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COMMUNICATIONCommunication is defined as interchange of thoughts, opinions or information, by speech, writing or signs. - Robert Anderson
It is a two way process. it has four specific skills. It is the life blood of the business.
Communication is the process of exchanging information in a way that achieve mutual understanding between two or more people about work related issues. Communication plays a vital role in planning, organizing, directing, and controlling the activities of an organization by the managers. It also helps in motivating people to obtain their willingly cooperation.
ROLES OF COMMUNICATION Better Planning Effective Operations Decision Making Controlling Co-ordination
LEVELS OF COMMUNICATIONThere are two types of communication: Interpersonal Communication
INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONHow do group members transfer meaning between and among each others. There are three basic methods to explain interpersonal communication:
ORAL WRITTEN NON-VERBAL
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATIONIt is the kind of communication which is used in an organization. There are three types of organizational communication. They are: Network Communication Computer Aided Communication Knowledge Management
CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATIONThey are used for achieving the common goals of organization by exchange the ideas continuously.Communication Channel
Formal communication Downward Communication
CONTD Formal Communication communication that follows the official chain of command or is communication required to do ones job
Written and Oral Formal Relation Prescribed Path Organizational Message
TYPES OF FORMAL COMMUNICATIONDownward Communication: flows from managers to employees and is used to inform, direct, coordinate and evaluate employees. Upward Communication: flows from employees to managers in the form of suggestions, feedback. Horizontal Communication: flows between individuals at the same level in the organization.
INFORMAL OR GRAPEVINE COMMUNICATION CHANNELInformal Communication Communication within an organization that is not officially sanctioned
Permits employees to satisfy their needs for social interaction creates alternative, and frequently faster and more efficient, channels of communication
TYPES OF GRAPEVINE CHAINProf. Keith Devis has given the following four types of grapevine chains. 1. Single Strand Chain:A B C D E
B G A
D F E
Probability Chain:B A F C D
I E A B C D
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONProblems/barriers to communication may arise at any of the following levels in a communication process: The senders level The receivers level The transmission level The feedback/reaction level
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION BARRIERSNoise Filtering Selective perception
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION BARRIERS1. Noise:- It means interference that occurs in a signal and prevents us from hearing properly. Filtering:- It is the deliberate manipulation of information to make it appear more favourable to the receiver.
Extent of filtering affected by: the number of vertical levels in the organization culture of the organization
3. Selective Perception :- What the receivers selectively see and hear is influenced by their attitudes, needs, background, and experience. 4. Information Overload :- Information available exceeds processing capacity. Frequent complaint of executives Individuals tend to select out, ignore, pass over information 5. Emotions :- Interpretation of a message gets affected by the way the receiver feels. Extreme emotions likely to hinder effective communication
6. Language :- Meaning of words differs among people with diverse backgrounds. Specialized terminology/jargons may be used by a group Even those who speak the same language may use it quite differently 7. Apprehension :- Apprehension or anxiety may arise in oral communication, written communication or both. High-oral-communication apprehensives distort the communication demands of jobs
8. Cultural Barriers :- In international environment, cultural differences often cause communication problems. There exist four specific problems related to language difficulties in crosscultural communications. Barriers caused by semantics Barriers caused by word connotations Barriers caused by tone differences Barriers caused by differences among perceptions
9. Poor listening :- It causes serious problems in communication. People getting too much involved in their own problems and having their own egos They dont pay attention to the speaker
10. Premature evaluation :- People who have such habits may be irresponsive and jump to conclusions without logical deduction from the objective situation.
OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONSolutionsClarity in Idea Simplify language Proper Channel Practice Empathy Use Feedback Listen actively
OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION1. Clarity in idea :- Senders must clarify the purpose of the message that they want to communicate. 2. Simplify language :- Semantic problems can be solved by using simple language and avoiding connotations. 3. Proper channel :- It is essential for the orderly flow of information. It depends on the requirement of information to be transmitted.
4. Practice empathy :- Put yourself in the recipients shoes. Perceive the problem from recipients point of view. Try to see the recipients values, experiences and frame of reference. 5. Use feedback :- Ask a set of questions about a message to determine whether it was understood as intended. Ask receivers to restate the message in their own words. 6. Listen actively :- Listen carefully to the sender for fully understanding the meaning of his/her message. Restrain premature judgments or interpretations. Enhanced by developing empathy with sender.