2). A samplecomprising 20 larvae and 8 adults of a speciesof Scolytus Geoffroy (not identifiable to speciesusing current taxonomic criteria) reared at theForestry and Range Sciences Laboratory wasalso analyzed. Specimens that had been storedin an ultra-cold freezer (–81 °C) were placed ina 1.5 mL microcentrifuge tube with 150 µL ofPromega Nuclei Lysis Solution (NLS) and then

ground. Specimens collected in propylene gly-col and then stored in ethanol were washedthree times with 1! TE buffer before continuingwith the above protocol. Specimens collectedand stored in isopropanol were placed in gradu-ated concentrations of ethanol until 95% wasreached, then washed with insecticidal soap for5 min or less, rinsed in sterile distilled water,and processed as described above. Dry beetleswere ground with a mortar and pestle, thenwashed with 150 µL of NLS and the solutionwas transferred to a 1.5 mL microcentrifugetube with 150 µL of NLS, using the same pi-pette tip. This process was repeated with100 µL of NLS and then 200 µL of NLS wasadded to bring the total to 600 µL. The sampleswere then processed as described above. Bee-tles stored in 95% ethanol were dried for 24 hbefore being processed as described above.

RAPD-PCR

The PCR reaction for RAPD-PCR had a finalvolume of 50 µL with 25 µL of Taq PCR reac-tion mix containing 1.5 mmol MgCl2 (Sigma,St. Louis, Missouri), 2 µL of DNA (16 ng/µL),2 µL of primer (20–25 ng/µL), and 21 µL ofdistilled water. The PCR was carried out in aPTC-100 Programmable Thermal Controller(MJ Research, Inc., Waltham, Massachusetts)with the following program: initial denaturingstep at 95 °C for 5 min, then 45 cycles of thefollowing steps — denaturing at 95 °C for1 min, annealing 34 °C for 1 min, and exten-sion at 72 °C for 2 min, followed by a final ex-tension step at 72 °C for 7 min. A final holdingtemperature of 4 °C was maintained until thePCR reaction product was visualized on a 1%agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide. Six-teen oligonucleotides (Synthegen, LLC, Hous-ton, Texas) were screened to identify thosegiving consistent results (Table 1). These 16primers were chosen because they had beenused in other bark beetle studies with reliableresults (Carter et al. 1996; Ruiz 2005). Five ofthe 16 RAPD-PCR primers (OPB-01,OPAM-07, OPAM-11, OPM-01, and OPT-05)yielded clear banding patterns and were thenused for comparing DNA banding patterns spe-cific to S. schevyrewi and S. multistriatus. Ofthese last five RAPD-PCR primers, OPB-1 andOPAM-07 yielded distinct banding patterns foreach species and were used for comparing spe-cies.

DNA bands were scored by placing the gelphotograph under a magnifying light and using a

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straight edge to score bands. The data were ana-lyzed using the absence (0) or presence (1) ofeach band scored, with analysis of molecularvariance (AMOVA) in GenAlEx 6 for speciesdifferentiation (Peakall and Smouse 2005).

RAPD-PCR validation and applicationA blind test was performed to validate species

identified by RAPD-PCR with the primers OPB-01 and OPAM-07. Five specimens of each specieswere randomly placed in microcentrifuge tubesby an assistant before they were extracted and an-alyzed. We then attempted to identify these speci-mens based on the results obtained as describedabove. In addition, the RAPD-PCR technique us-ing the primers OPB-01 and OPAM-07 was ap-plied to DNA from unidentified larvae (n = 20)and specimens that could not be identified to spe-cies using existing taxonomic criteria (n = 8). Thelatter specimens were collected from elm limbscontaining thousands of emerging adults, approxi-mately 5% of which were S. schevyrewi. We sub-sequently attempted to identify each larva andeach unidentified adult specimen to the correctspecies based on the banding patterns obtainedfrom known specimens.

