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Page 1: Color harmonies : paint watercolors filled with light
Page 2: Color harmonies : paint watercolors filled with light
Page 3: Color harmonies : paint watercolors filled with light

ColorHarmonies

paintwatercolorsfilledwithlight

RoseEdinandDeeJepsen

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ColorHarmonies.Copyright©2010byRoseEdinandDeeJepsen.ManufacturedinChina.Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthisbookmaybereproducedinanyformorbyanyelectronicormechanicalmeansincludinginformationstorageandretrievalsystemswithoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublisher,exceptbyareviewerwhomayquotebriefpassagesinareview.PublishedbyNorthLightBooks,animprintofF+WMedia,Inc.,4700EastGalbraithRoad,Cincinnati,Ohio,45236.(800)2890963.FirstEdition.

OtherfineNorthLightBooksareavailablefromyourlocalbookstoreorartsupplystore.Visitusatourwebsitewww.fwmedia.com.

141312111054321DISTRIBUTEDINCANADABYFRASERDIRECT

100ArmstrongAvenueGeorgetown,ON,CanadaL7G5S4Tel:(905)877-4411

DISTRIBUTEDINTHEU.K.ANDEUROPEBYDAVID&CHARLESBrunelHouse,NewtonAbbot,Devon,TQ124PU,EnglandTel:(+44)1626323200,Fax:(+44)1626323319

Email:postmaster@davidandcharles.co.ukDISTRIBUTEDINAUSTRALIABYCAPRICORNLINKP.O.Box704,S.WindsorNSW,2756AustraliaTel:(02)4577-3555

LibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataisavailablefromthepublisheruponrequest.

eISBN:978-1-4403-1014-0DesignedbyGuyKelly

ProductioncoordinatedbyMarkGriffinAllartcreatedbyRoseEdinArtoncover:TheSecretGarden,30″×22″(76cm×56cm)Art

Poppies,22″×30″(56cm×76cm)metricconversionchartToconvert to multiplyby

Inches Centimeters 2.54

Centimeters Inches 0.4

Feet Centimeters 30.5

Centimeters Feet 0.03

Yards Meters 0.9

Meters Yards 1.1

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acknowledgmentsfromRose

Severalveryspecialpeoplehavehadagreatinfluenceinmydevelopmentasanartist,andIwouldliketoacknowledgethemhere:RobertE.Woodwasoneof thiscountry'sgreatwatercolorists.His teachingofunderpaintingandlayeringcoloragainstbrightaccentswereperhapsmygreatestinspiration. He was also a master designer and taught me the importance ofcohesivedesignineverypainting.EdWhitneyhelpedmetoestablishapersonalphilosophyofart.Throughhim,Icametobelieveweareshape-makers.WarnerSallman,aworldfamouspainterofreligiousfigures,wasmyartmentoratNorthParkUniversity.Hewasagreatencouragementinregardtoaccuracyinfiguredrawing.Attimesitisahumblingexperiencetoknowyoucanpaintandteach,buthaveahardtimeputtingittogetherinwriting.DeeJepsencamealongatjusttherighttimetoco-authorthisbook.Withherexperienceinwriting,artandorganization,shehasenabledmetogetacrossimportantartconcepts.Sothankyou,Dee,foraterrificjob!

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dedication

Thisbookisdedicatedtomyhusband,Stan,mydaughterKathyandmyson,Jonathan,whoencouraged,typedandcritiquedtheinitialdraftsthateventuallybecamethisbook.Stanisacomputerguru,inadditiontobeingaphotographer.Thebestthingis

thathehasbecomeagourmetcheftheselastfewmonthswhileIhavebeenworkingonthisbook.AccoladesgotomyfellowartistsandstudentsIhavehadthepleasuretomeet

allovertheworld.Theyhaveencouragedandinspiredmetostretchmyabilities.ItisthroughteachingthatIhavecreatedmanyofthetechniquessharedinthisbook.

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aboutRoseEdin

From the time she received her first set of paints as an eight-year-old, art hasbeenapassionforRose.Herhighschoolofferednoartclasses,sosheappliedforandwonascholarshiptotheArtInstructionSchoolsofMinneapolis,whichofferedcorrespondencecoursesincommercialart.Teaching juniorhighschoolart incentralMinnesota forelevenyearspreparedRosefor themanyworkshopsshenowoffers tostudentsfromboththeUnitedStatesandaboard.Shelaughinglysays,“Ifayoucanteachjuniorhighstudents,youcanteachanyone!”During her years as a teacher, she began to enter local and statewide artcompetitions and received many awards. She is a signature member of theNational Watercolor Society and the Transparent Watercolor Society ofAmerica,wheresheholdsamaster'sstatus.Roseandherhusband,Stan, leadpaintingandphotographygroupsaround the

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globe to both familiar and remote places, where Rose gleans ideas andinspirationforherwatercolorpaintings.

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aboutDeeJepsen

DeewasbornandraisedintheMidwest,butmovedtoWashington,D.C.whenherhusbandwaselectedtotheU.S.Senatein1978.In1981,DeewasappointedtoserveonthePresident'sTaskForceforPrivateSectorInitiativestoencouragevolunteerism.In1982and1983shewasappointedtoserveattheWhiteHouseas a Special Assistant to the President for Public Liaison to women'sorganizations.FollowinghergovernmentserviceinWashington,Deewroteanaward-winningbookWomen:BeyondEqualRights.Sincethattimeshehasauthoredthreeotherbooks, and has written articles for inclusion in numerous other books andpublications.Deehas studiedandpainted inoil andacrylic for35years, including summerstudy at the ArtStudy program in Giverny, France. She paints many animalportraitsforclients,anddonatespaintingsforauctionatcharitableevents.Only

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recentlyshehasbegunpaintinginwatercolorundertheinstructionofRoseEdin.

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contents

PrefaceIntroduction

CHAPTER1materialsforgettingstartedCHAPTER2

techniquestoenhanceyourartCHAPTER3

drawing&compositionCHAPTER4

creatingharmonywithcolorCHAPTER5

creatingdynamicpaintingsConclusionGallery

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preface

WhatajoyithasbeenformetoworkonthisbookwithRose.Shecancertainlybecountedamongthebestwatercoloristsinthecountry.Inadditiontobeingagreat watercolorist, she is a wonderful woman and has become a very goodfriend. I have personally learned immensely by writing about and studyingRose'sworkasIlaboredonthisbook.Rose has becomemy artisticmentor, and I have become an ardent student. Ihavebeenanoil andacrylicpainter fordecades,yet fromher Ihaveacquiredsomevaluableknowledgeaboutthemoreeffectiveuseofcolorandthemagicofcolorharmonies.IhavelearnedthatRose'stechniquesapplytomymediumsofchoice,thoughherworkhasalsoinspiredmetotrywatercolor.Itismyhopethatyouwillsoakuptheteachingsinthisbookandbeinspiredbytheartandlessonsherein.Weallaregivenacreativeurge;maythisbookhelpyoufulfillyourinnatedesiretocreateworksofbeautyandgrace.—DeeJepsen

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introduction

THELITTLEHARBOUR-30″×22″(76cm×56cm)After receivingmyfirst setofoilpaintswhen Iwaseightyearsold,colorhasbeenmygreatestchallenge.Ihavealwaysstruggledtogetthedesiredcolor.Myinterestincolorledmetothechallengeofpaintingintransparentwatercolors.Inmysearchfortheperfectmedium,Idiscoveredthatwatercolorcouldachievethemostbeautifulresultswhenitcametocolor.WhilevisitinggalleriesintheUnitedStatesandEurope,IfoundmyselfdrawntotheImpressionists.AsIstudiedthesepaintings,Ifeltanexcitementinviewingtheir colors from a distance. Drawn into the paintings, I observed the artistswouldputonecolornexttoeachotherandwoulduseanalogouscolorsandcolorcomplementstocreateavariedbutharmoniouseffect.Ialsodiscoveredthattheyusedpurecolortokeepthehuesbrilliant.Asanartist,IcanonlybegintoduplicatethemajestyofGod'screation.Through

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years of painting with watercolor, I have discovered that color needs to beinterpreted.Thatis,whenwelookatanobject'slocalcolor,likethegreenshadeofgrass,wecanseethatthereismoretothegreenandjustonemonochromatichue. In the sunlit areas, the grassmay appearmore yellow, and in the shadyareas,itmayappearmoreblue.Ifweusethesecolorstogether—yellowforthelights, green for the midtones and blue for the shadows— these colors willcreate a harmoniouswhole.Why?Because these colors are analogous to eachother on the color wheel; they create color harmony, meaning they all blendtogethertocreateapleasingandconsistentarrangementofcolor.Ofcourse,thereismoretoapaintingthancolor.Drawingandcompositionarealso very important, and I believe anyone can learn to draw meaningfulcompositions. There are many different techniques that can add texture andinteresttoyourpainting,solongasyou'reopentosurprisingpossibilities.Tome,subjectmatterisn'tnearlyasimportantasshapes,illuminatingcolorandthecontrastofdarkshades interlockingwith lightcolor. Ihopeyouwillenjoyeachstudy,eachtechnique,eachexperimentinthisbook,and,aboveall,enjoythewonderfulcoloryoucanachieve.—RoseEdin

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CHAPTER1

materialsforgettingstarted

THEGATE-30″×22″(76cm×56cm)Althoughmanythinkthelongevityofawatercolorisveryshort,anditwillsoonfadeandloseitsvibrancy,thatisnottruewiththematerialsavailabletoday.Ifyouuseprofessional-gradepigmentsandacidfreewatercolorpaper,notonlywillyouachieveimprovedresults,you'llalsokeepyourpaintings lookingbeautifulforyearstocome.

Adam'smark.TheCreator'stouch.Thesoul'sdivinetattoo.ItisanimagethatenablesEden'schildrenToimagineandcreate.It iswhatanimatesallwhopaintorsketchAndisreflectedontheircanvasesandprints.ItistheHandofGodupontheGardenprinceThathastouchedyouwithdesireTomakeyourmarkupontheworldAndhelpitseetheLight.—GregAsimakoupoulos

wheretowork

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Ifyouareabeginningwatercolorpainter,youwillbesurprisedatwhatyoucandowiththerightmaterialsandsetup.Animportantbutoftenoverlooked“tool”forpaintingissimplyhavingaplacetopaint.Ifyou'reluckyenoughtohaveadedicatedstudio,it'swonderfultohavenorthernlight,whichallowsyoutoseethetruestcolors.Ihavetomakemystudioalotofdifferent places, particularlywhen I am teaching.Here are a few basic thingsyou'llneedforyourpaintingarea:

Space.Yourstudiocanbeassimpleasacornerofyourtable,oraroom

dedicatedonlytopainting.Themainrequirementishavingaspacetoleaveyourmaterialsoutundisturbed,readytousewheninspirationstrikes.

Tableorotherflatsurface.Youcaninvestinanartist'stablethattiltstoward you. These tables make it easier to do some of the drawing andpainting, particularly with large pieces. Really, though, any flat, sturdysurfacethatyoudon'tmindgettingsomepaintonwilldo.

Light.Trytosetupnearawindow,butifthat'snotavailable,ahalogenlightorcombinationfluorescentandincandescentlightisalsogood.

EnPleinAirPaintingIfyou'regoingtopaintonlocation,travellight.Ioftensitonarockorcurborona 2-lb. (1kg) stool I can sling over my shoulder. I set as many items on thegroundasIcan,securethepapertomysupportandusemylegsasatable.

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KeepYourPackLightforPleinAirWorkIkeep thefollowing items inmy totebag,asyouneverknowwhen inspirationmaystrike:asmallwatercolorpalette filledwithdriedpaint,oneno.18roundbrush,water containerwith lid, pencil, eraser, sketch pad, permanent ink pen,140-lb. (300gsm) watercolor paper block and facial tissue. My stool and theitemsinmytotebagweighlessthan5pounds(2.3kg).

paper

You can findwatercolor paper in a variety ofweights and textures.Whateverkindofpaperyouchoose,makesureit'sacidfree.Selectingacidfreepaperwillhelppreserveyourpaintingandkeepitasbeautifulasthedayyoucreatedit.Iliketouseeither300-lb.(640gsm)or140-lb.(300gsm)cold-pressedpaperand140-lb.(300gsm)watercolorblockbyArches.Iprefertousecold-pressedpaperbecause it has a little tooth, or texture, and absorbs the paint better than hot-pressedpaper,whichisverysmooth.Cold-pressedpaperisalsogoodtousewithmaskingfluidbecausethepaperhasenoughsizingtoallowthemaskingfluidtobeeasilyremoved.I'vefoundit'smorecost-effectivetobuypaperin22″×30″(56cm×76cm)300-lb. (640gsm) or 140-lb. (300gsm) sheets, and cut it into smaller sizes ifnecessary. If you're painting on location, though, use a block of watercolorpaper.Ablockofwatercolorpaperhasuptotwentypagesofpaperadheredtostiffbackinganddoesnothavetobestretched.An advantage to using 300-lb. (640gsm) paper is that it doesn't buckle, so itdoesn'thavetobestapledtoasupportandtapingitdownisoptional.The140lb.(300gsm)paper,however,willneedtobestretchedbeforeuseoritwillbuckle.Inadditiontowatercolorpaper,you'llalsoneed:

Asupport,whichiswhatyourwatercolorpaperrestsonasyoupaint.

Typical supports include 3/8-inch (1cm) plywood board or foam core,whichcanbefoundinartsupplystores.

Astaplerforsecuringyourwatercolorpapertoaplywoodboard.Usestaplesthataren'tanydeeperthan3/8-inch(1cm),ortheywillcomeouttheothersideoftheboard.

Maskingtapeforsecuringpapertoyoursupport.Selectamaskingtapethat'satleast1½-inches(4cm)wide.For300-lb.(640gsm),maskingtapeis

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all you need to secure it to the support. If you're using 140-lb. (300gsm)paper,youcanapplymaskingtapeoverthestapledareaafterthepaperhasdried.

A sketch pad for getting down quick impressions while working onlocationorinyourstudio.

stretchingwatercolorpaperTo stretchwatercolor paper, applywater to the paperwith a brush or sponge.Youcanalsoimmersethepaperinasinkortubforroughlytenminutes.Placeyourstaplesabout2inches(5cm)apartandabout½inch(1cm)intothepapertoensurethatitwillnotpulloutfromtheplywoodboardasitdries.

