chm 101 introductory inorganic chemistry

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Introductory College Chemistry Course

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  • CHN 111 INTRODUCTORY INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

    Module 1

    Page

    UNIT 1: THE PERIODIC TABLE 1

    1.0. Introduction 1 2.0 Objectives 1

    3.0 Beginning of Classification 3.1 Attempt made by J. W Dobereiner

    2-3 3.2. Attempt made by A.de Chancourtois

    3 3.3 Attempt made by John Newlands

    3 3.4 The work of Lothar Meyer

    4 3.5 Mendeleevs Periodic law

    5-8 4.0 Conclusion 8 5.0 Summary 8

    6.0 Tutor Marked Assignment 9

    7.0 Reference and Further Reading 9

    UNIT 2: MODERN PERIODIC LAW 10

    1.0 Introduction 10

    2.0 Objectives 10 3.0 Modern Periodic Law

    10-12 3.1 The long form of the Periodic Table

    12-14 3.2 Nomenclature of Element having Z > 100

    14-15 4.0 Conclusion 15

    5.0 Summary 15-16

    6.0 Tutor Marked Assignment 16

    7.0 Reference and Further Reading 16

    UNIT 3: TRONIC CONFIGURATION 17

    1.0 Introduction 17

    2.0 Objectives 17 3.0 Rules governing the filling of electrons in orbitals

    17-21 3.1 Electronic configuration of all the elements

    21-24 in the periodic table

    3.2 Electronic configuration of ions 24-25

    3.3 Electronic configuration and division of 25-26

    element into blocks 4.0 Conclusion 26

    5.0 Summary 27

    6.0 Tutor Marked Assignment 27-28

    7.0 Reference and Further Reading 28

    iii

  • CHN I I I INTRODUCTORY INORGANIC CHEMISTR,

    UNIT 4: ATOMIC RADII 28

    1.0 Introduction 28 2.0 Objectives 29 3.0 Atomic Radii 29-30 3.1 Covalent Radius 30-32 3.2 Van der Waal's Radius 32-33 3.3 Metallic Radius 33 3.4 Ionic Radius 34 3.5 Factors affecting atomic radii 35-38 3 6 Periodicity in Atomic radii 38-40 4.0 Conclusion 40 5.0 Summary 41 6.0 Tutor Marked Assignment 41 7.0 Reference and Further Reading 41

    UNIT 5: IONIZATION ENERGY 42

    1.0 Introduction 42 2.0 Objectives 42-43 3.0 Factors affecting ionization energy 43 3.1 Periodicity in ionization energy 43-45 3.2 Trends in ionization energy 45-46 3.3 Trends in successive ionization energy 46 4.0 Conclusion 47 5.0 Summary 47-48 6.0 Tutor Marked Assignment 48 7.0 Reference and Further Reading 48

    UNIT 6: ELECTRON AFFINITY 49

    1.0 Introduction 49 2.0 Objectives 49-50 3.0 Factors affecting electron affinity 51 3.1 Periodicity in electron affinity 51-52 4.0 Conclusion 52 5.0 Summary 53 6.0 Tutor Marked Assignment 53 7.0 Reference and Further Reading 54

    iv

  • IV Ill INTRODUCTORY INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

    UNIT 7: ELECTRONEGATIVITY 55

    1.0 Introduction 55 2.0 Objectives 55 3.0 Pauling electronegativity 55-57 3.1 Maulliken-Jaffe eletronegativity 57 3.2 A 1 fred'Rochow electronegativity 57-59 3.3 Periodicity in electronegativity 59 4.0 Conclusion 60 5.0 Summary 60 6.0 Tutor Marked Assignment 60 7.0 Reference and Further Reading 60

    UNIT 8: HYDROGEN 61

    1.0 Introduction 61 2.0 Objectives 61 3.0 Position of Hydrogen in the Periodic Table 61-62 3.1 Isotopes 62-64 3.2 Deuterium compounds 64 3.3 Tritium 65 3.4 Ortho & Para hydrogen 65-67 4.0 Conclusion 67 5.0 Summary 67-68 6.0 Tutor Marked Assignment 68 7.0 Reference & Further Reading 68

    UNIT 9: MANUFACTURE OF HYDROGEN 69

    1.0 Introduction 69 2.0 Objectives 69 3.0 Manufacture of Hydrogen 69-71 3.1 Properties of Hydrogen 71-74 3.2 Uses of Hydrogen 74-76 4.0 Conclusion 77-78 5.0 Summary 78 6.0 Tutor Marked Assignment 78 7.0 Reference and Further Reading 78

  • CHN I I I INTRODUCTORY INORGANIC CHEM,

    UNIT 10: IONIC OR SALT - LIKE HYDRIDES 79

    1.0 Introduction 79

    2.0 Objectives 79

    3.0 Ionic or salt - like hydrides 79-80

    3.1 Covalent hydrides 80-81

    3.2 Metallic hydrides 81-82

    4.0 Conclusion 82

    5.0 Summary 82-83

    6.0 Tutor Marked Assignment 83

    7.0 Reference and Further Reading 83

    UNIT 11: HYDROGEN BONDING 84

    1.0 Introduction 84

    2.0 Objectives 84

    3.0 Hydrogen bonding

    85 3.1 Intermolecular hydrogen bonding.

