coal & coke

COAL & COKE T E S T I N G 888.325.8517 |

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Page 1: COAL & COKE


888.325.8517 |

Page 2: COAL & COKE


Service, Standards, Quality & Reliability These are the principals by which Clark Testing operates its coal and coke division. We

are Clark testing offering- superior testing that reaches the world.

Clark Testing provides comprehensive and specialized testing, consulting, training and

inspection services for its clients in the coal and coke industry, whether metallurgical or

steam producers.

While tests determining chemical and physical analysis are a strong part of Clark’s

everyday portfolio, unique programs such as coal quality verification services,

shipment monitoring, ‘ISO, QMS and EMS audits, shipment monitoring and freeze

conditioning agent application are also available. We ensure our clients know every

detail about their materials during different stages of the process.

In our state of the art laboratories, we deliver timely, accurate and independent results

for all standard coal and coke tests. In addition, we can also handle all of your

environmental coal testing needs from total carbon, sulfur, mercury, chlorine, lead, ash

chemistry and trace elements.

Our experienced team monitors the coal quality of shipments from port, terminal and

inland facilities, mine sites, lab sites and prep plants for delivery across the globe –

touching industries from steel and oil to electric and utilities. Through our exact

monitoring and testing procedures, Clark can determine a coal samples’ true coking

potential to best serve the end user.

Other services unique to the Clark team include bias testing, critical inspections and

maintenance on sampling systems. We are also one of the few labs that can do

CRI/CSR tests specifically for the Steel Industry.

As an active member of the ASTM organization, we are well versed in coal and coke

standards. In addition, Clark Testing is a member of ISNetworld. We pride ourselves on

client service, responsiveness and safety. We exceed safety standards by keeping

experienced MSHA certified instructors and trainers on staff. We are here to address our

customers’ questions and provide answers they need at all times - - around the globe.

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Clark Testing works hand-in-hand with your operations to provide cost-effective solutions to

minimize operational and financial risk. Our global technical leadership and industrial

expertise provides an unrivalled global benchmark of experience and value to control

your coal operations.

Clark has the capability to provide you with a wide range of services including:

LABORATORY TESTING • Analysis of Coal and Coke

• Steam Coals

• Metallurgical Coals

• Blast Furnace Coke

• Foundry Coke

• Petroleum Coke

• Float-Sink Washability testing

• Commercial & Supplier Lab Audits

• ASTM Standards

• ISO 9000

• Customized Quality Assurance Programs

• Training Programs

SAMPLING SERVICES • Sample collection

• Lot sampling

• Channel sampling

• Manual sampling

• Sampling system audits and preventative maintenance

• Bias testing

TRADE SERVICES • Hold inspection

• Loading and discharge supervision

• Rail, vessel and barge assessment

• Vessel and barge gauging

• Draft surveys

• Quality and quantity evaluations

COAL PREPARATION PLANT SERVICES • Plant audit/efficiency tests and plant sampling

• Optimization and troubleshooting consulting


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Clark Testing laboratories offer a broad range of analytical services to the coal industry.

We provide accurate, cost effective chemical analysis in accordance with international

standards to minimize your risks and optimize your operations.

Clark provides a complete range of laboratory procedures to meet all your

requirements whether you are a producer, transporter or consumer of coal. All

laboratory analysis are performed in accordance with recognized global standards

such as American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and International Standards

Organization (ISO). Our qualified technicians operate in laboratories with state-of-the-art

instrumentation. This allows us to provide you with complete, accurate and timely coal


QUALITY ASSURANCEClark operates a quality assurance program to ensure our data meets international

quality standards. Quality assurance standards are constantly monitored through

participation in numerous industry and organizational programs. Our labs use concepts

of Total Quality Management (TQM) and Continuous Improvement to ensure consistent

operation on a daily basis. TQM is a comprehensive and structured approach to

laboratory work that seeks to improve the quality of analysis through ongoing

refinements in laboratory processes based on continuous quality feedback.

COAL AND COKE TESTINGOur experienced technicians will provide you with the following chemical analyses

applicable to all types of coal and coke.