PaintingSurfacesandSupplies

brushes

Havingtherightbrushesmakesyourpaintingprocesssomuchsmoother.Iuseonlyafewlargebrushesformostofmywork.Iuse:

Rounds.Agoodroundbrushcanholdalotofwaterandcoveralotof

area with paint, yet because of its pointy tip, it can also get into finelydetailedareas.Iusesizenumbers16or18rounds.

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Hakes.Hakesareorientalbrusheswithshort,flatbristles.They'regreatforlargewashesorforpaintingorwettingalargearea.Iusuallyuse2-inch(51mm)or3-inch(76mm)hakes.

Riggers.Arigger,orliner,isathinbrushwithlongbristles.Iuseasizeno.4rigger toapplymaskingfluidbecauseIcaneasilycontrolwhere it'sapplied,especiallyinintricatedetails.

AdditionalPaintingMaterialsBrushesaren't theonlythingsyoucanusetomanipulateandapplypaint.Hereareafewotheritemsthatwillhelpyouachievetheresultsyouwant:

Toothbrush.Iuseatoothbrushtoscruboutpaintforfixingmistakesor

softeningahardedge.

Spraybottle.Anyplasticbottlethatspraysafinemistisagreattoolforwettinglargeareasofyourpaper.

Masking fluid. A must for saving the white areas of your paper. Itcomesinclearandavarietyofcolors(seemaskingfluid).

Soap.You'llneedeitherabarofsoaporliquidsoaptocoatyourriggerbeforeapplyingmasking fluid.Thesoapwillprotect thebristles from themaskingfluidandmakeiteasiertocleanthebrush.

drawingmaterialsBefore I paint, I sketchmy compositionwith a 3B pencil.Whenworking onlocation,however,Ioftenuseafinelinepermanentpen.

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paints

Useatransparent,permanentwatercolorpaint.Transparentpigmentsletyouseethe underlying layers of paint, which allows you to build vibrant layers, orglazes, that create a range of values and hues. This is because light passesthroughthepaintsandbouncesoffthewhiteofthepaper.Using professional-grade paints will allow you to create clean, intense colorsbecause the pigment quality is finer than that of student-grade paints. I preferWinsor&Newtonpaintsintubeform.Sixcolorsformmymainpalette:ScarletLake, Permanent Rose, Cobalt Blue, Antwerp Blue, Winsor Yellow andQuinacridoneGold.Foranextendedpalette,IincludeCobaltViolet,PermanentMagenta, Cadmium Orange, Cobalt Green, Cerulean Blue, Burnt Sienna andIndigo.IndigoandCadmiumOrangeareopaquecolors,whichmeansyoucan'tsee through them. Opaque pigments make the transparent pigments seemespeciallyvibrant.Inadditiontoyourpaintsyou'llneed:

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Palette with lid: Select a covered paint palette with small pans, or

wells,on thesidesforyourpaintsanda large,centerareaformixingandliquefyingpigment.Irecommendapalettewithalidtokeepthepaintfresh.IliketheJohnPikepalette,butanumberofbrandsareavailable.

Watercontainerwithlid:Useacontainerlargeenoughtoeasilycleanyourbrushessoyouwon'thavetochangethewaterasoften.Havingalidwith your container makes it easy for taking it with you for plein airpainting.

Papertowels:Softpapertowelsaregreatfordaubingoffexcesswaterorpigment.Youcanalsouseanysoftcottonrag.

Extras:Optionalmaterialssuchassalt,plasticwrap,gauze,ricepaperandacrylicmattemediumaregreatforcreatinginterestingeffects.

Paints,PalettesandAlltheExtrasrewettingpigmentsWhen your paints are dried in the palette wells, take a clean, wet brush and

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strokeeachcolorinthewelluntilthepaintsaretheconsistencyofcream.Yourbrushmustbethoroughlycleanedbetweeneachcolor.

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CHAPTER2

techniquestoenhanceyourart

PENNSYLVANIAHOUSE-22″×30″(56cm×76cm)The varied techniques available to the watercolorist make this medium sochallengingandfun.Sometimesthedifferenttexturesyoucanachievedeterminethe direction the painting will go. The techniques shown in this chapter canbeautifully enrich a painting. In my painting Pennsylvania House, I used avibrant underpainting, spattering, liquidmask and salt to achieve the effects Idesired.

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DAISIESANDROSES-22″×30″(56cm×76cm)

maskingfluid

Maskingfluidisoneofthebesttoolsforwatercolorists.It'sasurewaytosavethosewhites,lightsandpurecolors.Maskingfluidcomesinavarietyofbrandsandcolors.Usingacoloredmasking fluidmakes it easier to seewhereyou'veapplied it foreasyremoval.Tryyourmaskingfluidonascrapofpaperbeforeapplyingittoyourpainting.Useyourfingersoramaskingfluidpickuptool,whichismadeofcreperubber.Themaskingfluidpickuptoolcanbeusedjustlikeaneraser.Cutofftheareasthatgetcoveredinmaskingfluidwitharazorblade.

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MaskingFluidandSuppliesApplymaskingfluidwithaninexpensivebrush,paintingknife,toothpickoranysharpenedstick.Ifusingabrush,coatitwithsoapfirsttominimizethedamageto the bristles. The rubber cement pickup will save your fingers— and yoursurface—asyouremovethemaskingfluid.

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ApplyMaskingFluidOverDryPaintsIoftenapplymaskingfluidoverpaintedareas.Letthefirstlayerdrythoroughly(preferably overnight). Here, I wanted to protect the positive shapes of someflowersandfoliagebeforeapplyingadditionalcolors.Afterremovingtheliquidmask, thewhiteareasand theunderpaintingremained in theshapesof flowersandleaves.

FORESTFLOWERS-30″×40″(76cm×102cm)WhiteIsn'ttheOnlyLightNotice I left some whites in the flowers to suggest the lightest light. I alsoappliedlightoranges,redsandvioletstotheflowersinsteadofjustpink.Thesecolorharmoniesalsomaketheflowersvibratewithlight.

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BIRCHESANDBLUEBELLS-22″×30″(56cm×76cm)SaveWhitesandOtherImportantAreasWithMaskingFluidAfter painting the tiny flowers, some of the leaves and the tree, I appliedmaskingfluid toprotect theseareasafter theyhaddriedcompletely.Thisgavemecompletefreedomtoapplylargeamountsofjuicyyellows,greensandblues.Ieventhrewinalittlesaltfortexture.DEMONSTRATION

multicoloredunderpainting

Tryasoftunderpaintingusingtheprimarycolorsofyellow,redandblue.Leaveyour intended center of interest the white of the paper, then apply a dilutedyellow next to that, then the red and finally the blue. I've found thisunderpainting pulls the subsequent colors together and softens the colors thatappearoutsidethewhitearea.Before you begin, dilute your colors on your palette until they are theconsistencyofcream.materialslistPIGMENTSCobaltBlue,PermanentRose,WinsorYellow

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SURFACE140-lb.(300gsm)cold-pressedwatercolorpaperBRUSHES2-inch(51mm)hake,no.16or18roundOTHERSpraybottlefilledwithcleanwater

1WettheSurfaceandApplyYellowBrush clean water over the entire surface, even the areas you want to leavewhite, with the 2-inch (51mm) hake. Tip your paper to remove excesswater.Usingano.16or18round,applyWinsorYellowaroundyourintendedcenterofinterest.

2ApplyRedClean your no. 16 or 18 round and load it with the diluted Permanent Rose.ApplythisnexttotheWinsorYellow,leavingthecenterofinterestwhite.

3ApplyBlueCleantheroundbrushagainandloaditwithCobaltBlue.ApplythisnexttothePermanentRoseandtotheedgeofthepaper.Ifthesurfacestartstodry,mistitwithcleanwaterfromthespraybottle.

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4TipthePaperandSpatterforInterestWhile the surface is stillwet, tilt the paper, letting the colorsmix andmingleslightly.With a clean no. 16 or 18 round, spatter the surfacewith theWinsorYellow,PermanentRoseorCobaltBlueforinterest.Layflattodry.

DAISIESANDROSES-22″×30″(56cm×76cm)AVariedUnderpaintingCreatesaCohesiveWholeForthispainting,Iknewthewhitedaisieswouldbethecenterof interest,soIcreated amulticolored underpainting accordingly.Once the underpaintingwasdry,Isketchedmycompositionwithapencil.Noticehowthespatteredpigmentssuggestadditionalpetalsinthebackground.spatteringSpatteringpaintisbestwhenthewatercolorpaperisstillwet.Ifyourpaperhasdried,wet the entire paperwith your spray bottle before you begin to spatter.Loadyourroundwithsomejuicywatercolor,holdthebrushatarightangletothepaper,andtap.

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GERANIUM-22″×30″(56cm×76cm)SpatteringandUnderpaintingThebrightnessoftheScarletLakestandsoutbeautifullyagainstthemutedtonesoftheunderpainting.Forinterest,Ialsospatteredpaintontothedarkestshapesbehindtheflowers.

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ROSESANDDELPHINIUM-22″×30″(56cm×76cm)PlanfortheCenterofInterestSincetherosesinthispaintingwerearrangedinadiagonalshape,Ihadtoplantheunderpaintingaccordingly.Ileftthewhiteofthepaperinthesamediagonalshapeastheroseshapes.Toget thebackgroundeffect,Iwet theareafromtheedgeof theleavestotheedge of the paper, then used Cobalt Blue to create the soft, misty illusion ofdelphinium in the distance. This created a nice contrast to the sharp edgescreatedintheforeground.

toolsandtechniquesfortexture

SaltSaltcreatestexturethatcanaddinteresttoanarea.Simplysprinklesaltontowetpaint.Thesaltwillabsorbthepaint,andoncethepaintdries,brushthesaltofftorevealthewonderfultextureunderneath.Tryapplyingsaltingrassyforegrounds,bushesand,sometimes,trees.TIPSFORUSINGSALT

Keep theworking areawet.Give yourselfmore control overwhere

thesaltworksbyhavingonlytheworkingareawet.

Trydifferenttypesofsalt.Saltcomesindifferentsizes.Tablesalt isvery fine andwill create fine spots on your surface.Kosher salt is largerandwillcreatelargerspots.Seasaltisirregularlyshapedandwillproducecorrespondingpatterns.

The more salt you apply, the more texture it creates. Each saltcrystalcreatesaspot.Themoreconcentratedyourapplicationis,themoreconcentratedthespotswillbe.

Experimentwiththetimebetweenapplyingpaintandapplyingsalt.On a piece of scrap paper, try sprinkling on salt immediately after youapplypaintandseetheeffectitcreates.Ifyouwaitalittlelongertoapplythesalt,you'llgetadifferenteffect.

Letthepaintdrycompletelybeforeremovingsalt.Ifanysaltresidueremains,carefullypat theareawithaclean,dampbrush, thenuseafacial

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tissuetoremovetheremaininggranules.

TableSaltLeavesaFineTextureSalt isn't just for seasoning food; it alsocreates interestingandvaried textureswhensprinkledontowetpaint.

ApplyingSaltForsalt towork, theareayou'reapplying the salt toneeds tobewet. I like toapplysaltwhenmysurfaceisshiny,butnotrunny.Saltwon'thaveanyeffectondryareas.Justmakesureyou'veremovedallthesaltbeforepaintingotherareas.

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GRAZING-22″×30″(56cm×76cm)UsingSaltCreatesanInterestingForegroundTextureTomakethecowsstandout,Iusedaverylightvaluenearthebarnandadeepervalueintherightforeground.Aftertryingthesalttechniqueonaseparatesheetofpaper,Ifeltconfidentinapplyingthesalttotheseareasinthepainting.GauzeIfyouwantcolorful textures, tryusingcottongauze.Iprefercottongauzethatyoucanfindinahardwareorpaintstore,butmedicalgauzefromagrocerystoreorpharmacycanwork,too,withalittlemoreeffort.TIPSFORUSINGGAUZE

Usedifferentsizes.Youcanusegauzetocreateinterestingbackground

effectsoveranentirepainting,orcutsmallpiecesofgauzewithscissorsforuseinselectedareas.

Vary the texture. Pulling and poking holes in the gauze will createvariedanduniquetextures.

Wetthesurfacefirst.Applycleanwatertoyoursurfacewithabrushoraspraybottleso thegauzewillstick to thepaper. If thegauzeand thepaperstarttodry,rewettheareabymistingitwithaspraybottle.

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Applythickfluidcolors.Whenworkingwithgauze,youmayhavetouseahigherpigment-to-waterratiothanyounormallydo.Experimentonapieceofscrappaperuntilyou'recomfortablewiththeeffects.

Workcarefullytoavoiddisturbingthegauze.Eventhoughthewaterhelpsthegauzeadheretoyoursurface,youcaneasilymovethegauzewithyourbrush.Keepyourstrokesdelicatesothegauzestaysinplace.

Laythepainting flat todrybeforeremoving thegauze.Makesurethe paint has dried completely, then carefully lift the gauze to reveal thesurprisingtextureunderneath.

CottonGauzeThere are many ways to create texture in a painting. One of my favoritetechniquestouseisapplyingcottongauze.

ExperimentationIsaMustTocreatethiseffect,applyyourcolorsnexttoeachotheronthewetpaperandgauze,thentiptheentirepaintingsothecolorsruntogether.Thecolorsmixonthepaperratherthanonthepaletteandlooksomuchmorevibrant.

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KINGOFTHEHILL-22″×23″(56cm×58cm)AVariedBackgroundHere I used gauze to suggest the appearance of dirt ground surrounding thisrooster.

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COSMOS-30″×22″(76cm×56cm)UseGauzeforStunningBackgroundTextureI first painted the cosmos and a fewof the light asters, thenmasked this areaafter letting the paint dry completely.Once themasking fluidwas also dry, Iadded the cosmos leaves and some darker asters. While this was wet, I laidgauzeovertheentireareaandappliedyellows,bluesandredsoverthegauze.Ithen tipped the surface, letting the colors run together to create an intricatebackgrounddesign.PlasticWrapDifferentsubjectsrequiredifferenttexturalapproaches.Tryusingplasticwraptosimulatethetextureofrocksandrushingwaterortosimplycreateaninterestingbackgroundeffect.