Results

Genitalic morphology

Aedeagus morphometricsThe aedeagi of S. schevyrewi and S. multi-

striatus were generally similar in appearance and,

despite some variation within species, consistentdifferences between species could be detected.The aedeagus of S. schevyrewi is parallel-sided,narrowing toward the apically subtruncated tip,whereas that of S. multistriatus is parallel-sided,narrowing and constricted before the tip, whichis somewhat spatulate apically and expanded atthe basal end (Fig. 2). Differentiation was estab-lished by quantifying the characteristics of theaedeagi of both species.

Our discriminant model based on aedeaguslength and width was able to correctly classify99 of the 100 insects to the appropriate speciesin an initial analysis where all insects were in-cluded. In 10 sequential analysis runs where in-sects of one population were excluded from themodel, again only one insect from one popula-tion was misclassified (Table 2).

Molecular genetics

RAPD markersTwo primers (OPB-01 and OPAM-07)

showed differences in DNA banding pattern be-tween the species. Markers resulting fromRAPD-PCR for primers OPB-01 and OPAM-07are in a representative gel shown in Figure 3.The banding pattern for each species was dis-tinct for both primers. OPB-01 yielded a totalof 15 bands ranging from 400 to 2000 basepairs (bp) over all populations of S. schevyrewi,whereas S. multistriatus had a total of twobands at 900 and 1000 bp over all populations.OPAM-07 produced eight bands for each spe-cies, ranging from 400 to 1100 bp for S. schev-yrewi and from 500 to 2000 bp for S. multistriatus.The results from these two primers were usedfor the AMOVA to apportion the genetic vari-ance between species and populations, and indi-viduals within species and populations (Table 3).

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Oligonucleotide Sequence

OPAM-07 AACCGCGGCAOPAM-11 AGATGCGCGGOPAM-13 CACGGCACAAOPB-01 GTTTCGCTCCOPB-10 CTGCTGGGACOPT-05 GGGTTTGGCAOPM-01 GTTGGTGGCTB8 GTCCACACCGB11 GTAGACCCGTB17 AGGGAACGAGB19 ACCCCCGAAGM13 GGTGGTCAAGM18 CACCATCCGTS1 CTACTGCGCTS2 CCTCTGACTGS4 CACCCCCTTG

Table 1. List of oligonucleotides screenedfor use in RAPD-PCR.

Measurementlocation

Scolytusschevyrewi

Scolytusmultistriatus

AW1 0.0610±0.0014* 0.0391±0.0006AW2 0.0767±0.0022* 0.0642±0.0007AW3 0.0644±0.0015* 0.0687±0.0008AW4 0.0796±0.0017* 0.08277±0.0007AL 0.9858±0.0076* 0.9557±0.0060

*Values are given as the mean ± standard error and dif-fer significantly between species (P " 0.05), based onWilcoxon’s two-sample test.

Table 2. Aedeagus measurements (mm; for a descriptionsee Fig. 2) for representatives from five populations eachof Scolytus schevyrewi and Scolytus multistriatus.

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The AMOVA showed that although small, thegenetic variance (7%) between species forS. schevyrewi and S. multistriatus was signifi-cant (P < 0.001).

Validation and application of RAPD markers

The banding patterns for specimens from theblind validation test were consistent with theprevious results obtained for both S. schevyrewiand S. multistriatus (Fig. 3) and we were ableto correctly identify the species of each speci-men. We applied the results of the RAPD-PCRto distinguish S. schevyrewi from S. multi-striatus in samples derived from 19 of 20 indi-vidual larvae; one sample failed to yield DNA.Of these samples, 18 showed banding patternsconsistent with S. multistriatus and 1 showed apattern consistent with S. schevyrewi (Fig. 4).Samples from the eight specimens not identifi-able to species using current taxonomic criteriayielded banding patterns that appeared to combine

