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  • Introduce yourself in turn by stating your name

    (and role if relevant) plus: one WORD to describe what COMMUNICATION

    means to you

    You have 30 seconds to think of your

    statements, after which each person makes their

    statements

    INTRODUCTIONS

  • PART 1: BASICS OF

    COMMUNICATION

  • Objectives

    Define and understand communication and the communication process

    Barriers in a communication process

    Forms of communication Listening

    Verbal and non verbal communication

    Body languages

  • Hearing

    Seeing

    Smell

    Touch

    Taste

    Communication a Series of Experiences of..

  • What are the most common ways we communicate?

    Written Word

  • What is Communication?

    Communication is the transmission of an idea or feeling so that the sender and receiver share the same understanding.

    Communication is not a mysterious process.

    It takes place when the ideas from your mind are transferred to

    anothers and arrive intact, complete, and coherent.

  • Sender

    Encoding

    Receiver

    DecodingChannel

    Feedback

    Message Message

    Noise

    Communication Model

  • Communication Channels

    Written Communication

    Verbal Communication

    The Grapevine

    Nonverbal Cues

    Electronic Media

  • Types of Communication

    One-way communication

    Two-way communication

    One to many

  • Benefits of effective communication

    Quicker problem solving

    Better decision making

    Steady work flow

    Strong business relations

    Better professional image

  • Facial Expression

    55%

    Tone of Voice 38%

    Verbal Meaning 7%

    DEFINING COMMUNICATION

    Communication is the transferring and understanding

    meanings

    The best idea, or suggestions, or plans cannot take

    form without communications

    Communication can take

    many forms: Oral vs. written

    Verbal vs. non-

    verbal

    Interpersonal vs.

    organizational

  • Forms OF COMMUNICATION

    VERBAL Intra verbal: intonation of word and sound

    Extra verbal verbal: implication of words and phrases, semantics

    NON-VERBAL Gestures

    Postures

    Movements

    SYMBOLIC

  • What comprises Effective Communication

    Active Listening

    Eye contact

    Posture

    Simple language

    Questioning skills

  • The 7 Cs of effective communication

    1.Clarity/Clear

    2.Concise

    3.Concrete

    4.Coherent

    5.Correct

    6.Complete

    7. Courteous

  • GAME

    Partners describing the objects

  • COMMUNICATION PROCESS

  • When we COMMUNICATE

    7% WORDS Words are only labels and the listeners put their own interpretation

    on speakers words

    38% PARALINGUISTIC The way in which something is said - the accent, tone and voice

    modulation is important to the listener.

    55% BODY LANGUAGE What a speaker looks like while delivering a message affects the

    listeners understanding most.

  • BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION

    Noise

    Inappropriate medium

    Assumptions/Misconceptions

    Emotions

    Language differences

    Cultural differences

    Poor listening skills

    Use of jargon

    Distractions

    Filtering

    Emotions

    Selective

    Perception

    Information

    Overload

    Apprehension

    Language

  • EXERCISE 1

    IN THE COMMUNICATION

    PROCESS-

    HOW MANY

    OPPORTUNITIES ARE

    THERE FOR

    MISCOMMUNICATION ?

  • GAME

    Chinese whisper

  • A. LISTENING

    Hearing Physical process, natural, passive

    Listening Physical as well

    as mental process, active,

    learned process, a skill

    Listening is hard.

    You must choose to participate in the process of listening.

    Hearing Vs Listening

  • Active Listening

    The process of recognizing, understanding, and

    accurately interpreting communicated messages

    and responding to spoken and/or nonverbal

    messages.

    Steps to Effective Listening:

    Hearing

    Interpretation

    Evaluation

    Respond

  • Active Listening Skills

    AcceptanceResponsibility

    Intensity Empathy

    LISTENING EFFECTIVELY Make eye contact.

    Exhibit affirmative nods and

    appropriate facial

    expressions.

    Avoid distracting actions or

    gestures that suggest

    boredom.

    Ask questions.

    Paraphrase using your own

    words.

    Avoid interrupting the

    speaker.

    Dont over-talk.