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TIPSFORUSINGPLASTICWRAP

Applyplasticwraptoawetsurface.Yoursurfaceshouldbewetwith

paint orwater.Aswith salt, you can alter the effect plasticwrap has onyour surface by varying the time between applying paint and applyingplasticwrap.

Manipulate plastic wrap for best effect. Pull the plastic wrap indifferent directions before applying it to your surface. The plastic wrapshould lookwrinkledwhenapplied to thepaper.Onceyou've laidplasticwrapdownonyoursurface,youcancontinuetomoveituntilyougettheeffect you desire. Keep in mind that the paint will be lighter where theplasticwrapisraisedanddarkerwhereittouchesthesurface.

YourKitchenCanProvideaTreasureTroveofTexturalToolsWhatotherpainting supplies arehiding inyourkitchen? In addition toplasticwrap,trywaxpaperforamoremutedeffect.

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ApplyingPlasticWrapHere I applied watercolors, then placed plastic wrap I'd stretched andmanipulated over that. After letting the surface dry thoroughly, I carefullyremovedtheplasticwraptorevealthesewonderfulresults.

POINSETTIA-22″×30″(56cm×76cm)AnotherWaytoUsePlasticWrap

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In this painting, I created the poinsettia flowers first. I then applied juicywatercolors toonesectionof thebackgroundata timeas Iworkedaround thecenterofinterest.Whilethepaintwasstillwet,Iappliedplasticwrapovereacharea,gentlypullingtheplasticwrapinthedirectionsIwanted.usemaskingfluidtoprotectimportantareasIcouldhaveappliedmaskingfluidaroundtheedgeoftheflowersandleavestoprotectthemfromanypaintthatmightaccidentallylandontheminthisprocess.Ifthere'sanareayouwishtoprotectfromany“happyaccidents,”applymaskingfluidtokeepthearealookingthesame.

ricepaper

Rice paper can be used in a collage-type manner to soften an overly brightpaintingorareaofapainting.Ifyoutendtobeboldwithcolor,thismaybecomeoneofyourfavoritetechniques.There are all kinds of rice paper available, so experiment to see which typemight be best for you. I like to use Unryu rice paper, which I secure to mysurfacewithacrylicmattemedium.(Noticethebeautifultextureofthericepaperitself.)Tosecure ricepaperwithmattemedium,dilute themattemediumwithwater,thenbrushitonthericepaperandthewatercolorpaperwithanoldbrush.Themattemediumwilldrytoatranslucentmattefinish.

RicePaperHasaDelicateTextureUnryuricepapercanbefoundinartsupplystores.Noticethelongwispyfibers

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runningthroughoutthepaperthataddaninterestingtexturalelement.

AcrylicMatteMediumBecauseacrylicmattemediumdriestoaclearmattefinish,itblendsinperfectlywiththerestofyourcomposition.

ApplyingRicePaperOnceyoufigureoutwhereyou'dliketoapplythericepaper,mistitwithwaterfromyourspraybottletoholditinplace.Useanoldbrushtoapplydilutedmattemediumover the rice paper and the surface. For large areas you can pour themattemedium so long as youwork rapidly.When finished, wash your brushthoroughlywithsoapandwater.Oncethesurfaceisdry,youcanpaintoverthericepaper.creatingcontrastRicepaperisagreatwaytoaddcontrasttoyourpaintings.Tearitintovariousshapessothatyoucanmutesomeoftheareasinyourpaintingwhileleavingthecenterofinterestbrightandvibrant.

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LILIES-22″×30″(56cm×76cm)

FORESTBOUQUET-30″×40″(76cm×102cm)

usingvignettes

The word vignette means “vine tendrils that form a border.” In painting, itsdefinition is “to shadeoffgradually,” as tonot leaveadefinite lineoncertain

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areas of the border of the painting. In other words, to have the painting fadeawayinareastowardtheborder.Whenyouareworkingonavignette,firstthinkaboutthecenterofinterestandallthecomponentsthatareclosesttoit,astheseareas should have the most detail. The level of detail will fade as youmoveclosertotheedgeofyoursurfaceandawayfromthefocalpoint.

THELACESHOP-30″×22″(76cm×56cm)ANaturalVignetteWhenIwalkedintothislaceshopontheislandofCrete,Inoticedthelightsanddarkscreatedanaturalvignette.For thepaintingIhad to thinkcarefullyaboutwheretoallowthedarkstogooffthepaper.Islowlybuiltupthewomenandthebackgroundindarklayers.Icreatedthelightlaceshapesinanabstractpatterntoleadtheviewer'seyesintothepainting.vignetteAvignetteisacompositioninwhichthepaintingfadesoffintwoorthreeareas.Vignettescanbedesignedsymmetricallysothattheedgesfadeinacircularorrectangularshape,as is traditionally thecasewithportraits.Vignettescanfadeoffunevenly,creatingamoreorganicfeelperfectforlandscapes.

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NOTRE-DAMEDECHARTRES-24″×18″(61cm×46cm)VignettesAreaHandyShortcutforaQuickCompositionAshortcut inpleinairpaintingcanbecreatedbyleavingagooddealofwhitearound your painting, thereby creating a vignette.Youmust, however, have aclearsenseoftheinterestarea.HereIleftthreecornersunpainted.

fixingmistakes

Sponges, scrubbing brushes and toothbrushes are wonderful tools for liftingwatercolor pigment that you've already applied.Butwhat do you dowhen anentireareaneedstobereworked?Usingacleaningeraser,foundinthecleaning

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aisleofyourgrocerystore,isjustwhatyouneedtoeasilyremovelargesectionsofapainting.Simplywettheeraserandsqueezeouttheexcesswater.Rubthecleaningeraser across theareayouwant to remove, letyourpaintingdry, andstartalloveragain.

UseaCleaningErasertoFixMistakesorMakeAdjustmentsCleaningeraserscomeinblocksaboutthesizeofabarofsoapandcanbecutintosmallershapesandsizeswithapairofscissors.

AllowYourselfaSecondChanceAfteraquickpleinairpaintingonawharf,Irealizedthevalueshadbeenpaintedtoodarkontheleft-handsideofthecomposition.Acleaningerasercametotherescue.Oncethesurfacewasdry,Isimplyrepaintedthatarea.

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LAKECOMO-34″×38″(86cm×97cm)TheSmallestDetailsCanMaketheBiggestDifferenceFeeling very inspired after spending over a week on Italy's Lake Como, Ilaunchedintothislargepainting.Afterthepaintingwasframed,Ihadanaggingfeelingthatsomethingwasmissingandrealizedthepaintingwouldbeimprovedifsomesailboatswereaddedtothecomposition.IappliedmaskingfluidaroundtheareaIwanted torework, therebyprotectingthe surrounding painting. I let themasking fluid dry overnight.Once the areawas lifted, I created the sailboats and removed the masking fluid from thesurroundingareas.usingatoothbrushtoliftanareaofapaintingDipatoothbrushincleanwaterandgentlyscrubtheareayouwishtolift(youmayneedtomaskthesurroundingareastoprotectthem).Blotthecoloroutwithapaper towel.Repeat theprocessuntil thepaper returns towhite.Youdonotneedtoscrubhard,justrepeattheprocessseveraltimestoremovethepigment.

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CHAPTER3

drawing&composition

CHINESEPATINA-30″×22″(76cm×56cm)Ibelievethateveryonecanlearntodraw,andyoucanusemanytechniquestoenhanceyourdrawingskills.Thinkingofyour subjects in termsof shapescanhelpyousimplifyyour subjectmatter.Working fromphotographsandusingagrid to draw your subject on your watercolor paper are two key tools forimprovingyourdrawingandcreatinganinterestingcomposition.An antique shop inHangzhou,China,was the inspiration forChinese Patina.Walking around the shop, I came upon a huge pile of old pots that looked asthoughtheyhadbeenthereforyears.Itookmanyphotographsofthem,whichIlaterusedtoformthebasisofthecomposition.

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BURANO-18″×24″(46cm×61cm)

stencillingpositiveandnegativeshapes

Usingstencilsisagreatwaytocreatearealisticshapewithouthavingtodrawitfreehand.Ioftenuseferns,flowersandleavesfrommygardentocreaterealistic,yetorganic,positiveandnegativeshapes.Positiveshapesconsistofthesubjectareaofyourpainting;negativeshapesaretheareasaroundyoursubject.Toformanegative shape, this same leaf canbeused as a stencil.Load thebrushwithfluidpaintandlightlystrokeitovertheleaf.Takethefluidpaintallthewaytotheedgeofyourpainting.

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StencillingOrganicShapesIusedtheleavesofafernasastenciltocreatepositiveandnegativeshapes.Tocreatethenegativeshape,laytheleafonyourpaperandpainttheareaaroundit.Here Iwent as far as the edge of the paper. To create a positive shape, tracearoundtheoutsideoftheleafandapplypainttothetracedpattern.Beyondferns,leavesandflowers,waxpaperandfreezerpaperalsomakegoodstencils.

FERNSANDFLOWERS-24″×32″(61cm×81cm)DirectandIndirectPainting

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I used both direct and indirect painting on the ferns in this piece. The fernspaintedindirectlyformaniceframearoundtheflowersandleavesofthepiece,whilethefernspainteddirectlycreateanicecolorcontrastfortheredflowers.positiveandnegativespacePaintingpositivespace isoftencalleddirectpainting.Painting theareaaroundthesubjectisreferredtoasindirectpainting.

CANADIANWILDFLOWERS-22″×30″(56cmx76cm)Arrange,ThenTraceHere I used someof thewildflowersgrowing aroundmyhomeas stencils forthis piece. I started by tracing the largest flowers, thenmoved to the smallerflowersandleaves.Iuseddirectandindirectpaintingtodefinetheflowersandleaves.

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usingagrid

Placingagridoveryourreferencephotographcanhelpyousuccessfullytransferthesubjectinyourreferencephotoontoyourpaintingsurface.Thegridsimplyhelpsyoubreakyoursubjectdownintomanageablechunks.Tofurthersimplifythesubject,makeaphotocopyofthereferencephotoanddrawthegridoverthat.Usingablack-and-whitephotocopyremovesthecomplexityofcolorandallowsyoutoeasilyseewherethelightanddarkareasare.TipsforUsingaGrid

Makeablack-and-whitephotocopyofyour referencephotograph.

If necessary, adjust the contrast setting on the photocopier tomake somedetailslighterordarker.

Usearulerandapenciltodrawagridonyourphotocopy.Iusuallydivide my reference photograph into four sections. However, you candouble or triple that number if you'd like to simplify the drawing evenfurther.

Withtherulerandpencil,copythegridontoyourpaintingsurface.It'simportantthatthegridonyourpaintingsurfacebeinproportiontothegridonyourphotocopyforeaseoftransfer.

With a pencil, copy the subject over to your painting surface.Simplyfocusondrawingonesectionatatime.

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ReferencePhotographSelectaphotographofascenethatinterestsyou.

Black-and-WhitePhotocopyWithGridUsingaphotocopier,createablack-and-whitephotocopyofthereferencephoto.Usingamarker,penorpencil,createagridoverthephotocopiedimage.Here,Ijustdidfoursimplesquares.

DrawtheShapesWithintheGridWhenIusethegridmethod,Ialmostalwaysdrawtheimageupsidedownandsideways,focusingononesectionatatime.Sometimesyoumaybedrawingadarkorlightshapewithoutidentifyingwhatitis,butitwillmakesensewhentheothersectionsarecompleted.

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Yourphotographandyourpaintingsurfacemustbeinthesameproportion.Forinstance,ifyourphotographis5″×7″(13cm×18cm)yoursurfacecouldbe5″×7″(13cm×18cm),10″×14″(25cm×36cm),15″×21″(38cm×52cm)andsoon.

THEPORCH-30″×20″(76cm×51cm)AStrongPaintingStartsWithaStrongDrawingUsingagrid tocomplete thedrawing reallyhelpedmecapture thedetails andperspective in this piece. Itwas especially helpful in capturing the patterns oflightandshadow,whichIthenreplicatedinthispainting.

composingwithyourcamera

Referencephotosarewonderfulinthattheycaptureaspecificmomentintime,which allows you to carefully examine your subject and spot interesting areasyoumaynothavenoticedbefore.Forthisreason,it'sagoodideatotakeseveralreference photos of your subject as this will help you document lots ofinterestingpossiblesubjects.Photographtheentiresubjectaswellasinterestingpartsofthescenetorecordnecessarydetails.

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entiresubjectGatherManyDetailsWithYourCameraBefore drawing, look at all the options. This whole area was filled withinterestingsubjects,butwiththelightshiningbehindthebuilding,Icouldn'thelpbutbedrawntothearch,roofandflowers.

detailofentrance

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detailoflightandshadowpatternsonforegroundflowersfocalpointThe focal point is the area in your painting that you want the viewer toconcentrateon,asit'sthemostimportantvisualelementofyourpainting.Otherelementsinthepaintingshoulddrawattentiontothisarea.

creatingastrongcomposition

You canwork with the best materials in the world, but if the composition isweak,yourpaintingwillalwaysseemtobea littlebitoff.Youcanstrengthenyourcompositionsbyincluding:

Interesting shapes.Your subject itself shouldhave interesting shapes

andsoshouldthenegativeshapessurroundingit,includingthebackgroundand shadows.A variety ofwell-placed shapes can help lead the viewer'seyes to the focalpoint.Overlappingshapesandshapes thatdisappearandreappearalsokeeptheviewer'seyesengagedinyourpainting.

Aconsistentlightsource.Astronglightsourcecreatestheillusionofdepth and can add a sense of drama. Keeping the light consistent alsomakesyourpaintingmorebelievable.

Repeating colors and/or shapes. This repetition gives the painting afeeling of rhythm and harmony.The rigid, geometric shapes of buildingsalongaskylineortheroundedorganicshapesofalandscapecreateasenseofharmonythatcanleadtheviewer'seyestothefocalpoint.

