consonants phonetics

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Describing consonants (phonetics)

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Outline Definition Classification Description Phonemes and Allophones Transcription Allophonic rules

definitionConsonant sounds are the sounds in the production of which two articulators come together so that the airstream is obstructed and can not get out freely.

eg. /p, k, s, t, j/

Speech organs (articulators)

classification24 English consonants are classified according to 3 criteria: Place of articulation Manner of articulation Voicing

place of articulation1. Bilabial (upper lip+lower lip) /b, p, m, w/ 2. Labiodental (lower lip+upper teeth) /v, f/ 3. Dental (tongue+teeth) /D, T/ 4. Alveolar (alveolar ridge+tongue) /d, t, z, s, l, n/

place of articulation5. Palato-alveolar (hard palate+alveolar ridge+tongue) /Z, S, dZ, tS, r/ 6. Palatal (hard palate+tongue) /j/ 7. Velar (soft palate+tongue) /g, k, / 8. Glottal (vocal cords) /h/

manner of articulation1. Plosive (complete closure+sudden release) /b, p, d, t, g, k/ 2. Fricative (narrowing resulting in audible friction) /v, f, z, s, Z, h, D, T, S/ 3. Affricate (closure+low separation) /dZ, tS/

manner of articulation4. Nasal (complete closure+air escape through nose) /m, n, / 5. Lateral (closure in mouth centre+air escape at tongue sides) /l/ 6. Approximant (slight narrowing but not enough to cause friction) /w, j, r/

voicingVoiced b v D d z Z dZ g Voiceless p f T t s S tS k Voiced m n l w j r h Voiceless

classification of consonantsbilabial labio plosive dental alveolar palato- palatal alveolar dental velar glottal

+ b - p + v - f +D -T

+ d - t + z - s + Z -S + dZ - tS

+ g - k - h

fricative

affricate

nasal

+ m

+ n + l

+

lateral approxi mant

+ w

+ r

+ j

Description of consonants1.Plosives 2.Fricatives 3.Affricates 4. Nasals 5. Laterals 6. Approximants

plosives Features Stages of plosives Description

features of plosives Place of articulation Force of articulation Aspiration Voicing

place of articulation /p, b/: bilabial /t, d/: alveolar /k, g/: velar

force of articulationmore muscular energy, stronger breath

/p, t, k/

/b, d, g/ less muscular energy, weaker breath

FORTIS

LENIS

ASPIRATIONVoiceless plosives /p, t, k/ in syllable-initial position

ASPIRATED

voicingVoiced plosives /b, d, g/ in word-medial position between voiced sounds

FULL VOICED

THREE STAGES OF PLOSIVES Closing stage: articulating organs move together to form obstruction Compression stage: air compressed behind closure Release stage: compressed air escapes abruptly

description of bilabial plosivessoft palate raised, nasal resonator shut off, closure by lips

lung air compressed vocal folds wide apart: /p/ vocal folds vibrating: /b/

lip closure released, air escaped

/p, b/

description of alveolar plosivessoft palate raised, nasal resonator shut off, closure by tip and rims of tongue, upper alveolar ridge and side teeth

lung air compressed vocal folds wide apart: /t/ vocal folds vibrating: /d/

alveolar closure suddenly separated, air escaped

/t, d/

description of velar plosivessoft palate raised, nasal resonator shut off closure by back of tongue and soft palate

lung air compressed vocal folds wide apart: /k/ vocal folds vibrating: /g/

linguo-velar closure suddenly separated, air escaped

/k, g/

description of glottal plosivevocal folds closed silence no vibration of vocal cords vocal folds suddenly separated, air pressure below glottis released eg. Its empty. / /

fricatives

Features Description

features of fricatives

Place of articulation Force of articulation Voicing

place of articulation /f, v/: labiodental /D, T/: dental /s, z/: alveolar /Z, S/: palato-alveolar /h/: glottal

force of articulationmore muscular energy, stronger breath

/f, T, s, S/

/v, D, z, less muscular energy, Z/ weaker breath

FORTIS

LENIS

voicingVoiced fricatives /v, D, z, Z/ between voiced sounds

FULL VOICED

description of labiodental fricativessoft palate raised, nasal resonator shut off closure by inner surface of lower lip and edge of upper teeth

lung air compressed, friction voiceless: /f/ voiced: /v/

air released

/f, v/

description of dental fricativessoft palate raised, nasal resonator shut off closure by tip and rims of tongue and edge, inner surface of upper front teeth and upper side teeth

air causes friction voiceless: / T / voiced: /D/

air released

/T,

description of alveolar fricativessoft palate raised, nasal resonator shut off closure by blade of tongue and upper alveolar ridge, side rims of tongue and upper side teeth

air causes friction between tongue and alveolar ridge voiceless: /s/; voiced: /z/

air released

/s, z/

description of palato-alveolar fricativessoft palate raised, nasal resonator shut off closure by tip and blade of tongue and alveolar ridge, side rims of tongue and upper side teeth front of tongue raised

friction between extensive area of tongue and roof of mouth voiceless: /S/; voiced: /Z/ air released

/S,

description of glottal fricative /h/ Only in syllable-initial, prevocalic positions Voiceless

no closure

air expelled from lung with considerable pressure

friction throughout vocal tract

features of affricates

beginning as plosives but ending as fricatives the plosive and the fricative being homorganic eg. church /tS : tS/ (but breakfast)

description of palato-alveolar affricatessoft palate raised, nasal resonator shut off, closure by tip, blade and rims of tongue, upper alveolar ridge and side teeth front of tongue raised

closure released slowly, friction between blade of tongue and alveolar palatal of roof of mouth voiceless /tS/; voiced /dZ/