• Proximate Analysis

• Sulfer

• Ultimate Analysis

• Calorific Value (Btu)

• Elemental Analysis

• Ash Chemistry

• Trace Elements

• TCLP/Toxicity Testing


Clark specializes in metallurgical coal evaluations for the cokemaking/steel industry. The

following unique tests and services are available:

• Rheological Properties

• Gieseler

• Arnu

• Petrography

• Carbonization

• Movable Wall Oven

• Sole-heated Oven

• Coke Quality Computer Modeling COAL & COKET E S T I N G

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Proximate and Sulfur Analysis

The Proximate and Sulfur analysis is basic to all coal & coke evaluations. The Proximate

consists of the following suite of tests: Moisture, Ash, Volatile Matter and Fixed Carbon (by



Coal is analyzed for the following as part of an evaluation for its use as a fuel. Carbon,

Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen (by difference), Ash, and Sulfur

Ash Chemistry – Major Elements

The analysis of coal or coke ash provides important information for blast furnace and

coal utility operations. The following elements are typically tested: SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3,

TiO2, CaO, MgO, Na2O, K2O, P2O5, MnO2, SO3, BaO, SrO

Trace Elements

Trace element analysis is critical to evaluating coals for environmental regulations. The

following are often requested: arsenic, beryllium, boron, chromium, lead, mercury,

selenium, vanadium, zinc. Additional elements are available at the customer’s request.




Coking coals possess the ability, when heated in the absence of air, to soften, swell and

then re-solidify to form a coherent, porous, hard coke structure. The Gieseler Plastometer

and Arnu Dilatometer tests are used to evaluate the rheological or plastic properties of

a coal or coal blend.

Gieseler Plastometer Test

The Gieseler Plastometer test is used to determine the plasticity range of coals, including

the temperature at which initial softening, maximum fluidity, and resolidification occur.

We use the Preiser Model 4000 Plastometer, which meets all ASTM D2639 to ensure your

coals are optimal for coking.

Arnu Dilatometer Test

We use the Preiser Dilatometer for the determination of the dilatation or swelling of coal

as a function of temperature. It is designed with state of the art microprocessor

technology; the most precise and efficient model available. The fully automatic system

is designed around ASTM D 5515 and ISO Standard 349 for the Audibert-Arnu method of



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The coal petrographic analysis is a microscopic technique used to predict

metallurgical coke strength or stability by the ASTM tumbler test. It consists of two parts:

one to determine the percentage of the organic entities derived from the preserved

plant parts and the other to determine the percentage of light reflected from the

dominant organic entity called vitrinite. It is a key tool in the characterization of

metallurgical coals for cokemaking.


Pilot coke ovens of various sizes and designs are used to measure critical parameters

such as coking pressure and coke mass contraction or expansion. Commercial coke

ovens have limited tolerance to coking pressure and must contract sufficiently to exit

the oven at the end of the coking cycle. Test coking coal blends can safely be

evaluated in pilot ovens prior to charging to commercial coke ovens. Enough coke is

produced in the pilot ovens to provide samples for ASTM tumbler, CRI/CSR and

chemical testing.


Consulting services are available to assist our clients in coal selection and blending

for the cokemaking industry. Computer models, fed by single coal analyses, are

utilized to predict coke quality and formulate optimum coal blends for cokemaking.

Predicted coke quality parameters include: coke strength (stability and CSR),

chemistry, coking pressure, coke mass contraction and microscopic analysis.

COKE TESTINGKnowing the physical properties of Coke is important as it predicts how coke will

behave in a Blast furnace. The two tests run most often are Coke Reactivity (CRI/CSR)

and Tumbler Test (Stability and Hardness). Clark Testing performs both these tests along

with size consist, chemical analysis, and microscopic analysis.

Coke Reactivity Index (CRI) and Coke Strength after Reaction (CSR)

When coke descends in the blast furnace, it is subjected to reaction with

countercurrent CO2 and abrasion. These concurrent processes weaken the coke and

chemically react with it to produce excess fines that can decrease the permeability of

the blast furnace burden. The Coke Reactivity Test is a two part procedure. First, The CRI

test measures coke reactivity in carbon dioxide at elevated temperatures then its

strength after reaction (CSR) by tumbling. Most blast furnaces will require a coke with a

CSR greater than 60 and CRI less than 25.