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PainttheClosestItemsFirstHere'stheinitialstageofapaintingbasedonthereferencephotos.EventhoughIworked from photographs, I took several artistic liberties to make thecompositioneffective, including reestablishingharmony through repetitionandcreatinginterestwithcontrast.From this stage, you can also tell I painted the trees and flowers first, thentuckedinthehousebehindthem.Thishelpstocreatemoreofaseparationoftheforeground from the background. Just make sure the foreground area is drybeforeapplyingthebackground.designandcompositionDesign—placingofpictorialelementswithinagivenformat.Composition—selectingacombinationofshapesformcomposition.

emphasizingthefocalpoint

Thefocalpointistheareaofyourpaintingwhereyouwantyourcolor,lightandtexturetoreallyshine.Tohelpleadtheviewer'seyethroughthepaintingandtothefocalpoint,it'simportantthatyourcompositionhave:

Contrastandarangeofvalues.Tomakeyour lightareas standout,

you need dark areas to reallymake them pop.Without these darks, yoursubjectwillruntheriskoflookingbland.

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Awell-placed focalpoint.TheRuleofThirds isprobably theeasiestway to determine where your focal point should be. Simply imagine orlightlypencilinlinesthatdivideyoursurfaceintothirdsbothhorizontallyand vertically. According to the Rule of Thirds, anywhere these linesintersectisagoodplacetopositionyourfocalpoint.

Awellemphasizedfocalpoint.Toreallydrawtheviewer'seyestothefocal point, create your greatest contrast there. You could place yourlightestlightnexttoyourdarkestdarkoracolornexttoitscomplementorawarmcolorbesideacoolcolor.

evaluatingyourcompositionSetyourpaintingup so that it canbeviewed fromadistance.Sometimes justgettingsomespacebetweenyouand thepaintingallowsyou toassess itmoreobjectively.Youcanalsoturnthepaintingsidewaysorupsidedowntoseeifanyareasinyourpaintingneedtobestrengthened.Askyouself:

Istheinterestareaintherightplace?

Isthereenoughcontrasttodrawtheviewer'seyetothefocalpoint?

Dootherelementsinthepaintingleadyoureyeintotheinterestarea?

Isthereasufficientamountofdarkstoamplifythelights?

Are the vertical and horizontal placements in the composition used

effectively?

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FocusingontheFocalPointBecausethefocalpointissuchanimportantpartoftheoverallcomposition,itsimportant that you take the time to plan it's location and how it will beemphasized.pleinairtipBecause the interest area is themost importantarea inapainting,paint it firstwhenpaintingonlocation.Youneverknowwhenthelightmayshiftorabreezemayblowandalteryoursubject.

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SOUTHERNCHARM-12″×18″(30cm×46cm)DarksBringtheLightsForwardThebeautifulpurecolorsoftheflowers,thelightyellowgreensandthewhitesinthispaintingtakeonathree-dimensionaleffectwiththecoolblues,greensandvioletsplacedbehindthem.Rememberthatcoolcolorsrecedeandwarmcolorscome toward you. Notice the location of the arch, the painting's focal point.Avoidplacingthefocalpointintheexactmiddle,ontheedgesorinthecornerofyourpaper.

createunityandmovementwithshapes

Thewayyouuseshapesinyourcompositioncangiveyourpaintingsasenseofunity aswell as help lead the viewer's eye throughout the painting.When theviewer'seyesaresmoothlyledthroughthepainting,theviewerwillfeelsatisfiedlookingatyourpainting.Herearesomewaystocreateunityandmovementwiththeshapesinyourpainting:

Create variety within shapes. Pleasing shapes will have a range of

edges—somewillbesoft (or lost),otherswillbehard (or found); some

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willbeconsistent,othersirregular.Ifyourshapesaretoosimilartheywillbecomeboringfortheviewer.

Overlapshapes.Thiscreatesasmooth,easypathfortheviewer'seyetomovearound.

Repeat shapes. Shapes that are slightly different from each other aremore interesting than those thatareexactly thesame,but it's important tobalancevarietywithrepetition.

Varythecolor.Thereareseveralwaysyoucando this—colorscanchangefromlighttodark,warmtocool,intensetosubdued.Thesechangesalsoencouragethemovementoftheeyethroughthepainting.

Include changes. In addition to shape and color, altering the texture,line, direction or value will also lead the viewer's eye. Changes can beabruptorgradual,thoughitisgenerallymorepleasingtotheviewerifthechangeisgradual.

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CHINESEPATINA-30″×22″(76cm×56cm)TheBackgroundTiesthePaintingTogetherThedarkshapesunifythispaintingandleadyoureyethroughthecomposition.Thedarkshapesarenotsolid;theyarebrokenupintoanumberofotherpotsandshapes,linkingoneareatoanother.Thelargevesselwiththegolddesigndrawstheviewer'seyesin,buttherepeatingroundedvesselsinthebackgroundandontherightbringoutthejewelqualityoftheforegroundvesselbycontrast.anoteaboutbackgroundsYouwanttocreateabackgroundthatsupportsthesubjectmatter.Sometimestheonly background you need is a dark area thatmakes your subject really standout;other timesyoumayneed to create somethingmore representational.Theimportant thing to remember is the background should enhance your subjectmatter,notdistractfromit.

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BIRTHDAYPARTY-22″×30″(56cm×76cm)AShapeThatStandsAloneThere are a variety of shapes in this painting, yet it's still a harmoniouscomposition.Theoverlapping shapesof the children,bags,balloons, trees andbusheshelpdrawtheeyeintoandthroughouttheentirepainting.TheforegroundpigeoniswhatIcalla“throwout”shape,whichisnotrepeatedelsewhereinthecomposition,butactsasanarrow,drawingtheviewer'seyetothefocalpoint.“throwout”shapes“Throwout”shapesarethoseshapesthataren'trepeatedwithinthecomposition.Assuchtheystandoutandseemtobejustthrownintothecomposition.Becausetheseshapesstandout,theyarewonderfultoolsfordirectingtheviewer'seyestothecenterofinterest.

staticanddynamiccompositions

Theoverallfeelofyourcompositioncanbeeitherstaticordynamic,dependingonwhatyouwanttoconveytotheviewer.Staticcompositionssuggestorderandtranquility. They suggest structure and stillness. This type of compositionemphasizes vertical and horizontal shapes and lines, and feels comfortablycontainedwithinthebordersofyourpaintingsurface.Dynamic compositions, on the other hand, suggest energy and movement.

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Ratherthanlinesthatareneatlyhorizontalandvertical,adynamiccompositionmaybeirregularwithazigzaggingmovementtotheoverallcomposition.The subject before me often determines whether the composition is static ordynamic.Doesthesubjectsuggestpeace, tranquilityandquietness?Is thereaninterestingdiagonalmovementorafeelingofexcitementanddramawithinthesubject? How I answer these questions determines the type of composition Icreate.

THEFAMILYPLACE-22″×30″(56cm×76cm)StaticCompositionThe orderly vertical shapes of the houses, boatmasts and treeswork togetheralongwiththehorizontalshapesofthestonewallandwatertocreateasenseofstillness in thispainting.Thesubduedtonesof thecolorsandthe indirect lightalsoaddtothefeelingoftranquility.

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NORWEGIANFJORD-22″×30″(56cm×76cm)DynamicCompositionA jagged line is created with the foreground white boat. The line is carriedthrough the houses to themountains in the background and is echoed by theshoreline.Thebrightertonesalsoevokeafeelingofenergyandmovement.

composingwithvalues

Remember,valueistherelativelightnessordarknessofacolor.Changesinanobject'svaluehelpsuggestitsform.Valuechangesalsoindicatethedirectionoflight.Asuccessfulpaintingshouldhavearangeofvalues; that is,somelights,midtonesanddarksshouldbepresentinyourcomposition.Doingavaluesketchis a commonway toworkout thevalues inyourpainting, as it allowsyou todeterminewherethelightsanddarkswillbeinyourcomposition.UsingBlueInsteadofBlackTubeblackissuchadull,lifelesscolor.Insteadofdoingablack-and-whitevaluepainting,IprefertouseCobaltBluebecauseit'spermanent,transparentandcanbewashedoff thepaper ifnecessary.CobaltBluealsohasstayingpower—itdoes not lift off when another color is layered over it. In fact, it creates abeautifulbaseoverwhichtolayerothercolors.(Seemoreaboutlayeringcolor

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overCobaltBlue.)

MoreWaterCreatesaLighterValueOneofthebenefitsofwatercoloristhatyousimplyaddmorewatertolightenacolor'svalue.

PaintingValuesinBlueWhenworking on location, consider a blue value sketch.After applying yourlightandmiddletones,letthepaintingdrybeforeapplyingthedarkvalues.Inanimatesubjects,suchasbuildingsandboats,aregivendimensionwithablueunderpainting.Itcanalsobeusedinshadowareasofpeople.Bluesimplifiesthecolorasyou layothercolorsover it.Otherbluesmayalsoworkwell, suchasCeruleanBlueandAntwerpBlue.TheonlytimeIdonotusebluevaluestudiesisinfloralpaintings.valueandcolorYoucancreatearangeofvalueswitheachcolor;however,eachcolordoesnothave the samevalue range.Yourdarkestyellowwillneverbeasdarkasyourdarkest red, and your darkest red will never be as dark as your darkest blue.Creating a value scale of each color on your palettewill help you familiarizeyourselfwitheachcolor'svaluerange.

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BURANO-18″×24″(46cm×61cm)MiddleValuesUnifyThe red-orangebuilding in this painting is a great backdrop for the blueboat.Althoughtheredhousewasinshadow, thesunhit theboatdirectly,makingittheperfectfocalpoint.Noticethattheblueshadowsaddedtothebuildingintheunderpaintingshowthroughtheredorangelayer.tipforpaintingenpleinairShadowsand lightmoveveryquicklywhenyouarepaintingon location.UseCobaltBluetoquicklyestablishthepainting'svalues.

conveyingmood

Oneofthebestwaystoestablishthemoodofthesceneistouseavalueschemethat iseitherhighkeyor lowkey.Ahigh-keyvalueschemeuses lightvalues,and because of the dominance of lighter shades, darker areas really pop andshouldbeusedcarefully.High-keyvalueschemesaregenerallyusedtosuggestamoodthatislightandcheerful.Thereverseistrueforlow-keyvalueschemes.Low-keypaintingsconsistofdarkervalues,makingthelighterpassagesofyourpaintingreallystandout.Theytendtosuggestamoodthatismoresomber,evenmysterious.

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BRUNICO-24″×18″(61cm×46cm)High-KeyValueSchemeThesunisshining,bathingthisentirescenewithlightandgivingitahighkey.Aslightshadowiscastuponthebuildingstotheleft,indicatingthedirectionofthesun.Notethatthedarktreesbehindthebuildingsreallybringoutthegoldentonesofthebuildingontheright.

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CORDES-24″×18″(61cm×46cm)Low-KeyValueSchemeItwasa cold, cloudyday,making this street scenemuchdarker than itwouldhavebeenonabrighterday.Iusedadarkershadeofbluefortheunderpaintingandappliedadditionallayersofpigmentoverittocreatethedarkestareas.

combiningphotographs

Sometimeselementsof tworeferencephotographscanbeput together to formaninterestingcomposition.Whenthathappens,youneedtobeabletocombinethetwo.Here'show:

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OneComposition,TwoImages

1. Withapairofscissorsoracraftknife,cutouttheareasyouwishtousefromthephotographs.

2. Reassemble the images into a pleasant composition. Since you canmove the images around, you can experiment to see what arrangementlooksbest.

3. Gluetheimagestoapieceofwhitepaperinthearrangementyouprefer.

4. Makeablack-and-whitecopyof thenewcomposition.Thiswillmakethe image lookmorecohesive, and itwill showyouwhere the lights anddarksare.

ReferencePhotosThese colorful lobster crates caughtmy eye.Over to the right, the boatsweremoored. I felt the crateswould create an interesting path to the boats.On thephotocopierthesubjectcanbeenlargedordecreasedinsize.

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Black-and-WhitePhotocopyOncethecombinedimagesarecopied,theyappearasaseamlesswhole.

SketchingOuttheTransitionAreaCanHelpIn this pen sketch, I've worked out how the areas where the boats meet thelobstercratescometogether.NotonlydidIcarveoutareasforthecrates,butIalsosuggestedwheretheboats'reflectionsinthewaterareaswouldoccur.Ialsotooksomeartisticlibertieswiththeboats'arrangement.Takingthetimetoworkthisoutbeforehandisalwayspreferabletoworkingitoutinyourfinalpainting.

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CAPEOFGOODHOPE-40″×26″(102cm×66cm)ForegroundElementsLeadYourEyeIntothePainting

eliminatingunnecessarydetails

With the drawing shortcuts we have discussed, you can draw anything.Remember to eliminate any details that don't serve your composition well.Reference photos often capture more detail than you'll need. Just becausesomething appears in your photograph doesn'tmean you have to include it inyour composition. Simply cut out any details you don't need and combine theeditedphotographwithotherreferencephotographs.

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photo1

photo2ReferencePhotosWhile walking down a street in Bergen, Norway, we came upon this littleRussian group playing beautifulmusic. The bright sunlight hitting the figurespresentedawonderfulchallengetopreservethewhiteofthepaperaswellasusesomebeautifulcolor.

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ReassembleforaSimple,YetInterestingCompositionAsyoucanseeinthisphotocopy,Icombinedaspectsofbothreferencephotosandre-positionedthemforastrongercomposition.

PencilInAnyDetails

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Iextendedthebackgroundtofurtherstrengthenthecomposition,thenaddedthegridtomakethesubjecteasiertodraw.

THEMUSICIANS-30″×22″(76cm×56cm)DarkVerticalsWithMinimalDetailDEMONSTRATION

alteringphotographs

These African women were seated by the side of the road painting someextraordinary works of art. When I looked back at these reference photos inpreparationforthispainting,Ihadtodecidehowtoleadtheviewer'seyesupto

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the figures from the foreground.This seemingly impossible taskbecamequiteeasyonceIdecidedtoeliminatesomeoftheunnecessarydetails.Thechallengewastodesignaphotographwithmultipleelementsinadynamicway.Overlaptheobjectsandthinkofhowtoarrangetheshapestoleadtheeyeuptothecenterofinterest.

1ExaminetheReferencePhotoCarefullystudythephotographtodecidewhichelementstoleaveoutandwhichtoalter. Idecidedtomovethefigurescloser to theforegroundandmakethemlarger.Ialsodecidedtominimizethegrassbetweenthepotsandfigures,movetheelephantsupandfarthertotheright,andmovethelargerfigurineontherighttocreateavisualpathtothecenterofinterest.

