choosing healthful foods

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Choosing Healthful Foods Unit 5, Lesson 25 National Health Standards 1.1, 2.10, 7.1

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Choosing Healthful Foods. Unit 5, Lesson 25 National Health Standards 1.1, 2.10, 7.1. Proteins. Nutrient needed for growth, to build and repair body tissue, regulate body processes, supply energy, maintain strength, resist infection Part of every cell in your body - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Choosing Healthful Foods

Choosing Healthful FoodsUnit 5, Lesson 25National Health Standards 1.1, 2.10, 7.1Nutrient needed for growth, to build and repair body tissue, regulate body processes, supply energy, maintain strength, resist infectionPart of every cell in your bodyMake up more than 50% of body weightProteinsSkin, nails, and hair mostly proteinEach gram of protein provides 4 caloriesDeficient stunt growth, development of some tissues, and mental developmentExcess burned as energy or stored as fat2 types of proteinCompleteContain all essential amino acids building blocks of proteinExamples meat, fish, poultry, milk, yogurt, and eggsSoybean only plant that provides all 9 essential amino acids

Body needs 20 amino acidsBody can produce 11amino acidsThe 9 amino acids the body cannot make are referred to as essential amino acids must come from foods you eatIncomplete proteinsDo not contain all essential amino acidsFrom plant sourcesFall into 3 categoriesGrains whole grains, pastas, and cornLegumes dried beans, peas, and lentilsNuts and seedsDifferent plant sources of incomplete proteins can be combined to create a complete protein

7Main source of energy for the bodyInclude sugars, starches, and fiberSupply 4 calories per gram of foodCan store only limited amounts; excess stored as fatCarbohydratesSources: vegetables, beans, potatoes, pasta, bread, rice, bran, popcorn, and fruit

2 types of carbohydratesSimpleSugars that enter the bloodstream quickly and provide quick energyProvide calories but no vitamins or mineralsFound naturally in fruits, honey, and milkProcessed sugar or table sugar is added to foods during processingExamples of processed sugar foods include cakes, candy, other sweet desserts, ketchup, spaghetti sauce, popComplexStarches and fiberMost calories in diet come from theseSources include: grains and vegetablesStarchFood substance made and stored in most plantsProvide long-lasting energyGlucoseComplex carbohydrates changed by saliva and other digestive juices to glucoseUsed by cells to provide energy and heatFiberPart of plant and grain foods that cannot be digestedAlso known as roughageMove food through the system2 typesInsoluble prevent constipation and other intestinal problems by binding with waterSoluble reduce blood cholesterol level and risk of developing heart diseaseFiber sources: wheat, bran, barley, rye, oats, whole grains, popcorn, brown rice, seeds, fruits, and vegetables

Provide energy, helps body store and use vitaminsOne gram equals 9 calories of energySupply more than twice the number of calories supplied by proteins and carbohydratesFatsStore and transport fat soluble vitamins A,D, E, and KStored as fat tissue that surrounds and cushions internal organsContribute to taste and texture Maintain body heat, energy reserve, build brain cells and nerve tissuesNo more than 30% of daily intake should come from fat

Saturated fatFound in dairy products, solid vegetable fat, and meat and poultryUsually solid at room temperatureContribute to cholesterol level fat-like substance made by the body and found in certain foodsDietary cholesterolFound in foods of animal originsCombined with cholesterol made by the body make up the blood cholesterol levelCan lower blood cholesterol level by eating fewer saturated fatsUnsaturated fatsCome from plants and fishUsually liquid at room temperature2 typesPolyunsaturated include sunflower, corn, and soybean oilsMonounsaturated olive and canola oilsVisible fat fat you can see on a foodInvisible fat fat not seen my naked eye cakes, cookies

Trans-fatty acidsFormed when vegetable oils are processed into solid fats margarine, shorteningProcess of hydrogenation makes liquid oil more solid, more stable and less greasy tastingBody handles these as saturated fatsRaise blood cholesterol levelsHelps the body use carbohydrates, proteins, and fatsProvide no energy, but unleash energy stored in carbohydrates, proteins, and fats2 typesWater-solubleFat-solubleVitaminsFat-solubleDissolves in fatCan be stored in the bodyA, D, E, and K

