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Child Development Theories

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Page 1: Child Development Theories. Research has shown that early childhood may be the most important life stage for brain development. A babys brain is about

Child Development Theories

Page 2: Child Development Theories. Research has shown that early childhood may be the most important life stage for brain development. A babys brain is about

Research has shown that early childhood may be the most important life stage for brain development.

A baby’s brain is about one quarter the size of an adults’.

Scientists have found that babies’ brains develop in response to stimulation. Arouses senses such as sight, sound, touch, taste,

and smell. Babies who are stimulated develop more quickly and

have a more secure self-image.

Page 3: Child Development Theories. Research has shown that early childhood may be the most important life stage for brain development. A babys brain is about

What is a theory?

A theory should allow us to predict and explain human behavior

• It should be stated in such a way that it can be shown to be false

• It must be open to scientific investigation

Page 4: Child Development Theories. Research has shown that early childhood may be the most important life stage for brain development. A babys brain is about

Although researches don’t always agree, scientific researchers have agreed upon the five following general rules. Development is similar for each individual Development builds upon earlier learning. Development proceeds at an individual rate. The different areas of development are

interrelated. Development is a lifelong process.

Page 5: Child Development Theories. Research has shown that early childhood may be the most important life stage for brain development. A babys brain is about

Psychoanalytic Theories: Freud’s Psychosexual Theory

Personality has 3 parts There are 5 stages of psychosexual

development Oedipus complex allows child to

identify with same-sex parent Fixation is an unresolved conflict

during a stage of development

Page 6: Child Development Theories. Research has shown that early childhood may be the most important life stage for brain development. A babys brain is about

Phallic Stage

Child’s pleasure

focuses on genitals

Figure 2.1

Latency Stage

Child represses sexual interest

and developssocial andintellectual

skills

Anal Stage

Child’s pleasure

focuses on anus

Genital Stage

A time of sexual

reawakening; source of

sexual pleasurebecomes someone

outside of thefamily

Oral Stage

Infant’s pleasure

centers on mouth

Freudian Stages

6 yrs to puberty

Birth to 1½ yrs

1½ to 3 yrs

Puberty onward

3 to 6 years

Page 7: Child Development Theories. Research has shown that early childhood may be the most important life stage for brain development. A babys brain is about

Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory: There are 8 stages of psychosocial

development Each has a unique developmental task Developmental change occurs throughout

life span

Key points of psychoanalytic theories: Early experiences and family relationships

are very important to development Unconscious aspects of the mind are

considered Personality is best seen as a

developmental process

Page 8: Child Development Theories. Research has shown that early childhood may be the most important life stage for brain development. A babys brain is about

Erikson’s Stages Developmental PeriodTrust vs Mistrust Infancy (first year)

Autonomy vs shame & doubt

Infancy (1 to 3 years)

Initiative vs guilt Early childhood (3 to 5 years)

Industry vs inferiority Middle and late childhood

Identity vs identity confusion

Adolescence (10 to 20 years)

Intimacy vs isolation Early adulthood (20s, 30s)

Generativity vs stagnation

Middle adulthood (40s, 50s)

Integrity vs despair Late adulthood (60s onward)

Figure 2.2

Erikson’s Eight Life-Span Stages

Page 9: Child Development Theories. Research has shown that early childhood may be the most important life stage for brain development. A babys brain is about

Cognitive theories:

Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory Stresses conscious mental processes Cognitive processes are influenced by

biological maturation Four stages of cognitive development

in children Assimilation and accommodation

underlie how children understand the world, adapt to it, and organize their experiences

Page 10: Child Development Theories. Research has shown that early childhood may be the most important life stage for brain development. A babys brain is about

Preoperational Stage:The child begins to represent the world with words and images. These words and images reflect increased symbolic thinking and go beyond the connection of sensory information and physical action.

Formal Operational StageThe adolescent reasons in more abstract idealistic and logical ways.

Sensorimotor Stage:The infant constructs an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with physical actions: progressing from reflexive, instinctual action at birth to the beginning of symbolic thought toward end of the stage.

Concrete Operational Stage:The child can now reason logically about concrete events and classify objects into different sets.

Figure 2.3

11–15 years of age

through adulthood

Birth to 2 years of age

2 to 7 years of age

7 to 11 years of age

Piaget’s Four Stages of Cognitive Development

Page 11: Child Development Theories. Research has shown that early childhood may be the most important life stage for brain development. A babys brain is about

Vygotsky’s sociocultural cognitive theory Children actively construct their knowledge Social interaction and culture guide

cognitive development Learning is based upon inventions of

society Knowledge is created through interactions

with other people and objects in the culture Less skilled persons learn from the more

skilled

Information-processing theory Compares computers to the human mind Thinking is information processing

Page 12: Child Development Theories. Research has shown that early childhood may be the most important life stage for brain development. A babys brain is about

Information is taken into brain

Information gets processed, analyzed, and stored until use

OUTPUTINPUTInformation is used as basis of behaviors and interactions

Information-Processing Theory

math

history religion

geography

science

literature

Page 13: Child Development Theories. Research has shown that early childhood may be the most important life stage for brain development. A babys brain is about

EnvironmentPerson(cognitive)

Behavior

Bandura’s Social Cognitive Model

Figure 2.4

Page 14: Child Development Theories. Research has shown that early childhood may be the most important life stage for brain development. A babys brain is about

Bandura’s Modeling/Imitation

Childobserves someone admired

Child imitates behavior

that seems rewarded

Page 15: Child Development Theories. Research has shown that early childhood may be the most important life stage for brain development. A babys brain is about

Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory: Environmental factors influence

development 5 environmental systems affect life-

span development

Eclectic theoretical orientation: Selects features from other theories No one theory has all the answers Each theory can make a contribution

to understanding life-span development

Page 16: Child Development Theories. Research has shown that early childhood may be the most important life stage for brain development. A babys brain is about

Exosystem Mesosystems

Macrosystem

FamilySchool & classroom

Religion & groups

Peer group

Chronosystem

School system

Political philosophy

Nat

iona

l cus

tom

sE

conomic patterns

Soci

al c

ondi

tion

sC

ultural values

Com

mun

ity

Mass m

ediaM

edic

al in

stitu

tions

Figure 2.5

Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory of Development

Page 17: Child Development Theories. Research has shown that early childhood may be the most important life stage for brain development. A babys brain is about

Other factors, such as genetic

tendencies, poverty, and sociohistorical

circumstances Children’s lack of self-control

Permissive parenting

Children’s lack of self-control

Permissive parenting

Permissive parenting

Children’s lack of self-control

and

causes

both

cause

causes

Observed correlation: as permissive parenting increases, children’s self-control decreases

Figure 2.9

Possible Explanations for Correlational Data

Page 18: Child Development Theories. Research has shown that early childhood may be the most important life stage for brain development. A babys brain is about

Group 2 Time playing

video games:6 hours

each day

Moreaggressive

and antisocial

Moreplayful

and sociable

Time playing

video games: 2 hours

each day

Group 1

Page 19: Child Development Theories. Research has shown that early childhood may be the most important life stage for brain development. A babys brain is about

Heredity Blood type, eye color, and hair color

Environment Children also learn attitudes and beliefs

from their environments