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2MakeaBlack-and-WhitePhotocopyPhotocopythephotographtogetasenseofthevaluesinthepiece.Enlargetheupperhalfofthepaintingandtheelephantcarvingsabouttenpercentandmakeanothercopy.materialslistPIGMENTSAntwerp Blue, Burnt Sienna, Cadmium Orange, Cerulean Blue, Cobalt Blue,Cobalt Green, Permanent Magenta, Quinacridone Gold, Scarlet Lake,WinsorYellowSURFACE300-lb.(640gsm)cold-pressedwatercolorpaperBRUSHES2-inch(51mm)hake,no.4rigger,no.16or18roundOTHEREraser, masking fluid, paper towels, pencil, rubber cement pickup, ruler,scissors,spraybottlefilledwithcleanwater

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3CutandRearrangeCutouttheelementsyouwishtoincludeinthepainting.Moveelementsarounduntil you are pleasedwith the look, thenglue them to a pieceofwhite paper.Makeaphotocopyoftheentirecomposition.

4EnlargetheImageandAddImportantDetailsMakeanotherblack-and-whitephotocopyofyour compositionandenlarge thecompositionproportionately.Forinstance,an8″×10″(20cm×25cm)papercanbeenlargedtoa16″×20″(41cm×51cm).

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5SketchtheSubjectandApplyanUnderpaintingCreate a similar grid on your watercolor paper, then sketch the compositionusing the photocopy as your guide. Erase the grid lines once your sketch iscomplete.Addwater toWinsorYellow,ScarletLakeandCobaltBlue,andmixuntil thecolorsaretheconsistencyofcream.Withyour2-inch(51mm)hake,thoroughlywetthepaperwithcleanwater,avoidingtheupperrightandcenterofthepaper.Apply theyellow, redandblueas illustrated.Tip thepaperuntilall thecolorsruntogether.creatingasoftbackground.

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6AddShadowstotheFiguresUsingdilutedCobaltBlueandyourno.16or18round,createtheshadowsanddarkvaluesonthewomen'sfaces,headscarvesandclothingaswellasthepolebehindthem.Letthisdry,thenapplyasecondapplicationofCobaltBlueforthedarkestshadowsandvalues.Letthisdry.

7RefinetheWomen'sSkinandClothingUsingyourno.16or18round,applyPermanentMagentatopaintthefaceofthedistantwoman,amplifingthewomaninfront.ApplyCadmiumOrange,ScarletLake andPermanentMagenta next to each other on the head and arms of thewomaninfront,lettingthecolorsmingleonthepaper.UseAntwerpBluefor theheadscarfonthewomaninthebackground,anduseWinsor Yellow, Cadmium Orange and Scarlet Lake for the pattern of theheadscarfofthewomaninfront,leavingthelightestlightthewhiteofthepaper.Using thesameprocessyouusedon their facesandheadscarves,applyCobaltBlue with a no. 16 or 18 round over the shadows and darkest values of theforeground woman's blouse and arms, and let this dry. Clean the brush, thenapplyCeruleanBlue to theshadows in thesunlitareasofherdress.Apply thepattern on the woman's blouse with Scarlet Lake. Apply Cobalt Blue to theshadowareainher lap(don'tget toodetailedhere).ApplyWinsorYellowand

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CadmiumOrangetothebackgroundwoman'sclothing.beginwiththecenterofinterestBy doing the interest area first I often receive inspiration for the rest of thepainting.Atthispointanythingcanbefixed.IftheunderpaintingistoodarkormessyitcanbewashedoffwithMr.Clean.Ifthedrawingisinaccurate,letthepaintingdrythoroughly,eraseandredrawtheimage.

8RefinetheFigurinesApplyCobaltBluewithano.16or18roundtotheshadowsanddarkvaluesoftheelephantsandfigurinesontherightsideofthepaintingandletdry.Sincetheelephantsaremadeofanebonywood,theyshouldbeslightlywarmerthanthefigurines made of stone, so apply diluted Quinacridone Gold next to dilutedScarletLakeovertheCobaltBlueshadows.Onthestonefigurines,applydilutedScarletLakenexttoPermanentMagenta.Letthecolorsmixandmingletocreaterichandvariedgraytones.Paint some of the foreground grasses withWinsor Yellow and QuinacridoneGold.

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9ApplyMaskingFluidUsetheno.4riggertoapplymaskingfluidtothegrassblades,theelephantsandthehighlightsofthepots.Bepreciseandfillinalltheholeswherethepaperisshowingthroughinyourpaintedareas.Washandsoapyourbrushoccasionally,andbesureallthelightareas,suchasthesticks,figuresandgrasses,aremasked.Letthemaskingfluiddry.applymaskingfluidwithcareMasking fluid saves the whites to create the effect of glowing lights or topreserve fine lines.Use carewhen applying themasking fluid. It can create ahardedgethatbecomesobviousinthewrongplaceofacomposition.

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10FinishtheWomenandPaintthePotsApply a layer ofCobaltBlue to create shadowson the pots andthewoman infrontwithano.16or18roundandletdry.Forthelightpottowardthecenter,applyWinsorYellow,CadmiumOrangeandScarletLakesidebyside,andletthem mingle into each other. On the darker pots, apply Permanent Magenta,BurntSiennaandScarletLakenexttoeachother, lettingthemmingletogetheronthepaper.Finish the foreground woman's skirt by applying Cerulean Blue to create thecheckeredpattern.Addabitofgreenbehindthefigurestoseehowthelightestareasstandoutagainst thedarkestareas (youcanalways remove thiswith themagiceraser).Tomakethegreen,applyWinsorYellow,QuinacridoneGoldandAntwerpBluenexttoeachother.Letthisdryovernight.

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11RefinetheUpperPortionofthePaintingPaint the additional pots surrounding the women using the techniques for thepotsinshadowinstep10.Completethefigurinesusingthetechniquesinstep8.PaintthebackgroundstickswithCobaltBlueintheshadowareas.Letthisdry,thenfinishthestickswithQuinacridoneGoldforthelightareasandScarletLakefortheshadows.Letthisdry.Applymaskingfluidtothesticks,thepost,thetopsofthepotssurroundingthewomenandtheupperhalfofthefigurineswiththeno.4rigger.Letthemaskingfluiddrycompletely.With your 2-inch (51mm) hake, wet the entire paperwith cleanwater. Usingyourno.16or18round,applycreamyWinsorYellowintheright-handareasofthewet paper; as youmove left, switch to QuinacridoneGold, thenAntwerpBlue.Rewetthepaperwithyourspraybottleasnecessary.Tipthepaperandletthesetwocolorsruntogether,creatingamixedgreen,andspattersomeofthesecolorsforvariety.

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12RefinetheBottomPortionofthePaintingWithano.16or18round,applyCobaltBluetotheforegroundpots,applyingasecondlayerofCobaltBlueasnecessaryforthedarkestshadows.Asyouapplythe blue, break up the overall shape of these foreground pots. Refine theforegroundpotswithCadmiumOrange,ScarletLakeandPermanentMagenta,mingling the colors as you did for the pots in shadow in step 10. Paint theshadows of the center pot with Cobalt Blue. Let this dry, then complete thecenter pot by applying Winsor Yellow next to the highlight, then CadmiumOrange, thenScarletLake.Allow thesecolors tomingle togetheron thepaperandthenletdry.Usingtheno.4rigger,maskthepotsandelephantsandletthisdry.Behindthemaskedgrassblades,applyQuinacridoneGoldandCobaltGreeninselectareas.Letthisdry.

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AFRICANARTISTS-30″×22″(76cm×56cm)13AddtheFinalTouchesRemove all the masking fluid with a rubber cement pickup and make anyadjustmentsnecessary.Noticethedynamicmovementofthepiece.Thelightsonthebackofthefigures,the pots and the elephants create a natural diagonal line, while the countermovementiscreatedbythepots.

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CHAPTER4

creatingharmonywithcolor

MYKONOSMUSINGS-30″×22″(76cm×56cm)Beautiful color is what always draws my eyes to a painting. For brilliant,spontaneous-lookingcolor,Irecommendapplyingcolorsnexttoeachotherandallowing them tomix andmingle on the paper, rather thanmixing the colorsahead of time on the palette. I also like to use pure colors from the tube thathaven'tbeenmixed,soit'simportanttocleanthebrushwellbeforeswitchingtoanothercolor.Thesearesomeofthecolortricksyouwilllearninthischapter.After I drew the composition forMykonos Musings, I used warm analogouscolorsonthefiguresandcoolanalogouscolorsinthebackground.You'lllearnhowtocreatethisharmoniouseffectinyourownworkinthepagesthatfollow.

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PORTUGUESEBOATS-18″×24″(46cm×61cm)

knowyourpalette

Ipaintbyusingmostlypuretransparentpigments.Transparentpaintallowsthewhite of the paper or the color underneath to show through. I do very littlemixing on the palette. Either I layer the color after the painting is completelydry, or I let the wet pigments mingle together on the paper. The result isluminous,beautifulcolor.Ifyoulookatthecolorsonthispage,you'llnoticeIuseawarmandcoolversionofeachcolor.Thisallowsmetomixalargerangeofcolors.

YellowFamilyWinsor Yellow is a cool light yellow that's great for underpainting, whileQuinacridone Gold is a very warm, golden color that makes beautiful mixedgreenswhencombinedwithblue.

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RedFamilyScarlet Lake is awarm red that can take on an opaque quality if applied tooheavily. PermanentRose is a cool transparent rose that creates a lovelywarmglow.

BlueFamilyCobalt Blue is a great color for underpainting, layering or mixing with othercolors.AntwerpBlue,adeepbluewithabitofgreeninit,producesgreatdarkvalueswhenusedaloneormixedwithothercolors.

CreatingLivelyDarksI never use black in my palette. The closest color to it is Indigo, which canbecome very opaque if applied thickly. I've found creating amixed dark is amuch more vibrant way to create dark passages. My favorite mixed darks: 1AntwerpBluemixedwithPermanentRose2CobaltBluemixedwithScarletLake3CobaltBluemixedwithQuinacridoneGold

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othercolorsonmypalette

BeyondthesixcolorsIalwaysincludeonmypalette,Ioftenexpandmypaletteselectionwithsemitransparentandopaquecolors.Ialsoliketousegranulatingpigments,whichmeansthecolorsseparate,creatingamottledappearance.Thedifferentlevelsoftransparencyandgranulationofferwonderfulcontraststothetransparentnongranulatingpigmentsinmystandardpalette.Thepigmentsonthispagecanbemademoretransparentifdilutedwithenoughwater. I often apply these colors over other colors or when using the gauzetechnique. These pigments really settle into the gauze fibers to create aninterestingeffect.

CadmiumOrangeAgreat color to usewith thewarmcolors onmypalette and lookswonderfulwhenappliedoveranunderpaintingofCobaltBlue.

CobaltGreenThisistheonlygreenonmypaletteandIrarelyuseit.Apaintingusingalotofgreensisgivenmorelifewiththiscolor,solongasit'susedsparingly.

CeruleanBlueAbeautifullightbluethatcanactasatransparentcolorwhenmixedwithalotofwater.Alsoagoodpigmenttospatterorusewithgauze.

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CobaltVioletThis isawonderfullysubtleviolet. Ioftenuse thiscolorasaglazeoverwarmcolors.

PermanentMagentaAdeepmaroonthatisespeciallygoodforcreatingverydark,transparentareas.MixedwithCobaltBlueorAntwerpBlue,itcreatesbeautifulmixeddarks.

BurntSiennaAdeep,transparentrustcolor.Becauseofitsgranulations,it'sagoodpigmenttousewhenpaintingwoodorrocks.

IndigoThedarkestpigmentonmypalette.Usethiscolorwithcautionasitcanbecomeverydark.Iuseitinsmalldosesinverydarkareas.alwaysarrangeyourpalettethesamewayI lay outmypalette the sameway each time I paint so I canquickly find thecolor I need. I arrange the pigments in this order:Winsor Yellow, CadmiumOrange,QuinacridoneGold,ScarletLake,PermanentRose,PermanentMagenta,CobaltViolet,CobaltGreen,CeruleanBlue,CobaltBlue,AntwerpBlue,Burnt

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SiennaandIndigo.

thecolorwheel

Beingfamiliarwiththecolorwheelwillunlockthecolormixingpossibilitiesofthe pigments on your palette as well as help you determine the overall colorschemeofyourcompositions.Attheheartofanycolorwheelarethethreeprimarycolorsofred,yellowandblue.Thesethreepigmentscannotbemixedorformedbyacombinationofothercolors.Youcan,however,combinetheprimariestocreatethesecondarycolorsof orange, green and violet. You can alsomix a primary and its neighboringsecondary color to create tertiary colors including red-orange, orange-yellow,yellow-greenand soon.Because I let the colorsmingleon thepaper, I rarelymixtertiarycolors.ColorTemperatureIt's important to note that color temperature is relative — some reds appearcooler than others when placed next to each other; however, both will seemwarmcomparedtoacoolcolorlikeblue.Generallyspeaking,reds,yellowsandoranges are thought to have a warm color temperature and greens, blues andvioletshaveacoolcolortemperature.

TheColorWheelIsaValuableToolKeep a copyof the colorwheelwith you as youwork. It is perhaps themostimportant visual tool you have for creating andmaintaining color harmony inyourpaintings.

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WarmColorsThecolortemperatureofyellow,orangeandrediswarm,andthecolorsadvancetowardyouinapainting,sousingtheminyourinterestareamaybeagoodidea.

Cool Colors The temperature of green, blue and violet is cool. They recedeawayfromyou.

colorcomplements

Complementarycolorsaretheoppositecolorsonthecolorwheel.Theydotwoimportant things: 1 They enhance each other when placed next to oneanother. A green leaf will visually magnify a pink or red flower. The warmcolor of pinkwill look closer to you than the cool color of green, suggestingdepthanddimension.2Theycreategraywhenmixedtogether.Theamountof thecomplementarypigmentsuseddetermineshowgraythecolorwillbe.