Water-solubleDissolves in waterCannot be stored in the bodyVitamin C and B complexVitamin CStrengthens blood vessels, strengthens immune system, and aids in iron absorptionFound in citrus fruits, green leafy vegetables, potatoes, and tomatoes

B-complexB1 thiamin necessary for the function of nerves

B2 - riboflavin helps body use energy

Vitamin B3 Niacin

B6 helps the body use fat and takes in protein

B9 folacin necessary for the formation of hemoglobin in red blood cells

B12 necessary for the formation of red blood cells

Biotin - Vitamin H necessary for normal metabolism of carbohydrates

B5 - Pantothenic acid necessary for the production of RNA and DNA

Regulate many chemical reactions in the body, essential in metabolism and nutritionNaturally occurring inorganic substancesTwo types:Macro mineralsTrace mineralsMineralsMacro mineralsRequired in amounts greater than 100 mg

Calcium builds up bones and teethMagnesium necessary for chemical reactions during metabolismPhosphorus builds bones, teeth, and cellsPotassium keeps fluids in balance within cellsSodium necessary for water balance in cells and tissues and for nerve cell conductionSulfur builds hair, nails, and skin

Trace mineralsNeeded in very small amounts

Trace Mineral Food Sources

Supplements containing extracts or ingredients from roots, berries, seeds, stems, leaves, buds, or flowers of plantsCome in many formsSold in health food stores, grocery stores, gyms, mail-order catalogs, Internet, and television programsHerbal SupplementsOfficially classified as foods and not as drugsDietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994Means they do not have to be proven safe or screened by the FDA before they are placed on the marketCreatineAn amino acid made in the liver, kidneys, and pancreasFound naturally in meat and fishPopular dietary supplementUnder medical supervisionIncrease sports performance or way to become more muscular

Protein supplementsProduct taken orally that contains proteins that are intended to supplement ones diet and are not considered foodBuild muscleSoy and whey energy drinksMost meet or exceed intake daily, so any excess will be converted to fat, not muscle

Involved with all body processesMakes up the basic part of the blood, helps with waste removal, regulates body temperature, cushions the spinal cord and jointsMakes up 60% of body massWaterCarries nutrients to all body cells and waste products from the cells to the kidneysLeave the body in the form or perspiration and urineDehydrationwater content of body has fallen to extremely low levelCaused by lack of water intake, dry environment, fever, vomiting, diarrheaSigns: fatigue, dry mouth, dizziness, weakness, flushed skin, headache, blurred vision, difficulty swallowing, dry skin, rapid pulse, infrequent urination

Drink an adequate amount dailyPop is no substitute!13 cups a day for males and 9 cups a day for females

Panel of nutrition information required on all processed foods regulated by the FDARequired components: name of food, net weight or volume, name and address of manufacturer, distributor or packager, ingredients, and nutrient contentFood Labels

Nutrition facts panel required on most foods

Ingredient Listingby weight, from most to leastNot part of nutrition factsRequired on most foods

GRAS listgenerally recognized as safeEstablished in 1958Flour, sugar, salt, gelatin, pepper, vinegarDatesSell by last day product can be soldBest if used by date by which product should be used to ensure qualityExpiration date at which food should not be used

Health claimsHealthy must be low in fat, low in saturated fat, and no more than 60 mg of cholesterol per servingFat Free must be less than .5 mg of fat per servingLow Fat 3 g or less of fat per servingLean less than 10 g of fat, 4.5 g of saturated fat, and no more than 95 mg of cholesterol per servingLight 1/3 the calories and no more than the fat or sodium of the regular version

Cholesterol Free less than 0.5 mg of cholesterol and 2 g of date of less of saturated fat per serving___ Free fat, sodium, cholesterol, sugar, or caffeine free no amount of a negligible amountFresh raw, unprocessed, contain no preservatives, never been heated or frozenLess ____ - at least 25% less of a nutrient or calories than the regular versionHigh ___ - at least 20% or more of the percent daily value of a particular nutrient per servingFood AdditivesSubstances intentionally added to a foodAdd nutrients, flavor, color, or textureMay prevent spoilage or help foods age quickly, improve taste and appearanceEnrichedNutrients lost during processing are added back into the foodFortifiedFood in which nutrients not usually found are added