computer hardware

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1 9 9 th th Grade Computer Grade Computer Science Rotation Science Rotation Hardware Hardware

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Page 1: Computer  Hardware

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99thth Grade Computer Grade ComputerScience RotationScience Rotation

HardwareHardware

Page 2: Computer  Hardware

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Binary Representation - Bits/BytesBinary Representation - Bits/Bytes Central Processing Unit (CPU)Central Processing Unit (CPU) Input/Output DevicesInput/Output Devices Primary MemoryPrimary Memory Secondary MemorySecondary Memory Virtual MemoryVirtual Memory Baud Rate – Bits per SecondBaud Rate – Bits per Second MotherboardMotherboard

Hardware TermsHardware Terms

Page 3: Computer  Hardware

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Hardware: MotherboardHardware: Motherboard

BIOSROM Chip

Battery

RAMSlots

CPUConnector

AGPSlot

Auxiliary CardConnectors

Page 4: Computer  Hardware

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A starts in the following order:A starts in the following order:

1.1. Power On Self Test (POST)Power On Self Test (POST)

2.2. Load BIOSLoad BIOS

3.3. Load O/SLoad O/S

4.4. Load ApplicationsLoad Applications

Computer Boot ProcessComputer Boot Process

Page 5: Computer  Hardware

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HardwareHardware

A computer consists of five major A computer consists of five major subsystems:subsystems:

1.1. Central processing unitCentral processing unit

2.2. Primary memory - RAMPrimary memory - RAM

3.3. User interface - Input/Output devicesUser interface - Input/Output devices

4.4. Storage devicesStorage devices

5.5. Network connectionNetwork connection

Computer HardwareComputer Hardware

Page 6: Computer  Hardware

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Computer Hardware - SubsystemsComputer Hardware - Subsystems

pf

SPEAKERSSPEAKERS

Microphone

Monitor

Keyboard

CPU

RAM

NETWORK

drivers

drivers

StorageDevices

User Interface

Page 7: Computer  Hardware

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Computer Hardware – CPU/MemoryComputer Hardware – CPU/Memory

SPAsoft - CPU Simulator.url

Page 8: Computer  Hardware

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Computer Hardware – CPU/MemoryComputer Hardware – CPU/Memory

Operating SystemOperating System Microsoft WordMicrosoft Word Internet ExplorerInternet Explorer Microsoft OutlookMicrosoft Outlook

DISK

CPU

RAM

Page 9: Computer  Hardware

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Computer Hardware – Memory/Virtual MemoryComputer Hardware – Memory/Virtual Memory

O/SO/S WordWord ExplorerExplorer OutlookOutlook

Operating System

Internet Explorer

MS Word

CPU

RAM

Internet Explorer

DISK

Outlook

Swapping

Page 10: Computer  Hardware

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Computer Hardware - DisplayComputer Hardware - Display

BitmapBitmap ““PixelsPixels” - Monitor divided into grid of Picture Elements ” - Monitor divided into grid of Picture Elements Image created by displaying a color in each pixel.Image created by displaying a color in each pixel. Refresh RateRefresh Rate – Number of times the screen redraws – Number of times the screen redraws

in one second.in one second. ResolutionResolution = Total number of screen pixels = Total number of screen pixels

• 1024 x 7681024 x 768 is common for most screens is common for most screens

1024 px

768 px

786,432 px

Page 11: Computer  Hardware

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Computer Hardware - ResolutionComputer Hardware - Resolution

Width Height Total px

2288 1712 3,917,056

2288 1520 3,477,760

2048 1536 3,145,728

1600 1200 1,920,000

Page 12: Computer  Hardware

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Computer Hardware - DisplayComputer Hardware - Display

If the computer redraws every pixel on a monitor If the computer redraws every pixel on a monitor ( 1024 columns and 768 rows of pixels) 30 times a ( 1024 columns and 768 rows of pixels) 30 times a second, how many pixels get redrawn every second, how many pixels get redrawn every minute?minute?

a)a) 23,592,96023,592,960

b)b) 1024 x 768 x 301024 x 768 x 30

c)c) 1024 x 768 x 601024 x 768 x 60

d)d) More than one of the aboveMore than one of the above

Answer: 1024 x 768 x 30 x 60 = Answer: 1024 x 768 x 30 x 60 = 1,415,577,600

Page 13: Computer  Hardware

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Computer Hardware - DisplayComputer Hardware - Display

ColorColor Created by combining different amounts of primary Created by combining different amounts of primary

colors Red, Green and Blue (RGB)colors Red, Green and Blue (RGB) Color Depth = Number of bits used to represent the Color Depth = Number of bits used to represent the

color of a single pixel. So…color of a single pixel. So…

• R = 8 bits G = 8 bits B = 8 bitsR = 8 bits G = 8 bits B = 8 bits• 11111111 11111111 1111111111111111 11111111 11111111

• 256 x 256 x 256 = 256 x 256 x 256 = 16,777,216 possible colors16,777,216 possible colors

Color Wheel

Page 14: Computer  Hardware

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Computer Hardware – Modem SpeedComputer Hardware – Modem Speed

Page 15: Computer  Hardware

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Computer Hardware – Modem SpeedComputer Hardware – Modem SpeedBandwidth vs. Download Time

1

10

100

1,000

10,000

100,000

1,000,000

10,000,000

1978

1984

1988

1990

1993

1995

1997

1998

1999

2005

Year

Bits per Second

1.00

10.00

100.00

1000.00

10000.00

100000.00D

ow

nlo

ad T

ime (S

econ

ds)Speed

Black Eyed Peas (download time)

Page 16: Computer  Hardware

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Computer Hardware – DiskComputer Hardware – Disk

FormatFormat – Prepare disk to store data– Prepare disk to store data

TRACK

SECTOR

BAD SECTOR

Page 17: Computer  Hardware

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Computer Hardware – DiskComputer Hardware – Disk

Page 18: Computer  Hardware

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Computer BuildComputer Build

FrontFrontPower Supply

Hard Disk

CD-ROM

Auxiliary cards

TopTop

CPU

Motherboard

Hard Drive

Data Connector

Power Connector

Heat Sink(Cooling)

RAM

Page 19: Computer  Hardware

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Brain vs. ComputerBrain vs. Computer