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PrimaryColorsandTheirComplementsWhenplacednext toeachother,colorcomplementsadd to the intensityof theothercolor.Thecolorsseemtovibrate,whichgivesanextrapunchtotheareawherethey'reapplied.

ComplementaryColorMakeup

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Whenyoulookatthecolorwheel,you'llnoticethateachsetofcomplementarycolorsconsistsofoneprimaryandonesecondarycolor,whichmeansthat,inasense, all three primary colors are present in each set since secondary colorsconsistoftwoprimarycolors.

MixingNeutralsFromColorComplementsMaintain the harmony of your color palette by creating neutral shadesmixedwithoppositecolorsonthecolorwheel.Thesemixedhueswillenhanceandnotdistractfromyouroverallcolorscheme.

colorharmonieswithanalogouscolors

Analogouscolorssitnexttoeachotheronthecolorwheel.Thinkofthemasafamily;sincethey'recloselyrelatedtoeachother,theycreateaharmoniousyetinterestingvisualeffect.When selecting color harmonies, first choose a dominant color.The colors oneithersideofthatdominantcolorwillformtheanalogouscolorharmonies.Thelighter analogous color can be used for light areas, and the darker analogouscolorcanbeusedfortheshadows.Forinstance,ifyouarepaintingarose,youmight select a red as themain color. Thismeans you'll use an orange for thelighterareasandavioletintheshadows.

AnalogousColorsAnycoloron the colorwheel alongwith the colorsonboth sidesof it canbeusedtocreateaharmoniouscolorscheme.

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Thistreeisgreen.

Butthistreeismuchmoreinteresting.LocalColorvs.ColorHarmoniesConsider an object's local colorwhen determining the dominant color of youranalogouscolorscheme.(Aneasywaytorememberlocalcoloristothinkofitastheactualcolorofanobject.)Thelocalcolorofapinetreemaybegreen,buttosimplypaintthetreeaflatshadeofgreendoesn'tcreatemuchexcitementforthe viewer. However, if you incorporate blue and yellow, green's analogouscolors,yourtreepaintingbecomesmuchmoreinteresting.

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creatingcolorharmony

When colors are visually separated on the painting surface, it heightens theappearance of light and creates a sense of order and balance in the visualexperience.This typeofpaintingalsoengages theviewer'seyes,andfuses thecolors together forming a three-dimensional object. In this way, the viewerbecomesinvolvedinthecreativeprocess.UsingAnalogousColorsWhendeterminingwhichanalogouscolorschemetouse,Iusetheobject'slocalcolor as the main color and build the analogous color scheme around that.Workingfromareferencephotographoronlocationisaquickandeasywaytomakethatdecision.

TintsCanAlsoBeUsedWithAnalogousColorsRather thanmaking these roses red, Idecided togowitha lighter color,pink.Pinkisa tintofred,but thesameprinciplesofanalogouscolorsapply; that is,

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useanorangeforthehighlightsandavioletfortheshadows.thekeytocreatingcolorharmonyisoftenimaginationUsinganalogouscolorstocreatecolorharmonyissimplyawayofbreakingupthe color and creating excitement in your painting. Remember, as with theImpressionists,thegoalisnottocreateaphotorealisticimage,butrathertousepurecolorinawaythatenticestheviewer.

minglingtonesforvibrantcolor

Allowing the pigments to mingle together on the paper creates lively colorpassagesthatintriguetheviewer'seyes.Simplyapplythecolorssidebysideonyourpaperandallowthemtomoveandmixtogetherontheirown.Sometimesyou may have to help the colors along by tilting your surface. As you getcomfortablewithmingling,youdiscoveryoucancreateexcitingareasofcolorinsteadofflatpassageswithlittleinterestfortheviewer.TipsforMingling

Createtherightconsistency.Inordertomingleproperly,thepigments

shouldhaveajuicyconsistency.Makesureyou'veaddedenoughwater.

Apply one color at a time. For the cleanest, purest mingled tones,cleanyourbrushbeforepickingupanothercolorfromyourpalette.

Practicemakesperfect. Familiarize yourselfwith the colors on yourpalette and with the mingling process before you try this on a painting.Practicewillminimizeanyunwantedsurprises.

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Non-MingledFlatColorsAlthough these are bright tube colors, they are not as eye-catching as themingledcolorsbelow.

Eye-CatchingMingledColorByminglingthecolors,youachievemuchmoreinterestingtonesascolorsmixtogetheronthepaper,creatinginterestingyetharmoniousblendsofpigment.

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BEACHED-22″×30″(56cm×76cm)MingledColorsinActionThewhiteboats are anatural centerof interest as theynestle among thehugeplumesinthisCaliforniaseasidescene.Themingledcolorsofthegrasses,treesandwatercreateavibrantcontrasttotheboats.

colortemperatureandcolorharmonies

A color's temperature can be used to send a message to the viewer.Want toconveyafeelingofenergyandexcitement?Usewarmcolors.Ifacool,serenescene is what you're after, use cool colors. By having one color temperaturedominatethepainting,youkeepyourmessageconsistent.Contrastthepainting'soverallcolortemperatureintheareasyouwanttoemphasize,suchasthecenterofinterest.

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CoolColorsAppeartoRecedeI mostly used blues, greens and violets in this painting, giving it a coolundertone. I saved the reds for the areas I wanted to emphasize, such as thebuildingsthatleadyoureyestotheGreatWall.

WarmColorsfortheGreatWallandBuildingsForthewarmareasIusedWinsorYellow,ScarletLakeandPermanentRose.

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CoolColorsAreUsedontheHillsForthesecoolareasIusedCobaltBlueandamixedgreencreatedwithAntwerpBlueandQuinacridoneGold.

CoolColorsMaketheWarmColorsPopThe trees and hills set off the interest area and contain the colors PermanentMagenta, Cobalt Blue and a mixed green created with Cobalt Blue andQuinacridoneGold.

THETALKERANDTHETHINKER-22″×30″(56cm×76cm)WarmColorsCreateExcitementThese Nepalese women were having an intense conversation in their villagesquare,soIusedwarmtonestocreatethatsenseofexcitementandtoreflecttheheatoftheday.

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createharmoniousgrays

It's important tohavesomequiet,mutedgrays inyourcomposition togive theviewer's eyes a place to rest, as too many intense, vibrant colors can beoverwhelming.Graytonescanalsomakeothercolorslookevenmorevibrantincomparison.Remember that mixing two complementary colors will create a gray, as willcombining all three primary colors. You can control the temperature and thevalue of the gray you create by adjusting the ratio of the colors used and theamountofwateryouaddtoit.

LayeringWarmColorsOverBlueOneofmy favoriteways to create livelygrays is to layerwarmcolorsover ablue base. These dark tones still appear vibrant, but can be softened by usingpigmentsdilutedmorewithwater.YellowandVioletMixedGrays

BlueandOrangeMixedGrays

RedandGreenMixedGrays

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SANTORINI-24″×18″(61cm×46cm)LivelyGraysThe volcanic island of Santorini, Greece, is filled with towns full of whitebuildingswithbluedomes.Thispresentsthechallengeofsuggestingdepthandformonawhitepainting.Here,thebuildings'shadowsarenotgray.Theyreflecttheblueoftheseaandskytogetherwiththesunlight.Theoverheadsuncreatesa

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uniquepatternofwhite,whichislinkedthroughoutthepainting.Instead of using Cadmium Orange in this painting, I used the transparentpigmentsofScarletLakeandWinsorYellow,whichaddtothesenseoflight.

deepenvaluesbylayering

Oneofthewonderfulthingsaboutworkingwithtransparentwatercolorsisthatyoucandarkenacolororcreatevibrantnewonesbysimplylayeringonecoloroveranother.Layeringisagreatwaytoplayuportonedownanarea.TipsonLayering

Letthesurfacedry.Perhapsthemostimportantpartoflayeringisto

makesureyoursurfaceiscompletelydrybeforeapplyingthenextcolor.Ifyoulayertoosoon,you'llendupmixingthecolorsonthepaper.

Build up color. Until you become comfortablewith the pigments onyourpaletteandtheprocessoflayering,buildcolorslowlyuntilyougettheeffectyoudesire.Ifthecolorsareappliedtooheavily,you'llcoverthecolorunderneathcompletely.It'smucheasiertobuildlayersthanitistoscrubthecolorawayandstartover.

Testcolorcombinations.Tryoutdifferentlayeringcombinationsonascrapofpaper.It'sagoodwaytohoneyourlayeringtechniqueaswellasavoid unwanted surprises. Maintain a list of the combinations youparticularlylike.

WinsorYellowoverCobaltBlue

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CobaltGreenoverCobaltBlue

AntwerpBlueoverCobaltBlue

CeruleanBlueoverCobaltBlue

CobaltVioletoverCobaltBlue

PermanentMagentaoverCobaltBlue

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IndigooverCobaltBlue

BurntSiennaoverCobaltBlue

QuinacridoneGoldoverCobaltBlue

CadmiumOrangeoverCobaltBlue

ScarletLakeoverCobaltBlue

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PermanentRoseoverCobaltBlue

PORTUGUESEBOATS-18″×24″(46cm×61cm)DeepValuesItwasahotdayon thebeach inPortugal.After searching for a shady spot topaint,Ifoundoneintheshadowofalargeboatandcompletedthispaintingfromthere. I started the painting with a blue value sketch, knowing the shadowswould change rapidly. Here, the sun was in front of me, creating the backlitpainting.Afterthebluehaddried,IappliedwarmcolorsofQuinacridoneGold,CadmiumOrange,ScarletLakeandPermanentRose.Icreatedthedeepvalueofthewaterbyapplyingseverallayers.DEMONSTRATION

maskinginlayers

Thesebeautifulflowerpotsweresittingoutsideanartist'sstudio,andIlovedthe

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waythe lightdancedontherichblueglaze.Tomakethepots thefocusof thepainting, Imade the flowers larger inmy sketch so they formed a nice framearoundthepots.Toaddsomedepthandinterest,Iusedblue'scolorharmoniesintheleavesandflowers.Retainingthelightandwhites,particularlyinthepots,makestheglazeseemtosparkle.Planfortheseareasinyoursketch,andrememberthatyoucanalwaystouchupareastowardtheendoftheprocessifnecessary.materialslistPIGMENTSAntwerp Blue, CadmiumOrange, Cerulean Blue, Cobalt Blue, Cobalt Violet,Indigo,PermanentMagenta,PermanentRose,QuinacridoneGold,ScarletLake,WinsorYellowSURFACE140-lb.(300gsm)cold-pressedwatercolorpaperBRUSHES2-inch(51mm)hake,no.4rigger,no.16or18roundOTHEREraser, masking fluid, paper towels, pencil, rubber cement pickup, ruler, salt,

spraybottlefilledwithwater,toothbrush

ReferencePhotos

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I tookseveralreferencephotosthatdaytocapturethenuancesof thelightandcolorinthepots.

ThumbnailSketchItooksomeartisticlibertiesandmovedthepotsaroundtomakeamorepleasingcomposition.Thumbnailsketchesareagreatwaytoworkoutideaslikethissoyouhaveafirmideaofwhatyourcompositionwilllooklike.

1SketchtheCompositionandEstablishtheDarkFlowersLightlydrawyourcompositiononwatercolorpaperwithapencil,usingagridifyou wish. Carefully sketch the reflections on the pot. Closely examine the

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referencephotostodeterminethelocationofthewhiteandlightareas.Withano.16or18round,applyCobaltBlue,CobaltVioletandIndigoto thedarkflowersandtheshadowareasinthefoliage.Letthisdry.

2ApplyMaskingFluidandBuildtheFoliageUse theno.4 rigger toapplymasking fluid to the flowersand to the topsandsidesofthepots.Letthemaskingfluiddrycompletely.Misttheflowerareawithyourspraybottle,thenuseano.16or18roundtodropinCadmiumOrange,QuinacridoneGoldandWinsorYellownexttoeachother.SpatterabitofScarletLakealongtheleftsidetocreatealightorange.Letthisdry.

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ColorHarmoniesoftheFoliageTocreatethegreenleaves,firstapplyayellowunderpainting.Asyouaddblue,you'llcreatevibrantgreensthatwillharmonizewiththeyellowsandblues.

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3EstablishtheBackgroundandCreateGreensMasksomeleafshapeswithano.4riggertocreatethelightestyellowvaluesintheleaves.Wetthewholeupperareawiththe2-inch(51mm)hakeand,usingano.16or18round, applyCobaltBlue on the right and upper areas of the background andAntwerp Blue in the darkest areas on the left hand side. Let these two bluesmingleandcreatethesoftedges.Theblueswillalsocreategreenswhenappliedovertheunmaskedyellows.ApplysomeCadmiumOrangeovertheCobaltBluetocreatethebrownofthesoil.

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DetailofLeafandFlowerShapesAs you work, connect the flowers and leaves, remembering to overlap theseshapesontopofthepots.4PaintthePotsSincetheleavesandflowersaremasked,focusonpaintingthetwopots.

1Apply a light shade ofCeruleanBlue next to the lightest reflections on thelargepotwithano.16or18round,savingthewhiteswherethereflectionisthelightest.Repeatthisprocessonthedesignofthesmallpot.Remembertocreateitsreflectiononthelargerpot.

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2ApplyaverylightshadeofCobaltBluetoindicateshadowsonthesmallwhitepot, thenecho thison the reflection in the largerpot.Applyadarker shadeofCobaltBluetothedarkerareasofthelargepot.Letthisdrycompletely.Dipatoothbrushinmaskingfluid,thenrunyourthumboverthebristlessothemaskingfluidlandsonthelargerpot.Spattermoremaskingfluidusingtheno4rigger.Letthisdry,thendarkensomeareasofthelargerpotwithanotherlayerofCobaltBlue.Whilewet,sprinklesomesaltovertheCobaltBlue.

3ApplyajuicyAntwerpBluetothedarkestareasofthelargepot.Useasmall

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amountofAntwerpBluein thedesignof thewhitepotandin itsreflectiononthe largepot.Once theAntwerpBlue isdry,applyPermanentMagentaon thedarkestareasandPermanentRoseonthelowerareasofthebluepot.Thiswillresultinashinyglazedlook.

