climate, season, types of soil, organisms and species
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NatSci4 12:30-1:30 MWF
Warm up Test
• Climate is the average
weather over many years.
• Defined a region with certain
temperature, dryness, wind,
• The standard averaging
period is 30 years.
What is Climate ?
What is a season?A Season is :
-a traditional division of year based on unique weather conditions.
-In temperature regions, there are four seasons, spring, summer, autumn, and winter, while in tropical countries there are often only two, a dry season and rainy season
What is Spring Season?
is one of the four conventional
temperate seasons, following winter and preceding
What is Summer Season?
is the hottest of the four temperate seasons,
falling between spring and autumn.
What is Autumn Season?
is the third season of the year, coming after
summer and before winter, and coinciding with the
dropping of leaves from the trees as they go into a
winter rest, which is why it's also called fall.
What is Winter Season?
is the coldest season of the year in polar and
temperate climates, between autumn and spring.
What is Rainy Season?
monsoon season, is
the time of year when
most of a region's
average annual rainfall
occurs. It usually lasts
one or more months.
What is Dry Season?
is a yearly period of low
rainfall, especially in the
tropics. The weather in the
tropics is dominated by the
tropical rain belt, which
moves from the northern to
the southern tropics and
back over the course of the
SOIL • Soil is a natural body comprised of solids (minerals
and organic matter), liquid, and gases that occurs on the land surface, occupies space, and is characterized by one or both of the following: horizons, or layers, that are distinguishable from the initial material as a result of additions, losses, transfers, and transformations of energy and matter or the ability to support rooted plants in a natural environment.
TYPES OF SOILSandy• Sandy soil has the
largest particles among the different soil types.
• It’s dry and gritty to the touch, and because the particles have huge spaces between them, it can’t hold on to water.
Silty• Silty soil has much
smaller particles than sandy soil so it’s smooth to the touch.
• When moistened, it’s soapy slick. When you roll it between your fingers, dirt is left on your skin.
Clay• Clay soil has the
smallest particles among the three so it has good water storage qualities. It’s sticky to the touch when wet, but smooth when dry.
Peaty• Peaty soil is
dark brown or black in color, soft, easily compressed due to its high water content, and rich in organic matter.
IMPORTANCE OF SOIL• Soil supports growth of plants • Soil support for survival of many bacteria, algae, fungi,
and etc.• Soil is a source of minerals• Soil is used in making utensils.• Soil is used for construction of homes, buildings,
roads , etc.• Soil keeps atmosphere cool.• Home for animals, bird, and insects.
• Are the most abundant of the soil organism.
Fungi• Are not the most
abundant of the soil organism, but they account for the greatest amount of living mass in soil.
• Are believe to be an evolutionary transition between bacteria and fungi because they have characteristics of both organism.
Algae• Are multicellular
organisms with chlorophyll and therefore, are autotrophic in their nutritional requirements.
Protozoa• Are the most abundant
of the soil inhabiting organism that can be considered ‘animal life’
• Include amoeba and paramecium, which feed on organic matter and other soil microbes.
Nematodes• Are microscopic
roundworms that can comprise as much as 90% of the multicellular invertebrates in soil.
Viruses• Are sub-microscopic
organisms with a relatively simply structure .
• Viruses are intracellular parasites that do not respire or metabolize and must have a biological host to reproduce.
Species a species is defined as all organisms that can reproduce one another and produce fertile offspring
Biodiversity• The number of
species in an ecosystem, and the number of individual organisms of each species.
• On of the most important types of interactions between species is which species eat other species; this interaction is known as the food web.
Examples of species in the soil
. In the soil food web the energy source is the decaying organic matter called detritus.