    85-86 3.2 Intramolecular hydrogen bonding

    86-88 3.3 Effects of hydrogen bounding

    87 3.3.1 Boiling Point and melting point

    87-88 3.3.2 Water solubility

    88 3.4 Polarising power of H + 89 4.0 Conclusion 89

    5.0 Summary 89-90

    6.0 Tutor Marked Assignment

    90 7.0 Reference and Further Reading

    90

    UNIT12: GENERAL PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL 91 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ALKALI METALS

    1.0 Introduction 91

    2.0 Objectives 91

    3.0 Alkali Metals 92

    3.1 Occurrence. 92

    3.2 Extraction of Alkali Metals 92-93

    3.3 Uses of Alkali Metals 93-94

    3.4 Physical Properties 94-100

    4.0 Conclusion 100

    5.0 Summary 101

    6.0 Tutor Marked Assignment

    102 7.0 Reference and Further Reading

    102

    v i

  • 11 1 INTRODUCTORY INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

    UNIT 13: COMPOUNDS ALKALI METALS 103

    1.0 Introduction 103 2.0 Objective 103 3.0 Compounds of Alkali metals 103 3.1 Oxides and Hydrogen 103-104 3.2 Sulphides 104-105 3.3 Hydrides 105 3.4 Carbides 105-106 3.5 Thermal stability of salts 106-108 4.0 Conclusion 108 5.0 Summary 108-109 6.0 Tutor Marked Assignment 109 7.0 Reference and Further Reading 109

    UNIT 14: SOLVATION OF ALKALI METAL IONS 110

    1.0 Introduction 110 2.0 Objectives 110 3.0 Solvation of the alkali metal ions 110-111 3.1 Solutions of alkali metal in liquid ammonia 111-112 3.2 Complexation behaviour of alkali metals 112-113 3.3 Anomalous nature of Lithium 113-114 4.0 Conclusion 115 5.0 Summary 115 6.0 Tutor Marked Assignment 116 7.0 Reference and Further Reading 116

    UNIT 15: ALKALINE EARTH METALS 116

    1.0 Introduction 117 2.0 Objectives 117 3.0 Alkaline Earth Metals 117 3.1 Occurrence of alkaline earth metals 118 3.2 Extraction of alkaline earth metals 118 3.3 Uses of alkaline earth metals 119 3.4 Physical properties of alkaline earth metals 119-121 3.5 Solubility, Lattice Energy and Hydration Energy 121-122 4.0 Conclusion 122 5.0 Summary 122-123 6.0 . Tutor Marked Assignment 123 7.0 Reference and Further Reading 123

    vi i

  • CHN 111 INTRODUCTORY INORGANIC CHEMIS,

    UNIT 16: REACTIVITY OF ALKALINE EARTH METALS

    124

    1.0 Introduction 124 2.0 Objectives 124 3.0 Reactivity of alkaline earth metals 124-129 3.1 Thermal stability of oXy salts 129-130 4.0 Conclusion 130 5.0 Summary 130-131 6.0 Tutor Marked Assignment 131-132 7.0 Reference and Further Reading 132

    UNIY 17: COMPLEXING BEHAVIOUR OF ALKALINE 133 EAR METALS

    1.0 Introduction 133 2.0 Objectives 133 3.0 Complexation behaviour of alkaline earth metals 133-136 3.1 Anomalous nature of beryllium 136 4.0 Conclusion 136 5.0 Summary 137 6.0 Tutor Marked Assignment 137 7.0 Reference and Further Reading 137

    viii

  • UNIT 1: THE PERIODIC TABLE

    1.0 INTRODUCTION

    You are aware that scientists, from the very beginning have attempted to systematize the knowledge they gain through their observations and experiments. Development of the periodic law and the periodic table of the elements is one of such attempt. This has brought order in the study of the vast chemistry of more than a hundred elements known now.

    It is therefore quite natural that you should begin your study of inorganic chemistry with the study of the periodic table. In this unit, you will be starting from the very beginning, that is, with the very first attempt made at classification of the elements.

    By the mid-nineteenth century, more than 60 elements were known and many more were being discovered. The rate of discovery of the new elements was so fast that the chemists started wondering "where it would all lead to"? Has nature provided a limit to the number of elements? And if so, how would one know about it? During this period, it was also realized that certain groups of elements exhibited similar physical and chemical properties. Was it a mere coincidence or did a relationship exist among the properties of the elements? Attempts to reply such probing questions ultimately resulted in the development of the periodic table.

    2.0 OBJECTIVES

    After studying this unit, you should be able to:

    2.1 List accurately at least two scientists who attempted to classify the elements into periods.

    2.2 Write with at least 70% accuracy, brief accounts of the attempts made by the two scientists and the result of these attempts.

    2.3 State Mendeleev's periodic law.

    2.4 State the property used by mendeleev to classify the elements in his periodic table.

    2.5 Demonstrate an understanding of Mendeleev's law by applying it to predict properties of undiscovered elements.

  • CHM III INTRODUCTORY INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

    3.0 THE BEGINNING OF CLASSIFICATION

    One of the earliest attempts to classify elements was to divide them into metals and non metals. Metallic elements we all know have certain properties which include:

    n Having lustrous shinning appearance, such as iron. n Malleability, meaning they can be beaten into thin sheets such as is

    done when buckets are being produced. n Metallic elements can also be drawn into wire such as is done when

    making electric wire. This property is known as ductility. n They can also conduct heat and electricity. If you hold a piece of

    metal in your hand and put one end into fire or in contact with any hot object, your hand will feel the heat as it travel from the point of contact with heat through the metal to your hand. Similarly if you hold one end of the metal through which an electric current is passed, you will be jolted by the current which travel through the metal to your hand.

    n Metallic elements also form basic oxides

    In con

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