5RefinetheFoliageandEstablishtheForegroundMisttheflowersandleavesinthepotswiththespraybottle.ApplyCobaltBlueandAntwerpBluetocreateanotherlayerofgreenery.Asthedarkcolorsemergebehind the light color harmonies of the leaves and flowers, a whole newdimension is revealed. Let this dry, then remove the masking fluid with therubber cement pickup. Add someQuinacridone Gold in the large blue pot tosuggestthereflectionofthefloliage.Maskaroundtheedgeofthepotsandtheflowerfoliagespillingoverthepots.

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SuggesttheshadowsonthegroundwithdilutedCobaltBlue.Letthisdry.UseIndigoforthedarkestspots.

ColorHarmoniesofthePotsandFlowersSince the pot is blue, using its analogous color harmonies of green and violetwillreallymakethecompositionstandout.6AddtheFinalTouchesMixScarletLake andCobaltBlue to create awarmgray.Use thismixture tosuggestthemidgroundpebbles.Continuebreakingupthedeckareasbypaintingaround the light shapes. Use Cadmium Orange in a few light areas to createinterest.Fordarkershadows,applyanotherlayeroftheScarletLakeandCobaltBlue mixture. Remove the masking fluid with the rubber cement pickup torevealthebeautifulcolor.

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MIDNIGHTBLUE-30″×22″(76cm×56cm)

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CHAPTER5

creatingdynamicpaintings

THEFIRSTSNOWFALL-22″×30″(56cm×76cm)Someofthemostdynamicpaintingsmightbeofscenesclosesttous.AfterthefirstsnowfallItrottedthroughthesnowtophotographourguestcabinasthesunwassetting.Artisticlibertiesbroughtthewaterclosertothecabinandgavethehillmoredramainthedistance.Thewhitesubjectgavemelibertytousecolorharmoniesthroughoutthepainting.The cool shadows on the snow are blue with the harmonies of violets in theshadows and a golden glow created by the sunwith the use of QuinacridoneGold.Thepurecolorswereapplieddirectlytothepaperandallowedtomixasthewet pigments ran into one another.Note how the complementary color oforangesetsoffthepainting.

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WILDIRIS-22″×30″(56cm×76cm)

textureaddsinterest

Apaintingwithmanyvisuallayersisachallengetopaintbutitisinterestingtolook at. Texture is one of my favorite ways to create an engaging scene forviewers.Theamountof textureyou include inyourcompositioncanhelp leadtheviewer'seyesthroughthepaintingtothecenterofinterest.TextureTips

Use texture to describe a surface. It's not enough to simply paint a

woodenbenchbrown.Addingtheappearanceofwoodgrainletstheviewerknowwhatthebenchismadeof.

Themoreimportantthearea,themoretextureitshouldhave.Thecenter of interest should have the most texture, as the viewer's eyes arenaturallyattractedtotexturaldetails.

Minimize the texture in the background and unimportant areas.Your goal is to merely suggest details here. Too much texture and thepaintinggetsbusyandconfusing.Sometimeslessreallyismore.

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RESTOREDRELICS-30″×22″(76cm×56cm)ValuesandTextureCreateaStrongInterestAreaThese lovelygeraniumsgavenew life to theoldhandmadepots.Beingplacedagainsttheinterestingwallgavethemdrama.Consequentlytheforemostpotofflowershasmoretexturalelementsthantheotherobjectsinthepiece.

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WILDIRIS-22″×30″(56cm×76cm)DetailinForegroundFlowersEventheirisbloomsandleavesinthecenterofinteresthaveminimaldetail—justafewlineshereandtheretosuggesttextureanddrawtheviewer'seyestothisarea.

designingwithlightandshadow

Ineachpaintingyoucreate,youareultimatelypaintinglight.Changesincolor,value and texture are simply ways of mimicking the illusion of light. Lightbringstheobjectsinyourcompositiontolifethroughtheinteractionoflightandshadow.Infact,thebestwaytopaintlightistopainttheshadowsitcreates.TipsforPaintingLightandShadow

Light and shadow have color. These colors are affected by the

changingpositionofthesunandbytheseasons,but,ingeneral,thesunnierthescene,thewarmerthecolorsyoushoulduse.

Lightandshadowsareaffectedbytheatmosphere.Whentheair isfilledwithmoisture,asonarainyorfoggyday,thelightwillbedimmed,makingeverythingappearmuted.

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Be consistent. Make sure the light falls consistently on the items in

yourpainting.However,don'tbe too tied toyour referencephotographorthe scene in frontofyou.Use light and shadowsasnecessary to lead theviewer'seyescomfortablythroughthecomposition.

ORGANMUSIC-30″×22″(76cm×56cm)DarkestDarksBehindtheLightestLightsAsweenteredthebeautifulcathedralinVienna,theentireatmospherewasfilledwith the beautyof the setting aswell as the soundofwonderful organmusic.The lightwas streaming through the clerestorywindows,hitting the altar.Thefigures glowedwith the light ofwarm colors as theywere illuminated by the

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strongestlightsource—thesun.

BAYWINDOW-30″×22″(76cm×56cm)BrightSunlightOutdoorsubjectshaveastrongsourceof light if thereferencephotographsaretakeninthesunlight.Whenthesunisshining,themostbrilliantcolorcanappearaswhite.Considerthesourceoflightevenifthesubjectsarefromphotographstakenonacloudyday.DEMONSTRATION

bringingoutthecenterofinterest

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It was a hot summer day in Door County,Wisconsin, when I noticed a ladywalkingbrisklywithherbaskets.Herredandwhitedresscapturedmyattentionaswellasthegestureofhermovements.Thisdress,withitspurewhiteagainstthevividorangeandreds,wouldbemycenterofinterest.Thedetailonthedresswouldtiealltheotherelementstogether.materialslistPIGMENTSAntwerp Blue, Cadmium Orange, Cobalt Blue, Permanent Magenta,QuinacridoneGold,ScarletLake,WinsorYellowSURFACE140-lb.(300gsm)cold-pressedwatercolorpaperBRUSHESNo.16or18roundOTHEREraser,pencil,ruler

ThumbnailSketchWorkoutyourcompositionwithaquickthumbnailsketch.I'mtakingabitofariskherewiththiscomposition.Thesubjectisclosetothemiddleofthepaper,butIbelievethefigure'sslightdiagonalmovementalongwiththeplacementofthebasketsandthecounter-diagonalmovementofthedaisieswillmitigatethis.

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1SketchtheCompositionUseapencil tolightlysketchthesubjectonthewatercolorpaper;useagridifnecessary.Onceyou'resatisfiedwiththedrawing,removeanygridlinesorstraymarkswithaneraser.

2AddtheShadows

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Usingano.16or18round,applyalightvalueofCobaltBluetotheshadowsonthewoman,thebackgroundandthebaskets.AddanotherlayerofCobaltBluetothe darker shadows.Remember to save thewhite of the paper for the lightestareas.Letthisdry.

3AddWarmTonesUsingtheno.16or18round,applyQuinacridoneGoldtoestablishthesecondlightestareas,includingthewoman'shair,theportionsofherdressyouwanttocome forward and sections of the basket with daisies. Clean the brush, thenapplyCadmiumOrangetotheslightlydarkerareas,includingthedaisycenters,thebottomofherdressand thebasketshe'sholdingagainsther thigh.Let thisdry.fixingunderpaintingmistakesCobaltBlue iseasilywipedoff ifyoumakeamistake.This isbecauseCobaltBlueisanon-stainingpigment,whichmeansthepigmentliesontopofthepaperanddoesn'tsoakdeeplyintothepaper'sfibers.

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4AddWarmthtotheFigureWiththeno.16or18round,addWinsorYellowandCadmiumOrangenexttothepurewhitesofthewoman'shair,basketsandgarmenttolendasunnyglowtothe figure.Add a littleWinsorYellow to the background tree and foregroundgrassandflowerarea.Letthisdry.

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5RefinetheCenterofInterestWith theno.16or18 round,applyScarletLakenext to theCadmiumOrangeandovertheCobaltBlueshadowsinthewoman'sdressandonherface.Letthisdry, then add touches of Permanent Magenta to darken any areas necessary.Your goal is to suggest the woman's form and her movement as she walkstowardthebackground.Apply Quinacridone Gold and Permanent Magenta to the baskets, furtherdefiningtheirshape.(Youcanpaintthelowerbasketsthesamewayyoupaintedthebasketsshe'scarrying.)Letthisdrycompletely.

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BASKETLADY-30″×22″(76cm×56cm)KeeptheBackgroundaLightValueforContrastFromhereyoucanbuild the foregroundandbackgroundareasusing the samecolors as your center of interest. The white on the figure's dress, daisies andhighlights on the baskets will stand out with a light background. I wet thebackgroundandplaceddilutedWinsorYellow,QuinacridoneGoldandAntwerpBlue next to each other so theywouldmingle on the surface.You do this byeitherpaintingaroundaroundthefigure,basketsanddaisiesorbyusingmaskingfluid.DEMONSTRATION

buildlayersforluminouscolor

Kalvåg, Norway, is a beautiful place, and a paradise for artists andphotographers.Ihavebeenluckytopaintthislocationseveraltimes.AsIevaluatedthisparticularscene,Idecidedtoincludemostoftheelementsin

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myreferencephoto.Theatmosphereoftheboat,buildings,rocksandwatermaypresentachallenge,butwhynotgoforit?Usingagridwillhelpyouaccuratelyportrayperspectiveinthiscomplexscene.materialslistPIGMENTSAntwerp Blue, Cadmium Orange, Cobalt Blue, Permanent Magenta, ScarletLake,WinsorYellowSURFACE140-lb.(300gsm)cold-pressedwatercolorpaperBRUSHES2-inch(51mm)hake,no.4rigger,no.16or18roundOTHEREraser,maskingfluid,paintingknife,pencil,ruler,spraybottlefilledwithcleanwater

ReferencePhotoSpend some time looking at your reference photo and decide on your interestareaandhowto tie theelements together.Thewhiteboatsmoorednext to theredbuildingcreateanicecontrastperfectforacenterofinterest.

1CreateaGridontheReferencePhotoPhotocopy (and enlarge, if needed) thephotograph.Divide thephotocopy intosixteensectionswiththesameproportionsasthepaper.

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2SketchtheSubjectonYourWatercolorPaperPencil in thegridonyour surface tohelpyou sketch thecompositiononyourwatercolorpaper.Createmoredetailontheboats,whichwillbetheinterestarea.Erasethegridlinesafteryoufinishdrawing.flipyourdrawingtofocusonshapesTohelpyoufocusmoreontheshapesofyoursubject,turnyourblack-and-whitegridupsidedownandsketchyoursubjectupsidedownaswell.

3CreateaVibrantBasecoatThebasecoatwillformthebasisoftheskyandwater.Wettheentirepaperwithcleanwater using the 2-inch (51mm) hake.Load the no. 16 or 18 roundwithjuicyWinsorYellowandapply a layer aboveandbelow the centerof interestandabitontherightside.Whilethisiswet,cleanyourbrushandloaditwithadilutedScarletLakeandapply itnext to theWinsorYellow.CleanyourbrushagainandloaditwithCobaltBlueandplacethisnexttotheScarletLake,going

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all the way to the upper and lower edge of the paper. Spray lightly any areawherethepaintappearstoloseitsshine,thentipthepapersothecolorswillruntogether.

4DeveloptheShadowsUsetheno.4riggertoapplymaskingfluidovertheboatsandtheirreflections.Usetheedgeofyourpaintingknifetoapplymasktothemastandtheseagulls.Masktheladders,thetopoftherockyedgeoftheretainingwallandthewhitetrimofthebuildings.Letthisdry.Create the dramatic shapes of the buildings and their reflections in the waterwithCobaltBlueandano.16or18round.Notehowthecreationoftheseblueshapestiesthepaintingtogether.ApplyCobaltBluetotheshadowedsideoftherocksandtheirreflections.Forthereflectedshapes,createaslightlywavyedgetosuggest thewater'smovement.Notice themountainsarenot reflected in thewaterbecausetheyaretoofaraway.

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5EstablishtheBuildings'BasecoatApply diluted CadmiumOrange in the sunlit areas of the buildings, retainingwall and their reflections, saving the whites for the brightest lights. ApplyanotherlayerofCadmiumOrangeforthedarkerareas.Remembertosuggestthemovement of the water by creating slightly wavy and broken lines in thereflectionareaof thehouses.Create thebasecoatof themidground rockswithCadmiumOrange,varyingtheintensityofcolortocreatelightsandshadows.

6ContinueDevelopingtheBuildingsWith the no. 16 or 18 round, place Scarlet Lake next to the orange areas andoccasionally apply the Scarlet Lake over the Cadmium Orange to create abrilliant red on the buildings. Keep the colors thin for the center building.Continue the red into the water to develop the reflections of the houses. Theslightly wavy edge of the shape needs to be broken up occasionally in ahorizontalmovementof thewave,soavoidfillinginthereflectioncompletely.DaubsomeScarletLakeintotheretainingwall.

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7DarkentheBuildings'ShadowsUsetheno.16or18roundtoapplyPermanentMagentaoversomeoftheblueshadowsincludingtherightsideofthebuildingsorwhereonebuildingcastsashadowonanother.For thedarkestdarks in thewindowsanddoorwaysof thebuildings and their reflections, apply a mixture of Permanent Magenta andAntwerpBlue.

FJORDCOUNTRY-22″×30″(56cm×76cm)RepeattheColorsintheSurroundingsUse the colors of the buildings to refine their surroundings, including theforeground rocks, the water, mountains and trees. Keeping the palette simple

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helpsyoumaintaincolorharmony.paintingwaterReflections are often darker than the object they're reflecting.When thewindhitsthewater,itmovesandtheripplesreflectarefractedlight.Thisbrokenlightis actually the color of the sky. As the reflections come closer to you, themovementofthewaterbecomeslarger.DEMONSTRATION

suggestinglightwithcolor

ThesechildrenwereexploringapaththatledtoabeautifulwaterfallinaparkinSouthAfrica.The sunwas peeking through the trees, dancing on the childrenandtheground.Thewarmtonesonthefiguresagainstthecoolcolorsofthefoliageaccentuatethe center of interest. All the greens, blues and violets of the forest will begrayed by layering the entire work with an under painting, which will beexplainedasyoumovealongwiththisdemonstration.This painting illustrates how you can use the application of masking fluidnumerous times and in different stages in a painting to achieve some veryinterestingandseeminglycomplexresults.materialslistPIGMENTSAntwerp Blue, Cadmium Orange, Cerulean Blue, Cobalt Blue, Cobalt Green,PermanentMagenta,PermanentRose,ScarletLake,WinsorYellowSURFACE140-lb.(300gsm)cold-pressedwatercolorpaperBRUSHES2-inch(51mm)hake,no.4rigger,no.16or18roundOTHEREraser, masking fluid, pencil, rubber cement pickup, spray bottle filled withcleanwater

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1SketchtheSubjectandMasktheFiguresDrawthecompositionof thepainting,makingsure to leavespaces in the treesforthesuntopeekthrough.Applyalayerofmaskingfluidoverthefigureswiththeno.4rigger.Letthisdrycompletely.makemaskingfluideasiertoseeIf you use clear masking fluid, you can add a small amount of watercolorpigmenttotintthemaskingfluidbeforeusingit.