/tS,

nasals

Features Description

features of nasals

Total closure within the mouth at some point, air escaped into nasal cavity No audible friction is produced nasals are voiced

description of bilabial nasallips closed, mouth chamber closed, soft palate lowered

resonance of nasal cavity added to those of pharynx

air released

/ m/

description of alveolar nasalclosure by tongue, tip ridge and upper side teeth, soft palate lowered

resonance of nasal cavity added to those of pharynx and that part of mouth chamber

air released

/n/

description of velar nasalclosure by back of tongue and velum, soft palate lowered

resonance of nasal cavity added to those of pharynx and that part of mouth chamber

air released * Only after /I, e, {, , /

//

description of lateral /l/Clear /l/ & Dark /l/soft palate raised, nasal resonators shut off, closure by tip of tongue and upper teeth ridge

air escaped on both sides

CLEAR /l/before vowel and /j/: look front of tongue raised towards hard palate, front vowel resonance

DARK /l/other positions: feel front of tongue depressed, back raised towards soft palate, back vowel resonance

approximants

Palato-alveolar approximant /r/ Bilabial approximant /w/ Palatal approximant /j/

description of palato-alveolar approximant soft palate raised, nasal resonator shut off, tip of tongue held near to but not touching rear part of upper teeth ridge, central part of tongue lowered

airstream escapes without friction

/r/

description of bilabial approximant /w/soft palate raised, vocal folds vibrate tongue in position for back close-mid to close vowel, moving away immediately to position of following sound

eg. weather. which, twin

description of palatal approximant /j/tongue in position for close-mid to close vowel front, moving away immediately to position of following sound

eg. yawn, senior, use

Phonemes & allophones

PHONEMES Definition the smallest segment of sound that can distinguish two words ideal object Features abstract limited (44)

ALLOPHONES different realisations of the same phoneme

physical manifestations real and concrete unlimited

Difference between Difference between phonemes is functional allophones is phonetic difference. Example cat & bat cat & cot difference. speak & pick note & teeth

transcription

Broad transcription Narrow transcription

BROAD TRANSCRIPTION

NARROW TRANSCRIPTION

A transcription that uses A transcription that shows a simple set of symbols. more phonetic details by using more specific symbols, or by representing some allophonic differences. Also called phonemic transcription Consists of phonemic symbols between two slanting lines peak /pi:k/ Also called phonetic transcription Consists of phonemic symbols and diacritics between two square brackets peak [phi:k]

20 Allophonic rules

rule 1-voiced +stop /p,t,k/ when syllable-initial +aspirated

eg. pipped: [phipot] testy: [th sti]

rule 2Obstruents = plosives + fricatives/b, d, g, v, D, Z, z/

+voiced +obstruent

when syllable-final except when followed by a voiced sound

partially voiced

eg. try to improve but bad girl

rule 3+consonantal when at end of phrase longer

eg. bib, did

rule 4+approximant /w, r, j/ after [+aspirated, +plosive] -voiced

eg. twin [twoin] cue [kjou]

rule 5-voiced +plosive /p, t, k/eg. spew [spoju:] stew [stoju:]

after /s/ at the beginning -aspirated of a syllable

rule 6before voiceless sounds in the same syllable

+vowel

shorter

eg. cap /k{p/ but cab /k{b/ back /b{k/ but bag /b{g/

rule 7-voiced at end of syllable

longer

eg. cap /k{p/ but cab /k{b/ back /b{k/ but bag /b{g/

rule 8+plosive /p,b,t, d,k,g/eg. apt [{pot] act [{kot] but ape /eIp/

before [+plosive]

unexploded

rule 9-voiced +plosive /p,t,k/ after vowel and at end of syllable +glottal plosive -voiced +plosiveeg. tip [ti p] pit [pi t] kick [ki k]

rule 10-voiced +alveolar +plosive /t/eg. beaten [bi n] but beaten [bi:tn]

before nasal in same word

+glottal plosive

rule 11+nasal /m,n, / at end of word and after obstruents +syllabic

eg. garden /ga:dn/ chasm /k{zm/ but film /fIlm/

rule 12+lateral /l/ at end of word and after another consonant +syllabic

eg. paddle /p{dl/ channel /tS{nl/ but file /faIl/

rule 13-voiced +alveolar +plosive /t/eg. fatty /f{ri/ (AE) but /f{ti/ (BE) data /deI [email protected]/ (AE) but /deI [email protected]/ (BE)

between stressed vowel and unstressed syllable

-voiced +tap

rule 14+alveolar /d,t,z,s, n,l/ before dental (D,T)

+dental

eg. sixth [sIksT] wealth [welT] but well /wel/

rule 15Front vowel: /I, i:, e, {/+velar /g,k,/eg. cat /k{t/ kept /kept/ give /gIv/

before more front vowel

more front

rule 16+lateral /l/ after vowel and before another velarised consonant or end of word

eg. file /faIl/ but life /laIf/ talc /t{lk/ but lack /l{k/

rule 17in open syllable

+vowel

longer

eg. see /si:/ but seed /si:d/

rule 18in stressed syllable

+vowel

longer

eg. cite /saIt/ but citation /saI'teISFn/

rule 19before nasal /m,n,/

+vowel

+nasal

eg. ban/b{n/ but bag /b{g/

rule 20+front +vowel before syllable-final /l/

retracted

eg. heel /hi:l/ but heed /hi:d/ pail /peIl/ but paid /peId/

outline Definition Classification Description Phonemes and Allophones Transcription Allophonic rules

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