those of S. schevyrewi and S. multistriatus(Fig. 3). When known S. schevyrewi andS. multistriatus samples were compared withthe eight unidentifiable samples by AMOVA,the variance was 7% for S. multistriatus but nodifference was found for S. schevyrewi (Ta-ble 3). Individual banding patterns from each ofthe eight unidentifiable samples were then com-pared with the bands of the parental populationsof S. schevyrewi and S. multistriatus from Ore-gon. Comparison of the banding patterns ofthese eight unidentifiable samples with those ofconfirmed S. schevyrewi and S. multistriatus re-vealed that the unknown specimens yieldedmarkers (six bands) shared by the two species,as well as eight species-specific markers: twofound only in S. multistriatus samples and sixfound only in S. schevyrewi samples. In addi-tion, six bands were found inconsistentlyamong the eight unidentifiable samples that hadnot been observed in either S. schevyrewi orS. multistriatus (Table 4).

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Fig. 3. Banding patterns for Scolytus multistriatus (Sm; lanes 2, 3, 9, and 10), S. schevyrewi (Ss; lanes 4, 5,11, and 12), and four of eight individuals of Scolytus spp. not identifiable using current taxonomic criteria (?;lanes 6, 7, 13, and 14) with each primer. Lanes 2–7 show banding patterns from OPB-01; lanes 9–14 showbanding patterns from OPAM-07, and lanes 1, 8, and 15 indicate molecular weights.

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Discussion

Our results show that features of theaedeagus and RAPD-PCR markers can be reli-ably used to differentiate between S. schevyrewiand S. multistriatus. We address each of thesetechniques and findings below.

Aedeagus morphometricsAs expected, the aedeagi of these two species

are generally similar in appearance, but differsufficiently in detailed features to allow speciesdifferentiation. Because verbal descriptions canbe difficult to apply readily to a given specimenwithout reference to multiple specimens, and

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Source of variation df SSD MSDEstimatedvariance

Totalpercentage P

S. schevyrewi vs. S. multistriatus 1 23.606 23.606 0.129 7 <0.001Populations per species 4 36.528 9.132 0.209 11 <0.001Individuals per population 214 347.125 1.622 1.622 82 <0.001S. schevyrewi populations 2 28.195 14.097 0.382 17Individuals per population 97 181.175 1.868 1.868 83 <0.001S. multistriatus populations 2 8.333 4.167 0.069 5Individuals per population 117 165.950 1.418 1.418 95 <0.031S. schevyrewi vs. Scolytus spp. 1 6.546 6.546 0.00 0 0.999Populations per species 2 28.195 14.097 0.381 17 <0.001Individuals per population 112 214.363 1.914 1.914 83 <0.001S. multistriatus vs. Scolytus spp. 1 5.992 5.992 0.114 7 0.029Populations per species 2 8.333 4.167 0.066 4 0.022Individuals per population 132 199.137 1.509 1.509 89 0.006

Note: SSD, the sum of squared deviations; MSD, the mean of squared deviations.

Table 3. Analysis of molecular variance of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) band data for50 individuals of Scolytus schevyrewi, 60 individuals of S. multistriatus, and 8 individuals of Scolytus sp. notidentifiable using current taxonomic criteria.

Fig. 4. (a) Blind test validating species-specific banding patterns using the oligonucleotide OPAM-07.Scolytus schevyrewi: lanes 2, 6, 8, and 11; S. multistriatus: lanes 3, 4, 7, and 9. (b) Results for larvae withprimer OPB-01. Lane 2: S. schevyrewi; lanes 3–10: S. multistriatus.