ASTM Tumbler Test

This test measures the resistance of coke to degrade from impact and abrasion during

its descent in the blast furnace. Twenty-two pounds of 3” by 2” sized coke is tumbled in

a drum of specific dimensions for 1400 revolutions at 24 rpm. The coke is then

screened and the percent + 1" is stability and the cumulative percent + ¼” is the

hardness. Most blast furnace operators require +60 stability coke.


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Clark Testing is the world’s leading provider of cargo and vessel inspection services to buyers and sellers involved in the movement of goods worldwide.

Clark’s inspections of ships, barges, trains, etc ensure that the condition of the carrier is

suitable for the shipment of your cargo. We identify any problems that might affect the

cargo during shipment and ensure they are addressed before it is too late. Our

inspectors also represent you during loading and unloading. Inspectors conduct

inspections of various vessel conditions and perform visual inspections to verify that the

cargo being shipped as described on the order form.

In addition to verifying the condition of the carrier is appropriate, Clark offers complete

cargo inspections before, during and after shipment. Reliable and independent weight,

quantity and quality inspections ensure the contractual compliance of your shipments.

Clark cargo inspections are conducted for producers, traders and blenders to

accurately verify the weight and quantity of shipments at ports and inland

trans-shipment points.

Whether you are buying or selling, the inspection certificate or report provided by an

independent Clark Testing inspector upon completion of the shipment inspection

assures you an honest, accurate assessment of your commodity and the vessel.


Clark Testing’s commercial cargo services include:

• Draft Surveys

• Loss Prevention

• Stockpile Inventory Measurement

• Belt Scales and Hopper Scales

Clark Testing’s commercial carrier inspection services include:

• Hold and Hatch Inspections

• Visual Inspections

• Bunker and Conditional Surveys

Clark has earned a worldwide reputation for accurate and ethical cargo and vessel

services. Even if you cannot be at the load port or the discharge port to meet your

cargo, you can trust Clark Testing to honestly and accurately represent your interests.


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Freeze Conditioning Agent Application & MonitoringFCA is utilized by our customers to ensure that all coal is reclaimed from railcars and

trucks during the winter months. Coal is lost in cold temperatures due to freezing to the

sides of railcars and trucks or to itself not allowing for a free flow of coal during

unloading. The FCA chemical assists in allowing for the free flow of the coal and the

prevention of coal sticking to the sides of the railcars or trucks. Coal and Coke

producers could potentially lose thousands of dollars of material during one winter

season if the FCA is not applied correctly or amply. Clark Testing ensures that the

chemical is applied properly and at the correct dosage amounts with the proper

chemical for multiple suppliers. Clark Testing also assists in the inventory control,

ordering of chemical, and if needed general maintenance of the FCA systems. Clark

Testing stands out from other FCA entities due to its independent relationship with the

customers and suppliers, and the commitment to strict monitoring, quality application

and product verification.

ISNetworld Clark is a member of the ISNetworld, a global resource for connecting corporations with

safe, reliable contractors/suppliers from capital-intensive industries. ISN collects

self-reported conformance information from contractors/suppliers, verifies its accuracy,

and then reports the results in an easy-to-follow format. This allows corporations to select

those resources that best meet internal and governmental requirements, while providing

contractors/suppliers the opportunity to centralize their conformance information, saving

time and gaining presence in the marketplace.

The professionals at Clark Testing are leaders in the industry. Collectively, they have

abundant years of experience. Our team leads the coal and coke industry by setting

standards, being involved in the evolution of technology and coal but most importantly,

by sharing their knowledge with tomorrow's leaders.

On a regular basis, our technical experts conduct training classes on and off-site

educating the future leaders in the Coal and Coke industry. We welcome the

opportunity to train your team today:

Coal & Coke Seminars

Conducted by a coal and coke pioneer, we offer an array of technical concepts

pertinent to the coal and coke industry. Details are available under Coal & Coke at

Safety Training

We recognize the importance of safety in the coal and coke industry. In an effort to

share our knowledge we can certify your staff according to MSHA. Call today to meet

our experienced team and expand your horizons.