    Make smooth transitions

    between the roles of

    speaker and listener

  • B. IMPROVING VERBAL COMMUNICATION

    Eliminate Noise

    Get Feedback Verbal & Body Signals

    Speak Slowly & Rephrase your sentence

    Dont Talk down to the other person

    Listen Carefully & Patiently

    Do not interject, wait for the other person to finish speaking

  • C. BODY LANGUAGERemember that you are dealing with PEOPLE

    TYPES OF body language:

    (P)OSTURES & GESTURES How do you use hand gestures? Stance?

    (E)YE CONTACT Hows your Lighthouse?

    (O)RIENTATION How do you position yourself?

    (P)RESENTATION How do you deliver your message?

    (L)OOKS Are your looks, appearance, dress important?

    (E)XPRESSIONS OF EMOTION Are you using facial expressions to express emotion?

  • Exercise 2

    Can u read their body

    language!?

  • IMPROVING BODY LANGUAGE - TIPS

    Keep appropriate distance

    Touch only when appropriate

    Take care of your appearance

    Be aware - people may give false cues

    Maintain eye contact

    Smile genuinely

  • Exercise 3: Need for communication tools/products

    Q1. Why do you need a communication tools?

    Q2. What are the different types of communication tools used in the government /development set up

  • PART 2: COMMUNICATION

    STRATEGY

  • WHAT IS A STRATEGY?

    A plan of action designed to achieve a vision.

    All about gaining a position of advantage over adversaries or best exploiting emerging possibilities.

    A detailed plan for achieving success in situations such as war, politics, business, industry or sport.

  • WHAT IS A COMMUNICATIONS STRATEGY?

    Written document not just in peoples heads

    Collaboration between the project leader(s) and the communications professional(s)

    A reference document against which to judge progress

    Contains clear and measurable objectives

    Identifies relevant audiences

    A plan of activities and a timetable

    Identifies resources financial and people

  • TYPES OF COMMUNICATIONS STRATEGY

    Organisation ideally reviewed annually

    Major, complex, long term project

    A major announcement e.g. new endowment which will fund a scholarship programme

    A big event e.g. a conference

    Building and opening a new building

  • WHY IS A STRATEGY IMPORTANT? Why dont we just get on with it?

    Taking time to agree what you want to achieve

    Plan ahead rather than last minute panic

    Exploit all the channels available to you

    Agree responsibilities

    Identify and seek resources

    Identify risks and plan how to deal with them

    A plan against which to measure success

    A process which helps you learn lessons for the future

  • EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION STRATEGY

    Step 1 Identify objectives

    Step 2 Identify communication needs of the objectives

    Step 3 Select appropriate communication medium

    Step 4 Determine roles & responsibilities of change agents

    Step 5 Evaluate & adjust communication as per change needs

  • A comprehensive communications strategy includes:

    i. Research

    ii. Mission

    iii. Vision

    iv. Aims

    v. Objectives

    vi. Audiences

    vii. Messages

    viii.Channels

    ix. Timing

    x. Resources

    xi. Risks

    xii. Evaluation

  • i. Background research

    What are your objectives?

    Your strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats?

    Learn lessons from previous projects

    Learn lessons from peers and competitors experiences

    Look at past media coverage, event attendance, web visits

    Speak to colleagues experienced and fresh-faced

    Focus groups and surveys among your key audience

  • ii. Mission (purpose) + iii. vision (ambition)

    WWFs Mission is to conserve nature and reduce the most pressing threats to the

    diversity of life on Earth. Our vision is to build a future in which people live in harmony with nature.

    Googles mission is to organize the worlds information and make it universally accessible and useful.

    PricewaterhouseCoopers mission is to deliver a fair and clarified auditing service, in order to improve presentation of financial information.

    University of Oxford Oxfords mission is to provide excellent teaching and conduct excellent

    research Oxfords vision is to be world leading

  • iv. Aims

    Example of Oxford

    Engage and persuade audiences of the value (for money) of an Oxford education and the personal and public benefit that flows from it

    Persuade audiences of Oxfords commitment to improving access and widening participation

    Demonstrate the impact of Oxford research and persuade audiences of the value of public funding for research

  • v. Objectives need to be SMART

    Specific, significant, simple

    Measurable, manageable

    Achievable, agreed, assignable

    Relevant, resourced

    Time bound, trackable

  • Examples:

    Not SMART:

    We need to raise more money.