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there is likely to be considerable variation withinspecies, we attempted to develop a means ofreadily quantifying differences in features. Al-though our sample was relatively small, theaedeagi of S. schevyrewi and S. multistriatusproved to be unique to each species across eachgeographically distinct population used in thisstudy. Scolytus schevyrewi and S. multistriatusshowed some variation in the size of the aedeaguswithin populations. This may be in proportionto the overall variation in specimen size, a fac-tor for which we did not account but thatshould be included in future work. In studies ofspecies of Carabidae, Noctuidae, andDrosophila Fallen (Diptera: Drosophilidae)(e.g., Garnier et al. 2005; Mutanen 2005; Soto2005), the shape of the male genitalia wasquantified by outlining the male genitalia. Instudies by Cane et al. (1990) and Stauffer andZuber (1998), external morphology was quanti-fied and molecular genetics used to differentiatevarious species of Ips. To our knowledge thegenitalic morphology of no other species ofScolytus has been described and (or) quantifiedusing morphometrics within this genus. We an-ticipate that our quantification technique willallow not only S. schevyrewi to be distin-guished from S. multistriatus, but also eitherspecies from other Scolytus species, althoughthis remains to be tested. We were unable toobtain specimens from the native ranges ofthese species for comparison; however, thiswould be the logical next step in the validationof this technique. If consistent variability wereto be detected, this might provide insight intothe origins of Nearctic and other populations. Itwould be particularly interesting to compare theconifer-feeding spruce engraver, Scolytus piceae

(Swaine), which is similar in external morphol-ogy and keys out in the same couplet asS. multistriatus in Wood (1982; Scolytus cou-plet 7(6). The use of our technique is limited tothe male adult stage, but can be used for speci-mens that have been stored dry or in alcohol foryears because the aedeagus is sclerotized anddoes not disintegrate as soft tissue does. Acomparative study of other native and non-native Scolytus species using our quantificationtechnique could be useful for identifying non-native, invasive species of concern, such asS. scolytus.

RAPD markersRAPD-PCR showed a significant difference

(P < 0.001) in banding patterns between theS. schevyrewi and S. multistriatus specimenswith 2 of the 16 primers screened. The use ofmore than one primer to distinguish species isimportant to verify the identity of individualspecimens.

In addition to the blind validation test, theuse of both primers on larval specimens notonly confirmed the species identification ofeach specimen but also demonstrated that thistechnique could be used on immature and adultstages.

On the other hand, the use of both primers onthe unidentifiable adult specimens yielded pat-terns containing both unique bands and bandsshared by S. schevyrewi and S. multistriatus.The AMOVA showed no variance between theunidentifiable specimens and S. schevyrewi, butthere was significant variance between theseand S. multistriatus. These results suggest thatthe unidentifiable specimens were S. schevyrewiand not S. multistriatus. However, the fact thatband-by-band analysis showed that these speci-mens have some unique bands, share somebands with both S. schevyrewi and S. multi-striatus, and share some bands with either oneor the other species suggests that the unidentifi-able specimens could be hybrids or a distinctbut currently unknown species.

Data were obtained using a variety of differ-ent specimen-collection and -storage methodsand from specimens in varying condition. How-ever, the particular method used to preservespecimens can cause difficulties for DNA ex-traction. Specimens preserved in ethanol pre-sented the most difficulty for DNA extraction,whereas those frozen immediately after collec-tion yielded the best results and required thesimplest extraction procedures. Dry samples that

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Johnson et al. 535

S. schevyrewibands (bp)

S. multistriatusbands (bp)

1800 14001200 800

700600400300

Table 4. RAPD-PCR species-specificbands of the Oregon populations ofScolytus schevyrewi and S. multistriatusthat are shared in the banding pattern ofthe eight unidentifiable individuals ofScolytus sp.

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were ground before NLS was added producedmultiple bands, whereas grinding with NLSproduced only a single band when the OPT-05primer was used. The OPT-05 primer producedmultiple bands with both S. multistriatus andS. schevyrewi in DNA extracted from frozenbeetles. Carvalho and Vieira (2000) recom-mended that DNA extraction be done within1 year of specimen collection to avoid degrada-tion of DNA.