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2CreateaVibrantUnderpaintingWettheentirepaperwithcleanwaterusingthe2-inch(51mm)hake.Loadtheno.16or18 roundwith juicyWinsorYellow,andapplya layerof this in theareawhere the sunwill be shining through the trees.While this iswet, cleanyour brush and load it with Scarlet Lake, and apply this around the WinsorYellow.Cleanyourbrushagain, load itwithCobaltBlue,andapply it aroundtheScarletLake.Tip the paper so the colors run together;misting your paperwiththespraybottle if theareastarts todry.Spattersomespotsof theWinsorYellow using your no. 16 or 18 round. Clean your brush, then spatter someScarletLake,thenCobaltBlueontoyourpaper.

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3MasktheNegativeSpacesandHighlightsWithano.16or18round,spatterCadmiumOrangeandCobaltGreenoverthepaper,cleaningthebrushbeforepickingupanothercolor.Withtheno.4rigger,masktheareasoftheskyinandaroundthetrees.(Youcanactuallysketchtheseareasoutwithapencilbeforeapplyingthemask,orsimplycarveouttheseareaswith your rigger loadedwithmasking fluid; justmake the shapes irregular tosuggest theedgesof thefoliageandbranches.)Masktheshapesof theflowersalongthegroundandapplythin,brokenareasofmaskingfluidtothetreetrunksandalongthegroundtosuggestsunlighthittingtheseareas.Remember,youaresavingtheareasyouwanttoappearlighterorwhereyouwanttosavebrilliantcolorthatwillcontrastthedarklayersyou'llcreate.

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4DarkentheBackgroundRewet your paper with the 2-inch (51mm) hake, then apply another layer ofWinsorYellownext to the sunspotwith theno.16or18 round.Next to this,applyScarletLakeandthenCobaltBlue,workingfromthecenteroutwardandcleaningthebrushbeforepickingupanewcolor.Tipthepaperinalldirectionssothecolorsruntogether.Whilethepaperiswet,applyamixtureofScarletLakeandCobaltBlueontothetreetrunks.Don'tworryifthecolorbleedsoutfromthetrunks;thiswillcreatesoftedges.Letthisdrythoroughly.While the surface is stillwet, spattermoreWinsorYellow,CadmiumOrangeandCobaltGreen all over the paper. Then spatterCeruleanBlue and a bit ofScarlet Lake where the foreground flowers will be. Remember to clean yourbrushbeforepickingupanewcolor.

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5ContinueBuildingtheBackgroundWiththeno.4rigger,coverallofthetreetrunksaswellassomebranchesandleaveswithmaskingfluid,usingthemaskingfluidtocarveouttheshapesofthebranches and leaves.Be especially attentive to thedetail around the sun.Alsomask the shapes where you want your foreground flowers. Let this drycompletely.Following theprocess instep4,wetyourpaperwith the2-inch (51mm)hake,thenapplyWinsorYellowaroundthesunarea,followedbyCadmiumOrange,ScarletLake,PermanentMagentaandAntwerpBlue,workingoutward towardtheedgesofthepaper.Letthepaintingdrycompletely.Remove the masking fluid from the entire painting so the children appearwithoutanypaintonthemaswellasseverallightareastoindicatethepatternofsunlight.

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6EstablishtheShadowAreasontheChildrenWith a no. 16 or 18 round, apply Cobalt Blue to the shadow areas of thechildren.Savethewhitesontheareasofthestrongestsunlight.

7CreatetheSkinTone

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CreateawarmskintonewithScarletLakeandWinsorYellow,lettingthecolorsmingletogetheronthepaper.Useano.16or18roundtoapplythesepigments,savingthewhites.

8PainttheDetailsUsingano.16or18round,dropinsomeWinsorYellowandCadmiumOrangetosuggestthechildren'shair.UsemostlyWinsorYellowinthelittlegirl'shair.ApplyCadmiumOrangedotsfortheflowercentersonthedressofthelittlegirl'sshirt.ApplyCadmiumOrangeandScarletLakenexttoeachotherontheflowersandribbonoftheoldergirl'sdress,andaddPermanentRosetoareasyouwishtodarken.

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9PainttheGirls'ClothingCreatethelightgreenofthedressbyapplyingWinsorYellownexttothewhiteofthepaper,usingtheno.16or18round.LightlyaddCobaltGreenaroundtheflowers.RefinethedeepestshadowswithalayerofAntwerpBlue.Darkentheflowersof thelittlegirl'sshirtwithPermanentMagentaandCobaltBlue in the darkest areas and use Scarlet Lake and Cadmium Orange in thelightestareas.Adjustthegirls'hairasnecessary.

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10EnrichtheFiguresIfthefigureswerestillabittoolightincontrasttothedarkerbackground,addadditionallayersofcolorinthedarkerareasofthefigurestohelpthemstandoutmore.Add a layer of Scarlet Lake over the children's skin, then place a littlemoreWinsorYellow over the blue areas of the older girl's dress. Darken theshadowsonthegreendresswithAntwerpBlue, thenpaintCobaltBluearoundtheflowersofthelittlegirl'sshirt.AddalightglazeofPermanentRoseovertheblue in the shadow area. Paint the skirt with Cobalt Blue and PermanentMagentaintheverydeepestshadows.11AddtheFinishingTouchesDetail the entire painting by breaking up someof the color in the tree trunks.Paint the flowers with Scarlet Lake and Cobalt Blue. Refine the figures ifneeded.

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THESECRETGARDEN-30″×22″(76cm×56cm)

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conclusion

THEITALIANRIVERIERA-30″×40″(76cm×102cm)Improvingyourpaintingabilitiesisareflectionofstrongtechnique,butit'salsoamatterofdevelopingcreativewaysofthinking.Inthisway,weareneverfinishedlearning.Thereis

alwaysmoretodiscoveraswepolishourskillsandexpandourthinking.I am sure you have noticed someoverlapping of explanations and techniques.Each painting is a combination of many elements, and something repeated iseasier learned, remembered and then applied. With this in mind, enjoy thegallery.—DeeJepsen

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gallery

THEWINDOW—DOORCOUNTY-30″×22″(76cm×56cm)LayersofInterestThe beautiful blue delphiniums caughtmy eye. I painted themwith the blue'sanalogouscolors—lightgreenandviolet.Icarefullyleftalittlewhitewherethesun hit. The leaves were painted next with light yellow and blue mingledtogethertoformgreen.Theywerethenmaskedbeforethewindowbehindthemwasadded.Notehowtheverydarkestareainthepaintingistheshadowwithinthewindowandtheothersideofthebuilding,creatinglayersofinterest.

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FORESTFLOWERS-30″×40″(76cm×102cm)ExperimentingWithSaltThe inspirationfor this largepaintingwasahughbouquetofwildroses.Afterpainting the roses and leaves as illustrated on p.20, Imasked them. Tomakethese flowerspopout, I appliedvery thickpigmentsnext toeachotheron thewetpaper.Ithentippedthepaintingsothecolorsrantogether.Whilethepaperandpaintwerestillwet,Iappliedsaltandplacedthepaintingonananglesothesaltwouldrun.Itwasveryexcitingtoseetheresultsdevelop.

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GAMLASTAN—OLDTOWN-22″×30″(56cm×76cm)CreatingtheIllusionofLightInSweden theoldoriginalbuildingsarepreservedas theyarehere inKalmar.Thesunlightwasveryintense.Allofthebuildingsarelinkedtogetherwiththewhiteofthepaper.Thesubjectreallystandsoutbecausesomeofthebuildingsare strong red and others are yellow. The light greens on thewillow tree arecreatedwithsaltandlettingitdrytiltedonanangle.Tomakethebuildingspopoutthedarkcolorharmoniesofgreenaremingledinthebackground.Theredsaremingledoverthedarkerblueunderpaintingintheforegroundbuildingontheright.

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KÄLLERYDKYRKA-22″×30″(56cm×76cm)LinkingElementsThis is the Källeryd church in Sweden where my father was confirmed andbaptized.Ihavepaintedthissubjectseveraltimes.Thistime,Iwantedtoincludeseveral elements, such as the stonewall, trees, tombstones and, of course, thebeautifulchurch.Thechurchstandsoutbecauseofthepurewhiteofthepaper,which is left unpainted. The dark tombstones below link the darker tree areasthatdonot includemuchdetail.Themiddlevalueof thestonewallalsohelpsrepeatthelonghorizontalshapeagainstthedynamicverticalshapeofthewhitesteeple.

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HONFLEUR-24″×18″(61cm×46cm)UsingLiquidMaskonLocationAfterleadingapaintinggrouptoFrancewedecidedtostayonforafewdays.Theharbor inHonfleurwasstunning.Formeitwouldbeimpossible todotheriggingontheboatswithoutsomehelp.LiquidmaskandapaintingknifeweretheanswerIneeded. Iused thebladeof theknifeafterdipping in themask tocreatethefinelines.Thebackgroundbuildingswerethenpaintedinbluevaluesbefore applying the color around thewindows.A horizontalmovement in thecompositionwascreatedbythelighthittingtheedgeoftheharbor.Theverticalmovementiscreatedwiththewhitesailsandthemasts.

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NEPALESEGENTRY-22″×30″(56cm×76cm)UsingDarkValuesintheInterestAreaWewerebroughtbacktorealitywhenweencounteredthesemensittingtogetherinthevillagesquareinaremotemountaintownatthefootoftheHimalayasinNepal.Themaninwhitewastalkingonacellphone(whichIeliminatedinthepainting).Their interestinggreenoutfitswereachallenge topaint.Thevibrantdarkvaluesinthispaintingdrawyourattentiontothecenterofinterest,whichisthemaninwhitewhoislookingatus.

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CAMOUFLAGE-22″×30″(56cm×76cm)CreateMinuteDetailTheAfrican country of Botswana is full of surprises. This leopard turtle washidingunderadeadbranchintheredsand.Thechallengewastocreatesomeofthe very lightest values in the turtle's shell while maintaining a warm colorscheme.Inordertoachievethis,Iusedthemostvibrantyellow,orangeandredfrommypaletteinthelightestareasnexttothewhiteofthepaper.Eachdistinctshapeontheshelloftheturtlewascarefullycrafted.Thedarkervaluesofgoldanddarkredwereusedinthelowershadowedareastocreatethedetailandtheroundedshapeoftheshell.

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ROSATEAANDCOMPANY-30″×22″(76cm×56cm)ConnectWithShapesWhilewanderingdownalittlenarrowstreetinatowninnorthernItaly,Icameupon this wonderful shop window. This studio painting evolved from severalphotographs and a lot of artistic liberties. I used a palette knife dipped inmaskingfluidtocreatethefinelinesoftheheaddressofthepuppet,whosenamewasRosatea,andontheglitteringdetailoftheshoesontheupperfigure.

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VENETIANGARDEN-30″×22″(76cm×56cm)PaintWhereYouAreBecause it was raining very hard inVenice, Italy, rather than paint outside, Isimplylookedoutmywindowanddiscoveredthechairsandtableinthegarden.You,asanartist,willfindinterestingsubjectswhereveryouare.Lookforthesesubjectsanduseartisticlibertiesinmovingthingsaround.

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SWEDISHWINDOW-30″×22″(76cm×56cm)ABacklitSubjectAfterdrivingmostofthedayintheSwedishcountryside,wewerehungryforacup of coffee and a snack.We found the perfect spot north of Uppsala. Thegeraniumshadbeennurturedallwinterandwereinbrilliantbloomasthebrightsunlightstreamedthroughthewindow.Thelightestareaisthesunshinebehindtheflowers.

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ROCKING-30″×22″(76cm×56cm)OverlappingShapesAll the foliage around the chairsoffered abig challenge. I usedyellow,greenandbluetocreateaharmoniouscolorschemeamongtheplants.Oncethatdried,Imaskedtheplants,thenpaintedthedarksbehindthewhiteshapesofthechairs.Lastly,Iaddedaslightwashtotheforegroundtokeepitinshadow.

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FISHINGHARBOR-22″×30″(56cm×76cm)RepeatingShapesThis was an unexpected sight on the coast of Northern California. All therectangularshapesleduptotheinterestingredfishingshack.Thelightshapesonthewater,dock,skyandupperboatsarejustasimportantasthepositiveshapesoftheelementsinthepainting.Thiswillmakeastaticcompositiondynamicasthewhiteandlightshapesconnectalltheelements.

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BABYINABASKET-30″×22″(76cm×56cm)BrilliantColorAttractsAttentionThesewomenwerewalkingalongadustyroadinRajasthan,India.Myhusbandasked this woman who was carrying her baby in the basket if he couldphotograph her. She was very happy to show off her adorable child. Severalphotographsweretakenofthisprocession.ThebrilliantcolorharmoniesofredsandorangesbrightenedupthedustyIndianlandscape.

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HILLTOWN-20″×18″(51cm×46cm)EstablishMoodItwasasteepclimbuptothehilltownofGubbioinnorthernUmbria.Wefoundaperfectsubjecttopaintwhereourentiregroupofartistscouldsitonthestepsandlookdownonthisdelightfulscene.Thesunwashittingthelowerpartofthestreet, so I worked quickly to establish the blue shadows first, since shadowschangeveryrapidly.Ithenputinanunderpaintingofyellow,redandblueandleftthesunlitareasthewhiteofthepaper.Thencolorswereappliedinlayerstocreatethemoodofthisscene.

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