    SMART:

    We want to raise 5million to set up a fund to create an extra 20 graduate scholarships from October 2014.

    There can be one or more objectives

  • vi. Audiences

    Government, local council

    Your colleagues, the wider University

    Alumni

    Donors

    Future applicants

    Local community: residents, businesses, groups

    Media: local, national, specialist

    Two considerations

    Who holds the keys to success or failure?

    And who influences those people?

    And

    Dont forgot the internal audience e.g. students and colleagues in your department or college, people in your division

  • Categorise your audiences in relation to your situation and your objectives

    Power/influence + interest + supportive your partners in achieving your objectives

    Power/influence + interest + opposed use persuasion and dialogue; accurate coverage of your objectives/views; correct their claims

    Power/influence + not interested capture their attention; enlist the help of your partners

    Use third parties to help persuade and create interest

  • vii. Messages

    What do you want them to know?

    What do you want them to think?

    What do you want them to do?

    Why should I care? How does it affect me?

    Tailor them but avoid contradiction and false promises

    Statistics and case studies

    Third party endorsements

  • Make people sit up and listen

    Example: Oxford offers the most generous bursary package to undergraduate students from the least well offhouseholds

    Inspire action

    We need 5,000 signatures on our petition to the local council to save our library

  • viii. Channels of communication

    Media: local, national, international;print, broadcast, web, social

    Lobbying: local and national government, funding bodies, special interest groupsMarketing:brand, website, advertising, brochures, fliers, video

    Events: conferences, launch events, public speeches, tours of building sites

  • ix. Timing

    Work backwards from your deadline

    Accommodate long lead-in times

    Exploit hooks to attract interest

    Availability of spokespeople and venues

    Coordinate who is told what and when

    Create a timetable of activities

    Monitor timetable and adjust as necessary

  • Timetable

    Insert the due date here

    Insert the due date here

    Insert the due date here

    LobbyingAsk local MP to

    book venueSend out invitations Event in parliament

    MediaIdentify key

    messages and spokespeople

    Propose an interview

    Issue press release

    Publications Design invitation and display boards

    Print the materials Distribute the materials at the

    event

  • x. Resources: people and money

    Who do you ideally need to assist you?

    Who is actually available to assist you?

    What funds do you need?

    What funds do you have?

    Do you need to bid for extra? From whom? When?

    Are there conditions attached to the funding?

    Prioritise, and manage peoples expectations

  • xi. Risks and mitigation

    Identify risks that could prevent you achieving your objectives

    How you will deal with them?

    Identify options a plan A and a plan B

    Prepare lines to take anticipate audiences reaction

    Risk Mitigation options

    A student protest could threaten the success of your event.

    Plan A: Meet with the students in advance to discuss issues.

    Plan B: Change the event date/venue.

  • xii. Evaluation: did you succeed?

    Often neglected

    Did you change understanding, opinion and behaviour?

    How will you measure and will it cost anything?

    Quantitative

    Event attendance, website visitors, donations, column inches

    Qualitative

    Feedback forms, focus groups, key messages in the media

    Wash-up with the project team

  • The written strategy

    Introduction: summary; emphasise added value

    Mission and vision, aims and objectives

    Audiences, messages, channels

    Timetable

    Resources

    Risks and mitigation

    Means of evaluation

    Approvals process

  • The essentials

    One or two clear objectives

    List of key audiences

    Summarise the key activities and dates

    Agree who is doing the work and who will pay

    Still write it down, even if its just a side of A4

  • And finally

    Keep a record of the communications strategy

    Electronic and printed copies of material produced

    Record of quantitative and qualitative evaluation

    Minute the wash-up; record lessons learned

    Keep a contacts list

    Share best practice with peers

    Publicise your success

    Its good PR for our profession!

  • QUESTIONS?

    The most important thing in

    communication is hearing

    what isn't said.

    Peter Drucker