Conclusion

Scolytus schevyrewi and S. multistriatus areexamples of scolytine species that are difficultto distinguish by traditional taxonomic means,especially at immature stages, for which no tax-onomic references appear to exist. Taken to-gether, our results provide two additionaldiagnostic tools for identifying the two non-native species targeted in this study. The use ofmore than one tool, whether external or internalmorphology or DNA markers, allows greaterconfidence that scolytine specimens will be ac-curately identified when collected. However,the use of more than one diagnostic tool maynot be possible, given the life stage or conditionof the specimens, and only one technique maybe employed when there is a need for quickidentification. These tools have helped to showthat S. schevyrewi and S. multistriatus not onlycould occur in the same tree/limb but may alsohybridize. The fact that RAPD-PCR of the eightunidentifiable adult specimens produced resultssimilar to the analysis, using the same methods,of identified specimens from other locationssuggests that the RAPD-PCR methodology weemployed is reliable and repeatable. The mark-ers did not differ substantially in band fre-quency or band size. If these eight specimensrepresent a different species, we would have ex-pected to see more unique specimens amongthe thousands that were reared from elm limbsin the Forestry and Range Sciences Laboratory.

Though beyond the scope of this study, theecological and morphological similarities be-tween S. schevyrewi and S. multistriatus raisequestions concerning the degree of relatednessof these two species. Not only do they utilizethe same host plant species, their mating biol-ogy is similar (Wang 1992; Solomon 1995) and,as we have shown, the features of one compo-nent of their reproductive morphology are simi-lar. Hidayat et al. (1996) showed that two siblingspecies of grain weevils, Sitophilus oryzae and

S. zeamais, were separable not only by minorvariations in their reproductive morphology butalso by RAPD-PCR genetic markers. BecauseS. schevyrewi and S. multistriatus originatefrom geographically different areas (Wang1992; Solomon 1995) and thus are subject todifferent selection pressures, we expected tofind, and did find, species-specific moleculargenetic markers. The different histories of thesetwo species in North America may have con-tributed to the differences that we detected, butour samples from multiple sites across theUnited States of America provided reliably de-tectable species-specific markers. For our pur-poses, RAPD-PCR is a particularly useful toolfor species differentiation because of its relativesimplicity, availability, and low cost.

Given their differences in origin, and thatS. schevyrewi and S. multistriatus can live andreproduce in the same host tree, we hypothe-sized that quantifiable differences in reproduc-tive morphology exist between these twospecies and that these differences help to pre-vent interbreeding. The need for a more thor-ough examination of the reproductivemorphology, not just the aedeagus, of these twospecies is indicated by our findings. The dis-covery of possible hybridization suggests thatthe differences between the two species maynot strictly prohibit successful reproduction.The existence of a third unique species is possi-ble, but is less likely than hybridization, be-cause no other evidence of another species hasbeen reported. Moreover, other scolytines thatare known to infest elm do not resemble eitherS. multistriatus or S. schevyrewi.

With the increasing potential for internationaltransportation of known and unknown insectspecies and the necessity for detection anderadication or other management measures, theability to distinguish both native and non-nativeinsects is essential. We have described twotools that, in combination with classic taxo-nomic procedures, may enhance our ability toidentify immature and adult specimens of twonon-native bark beetles, S. schevyrewi andS. multistriatus. Identification via genitalic mor-phology is limited to adult males but can beused on intact specimens regardless of timespent in storage or method of preservation.RAPD-PCR can be used on specimens in anylife stage or condition and that have been pre-served in a variety of ways. This set of toolshas the potential for use with a wide array ofscolytines, both native and non-native, to assist

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in detection and eradication efforts aimed atlimiting the introduction or spread of invasivespecies.

Acknowledgments

Support for this work was provided by theUSDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Re-search Station and Pacific Northwest Region,and Washington State University. We thankJames LaBonte, Robert Rabagalia, GlenSalsbury, Jeffery Witcosky, Jose Negron, andClint Burfitt for providing and identifying sam-ples, and Micheal Minthorn and Larry Bare forlaboratory assistance. Haruyo Matsuyama as-sisted with PCR experiments and band analysis.Carol Anelli, William Turner, Gary Piper, LiaSpiegel, and Joshua Johnson provided com-ments on earlier drafts of this paper.

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