cooking methods dry-heat cooking, moist heat cooking, and combination cooking

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COOKING METHODS DRY-HEAT COOKING, MOIST HEAT COOKING, AND COMBINATION COOKING

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  • Slide 1
  • COOKING METHODS DRY-HEAT COOKING, MOIST HEAT COOKING, AND COMBINATION COOKING
  • Slide 2
  • EACH METHOD OF COOKING CAN BE USED TO BRING OUT THE FLAVOR & TENDERNESS OF SPECIFIC DISHES. Method can reflect regional & cultural preferences.
  • Slide 3
  • Heat Transfer when 2 items of different temps have contact, energy in the form of heat transfers from the warmer item to the cooler until they both reach the same temp. Conduction the transfer of heat from one item to another when the items come into direct contact with each other. Can be conducted through the air from surface to surface. (Deck oven) Convection transfer of heat cause by the movement of molecules (in the air, water, or fat) from a warmer area to a cooler one.(stove top,convection oven) Radiation does not require physical contact between the heat source and the food being cooked. Instead, heat moves by way of microwave & infrared waves.
  • Slide 4
  • DRY HEAT COOKING Food is cooked either by direct heat, like on a grill, or by indirect heat in a closed environment, like an oven. Any food cooked using dry heat must be naturally tender or prepared by adding moisture.
  • Slide 5
  • Adding Moisture Barding wrapping an item with strips of fat before cooking to baste the meat, making it more moist. Larding Inserting long, thin strips of fat into a large, naturally lean piece of meat with a special needle before cooking to baste the meat from the inside. Marinating Soaking an item in a combination of wet and dry ingredients to provide flavor and moisture.
  • Slide 6
  • Dry Heat Cooking Without Fat Broiling rapid cooking method that uses high heat from a source located above the food. Browns the top of food. Cheesy items, young tender cuts of meat & poultry, fish, and some fruits & veggies. Grilling excellent for cooking small pieces of food. Food is cooked on a grill rack above the heat source. As the fat drips, the smoke helps provide the charred flavor. Marinated is a method to keep the food moist. Roasting & baking techniques that cook food by surrounding the items with hot, dry air in the oven. As the outer layers of the food become heated, the foods natural juices turn to steam & are absorbed into the food. These juices create a natural sauce. Usually requires longer cooking times & used with large cuts of meat, whole birds, or fish, potatoes, items needing a browned appearance.
  • Slide 7
  • DRY HEAT COOKING WITH FAT STIR FRY Closely related to saute. It is a quick-cooking, dry heat method. Cooked over very high heat, generally in a wok with a little fat and stirred quickly. Sauce is often created in pan after product has been sauted. PAN-FRYING cooked in oil over less intense heat than that used for sauting or stir-frying. Many times you coat the food with batter, season w flour, or breading first. The hot oil seals the foods coated surface & locks the natural juices inside, instead of releasing them. The oil should be deep enough to come halfway up the side of the food being cooked. Crisp outside w juicy interior.
  • Slide 8
  • DEEP-FRY bread or batter coat it, immerse complety in hot fat and fry until its done. Batter combines dry & wet ingredients. Breading: Read standard breading procedures on pg 329. The float of the item is the point when the item rises to the surface of the oil and appears golden brown to indicate doneness. Check doneness of item. 3 methods for deep frying food: 1) Swimming Method gently drop a breaded or batter-coated food in hot oil where it falls to the bottom of the fryer and then swims to the surface. Once it reaches surface, turn it over to brown other side. 2) Basket Method bread food, place in basket, lower basket in oil, and lift out w/ the basket when food is done. 3) Double-Method Basket Put food in basket & place another basket on top to keep the items from floating to the surface. Recovery time the amount of time it takes oil to reheat to correct cooking temperature once food is added. Smoking Point the temp in which fats and oils begin to smoke, which means the fat has begun to break down. Need oil w a neutral flavor and high smoking point, around 425.
  • Slide 9
  • MOIST HEAT COOKING METHOD PRODUCE FOOD THAT IS DELICATELY FLAVORED & MOIST, SOMETIMES W A RICH BROTH, WHICH CAN BE SERVED AS A SEPARATE COURSE OR USED AS A SAUCE BASE. ENTIRE DINNERS CAN BE COOKED IN ONE POT.
  • Slide 10
  • MOIST HEAT COOKING METHODS Simmering Poaching and shallow Poaching Blanching Steaming
  • Slide 11
  • SIMMERING Completely submerge food in a liquid that is at a constant, moderate temperature. Use well-flavored liquid & cuts of meat that are less tender than those recommended for dry-heat cooking methods. Simmering less tender items cooks them at a slightly higher temperature than other moist-heat methods, 185-205 degrees. Simmering is different from boiling. Bubbles barely break the surface. POACHING Cook food between 160 degrees and 180 degrees. Surface of the poaching liquid should show some motion, but no air bubbles should break the surface. Use well-flavored liquid, and make sure the food is naturally tender. Chicken & seafood Shallow Poaching combination of steam & liquid bath. A last- minute cooking method best suited to food thats cut into portion- sized or smaller pieces. Food is partially covered by a liquid, usually containing an acid, herbs, & spices in a covered pan. Paupiettes commonly used to shallow poach. (VIDEO!!!!!)
  • Slide 12
  • More Moist Heat Methods BLANCHING Partially cook food and then finish it later. Often used to pre-prepare veggies. Brings out the bright green color in veggies. Bring water to boil. Boil food for a shot times. Shock it in ice water. Drain the item and hold until its time for finishing. STEAMING Cooking food by surrounding it in steam in a confined space such as a steamer basket, steamer cabinet, or combi-oven. Direct contact with the steam cooks the food. Can steam with or without pressure. Can place food in a basket over boiling water. With steam, no browning can occur, so food appears pale. Creates mild, delicate flavors. Cooking time is longer with steaming than w boiling or simmering.
  • Slide 13
  • COMBINATION- COOKING METHODS A combination of dry-heat and moist-heat cooking methods. Combination-cooking can transform less tender & less expensive main ingredients into delicious & tender finished products.
  • Slide 14
  • BRAISING PRIMARILY USED FOR LARGER CUTS OF MEAT BRAISING FIRST SEAR THE FOOD ITEMI NHOT OIL, AND THEN PARTIALLY COVER IT IN ENOUGH LIQUID TO COME HALFWAY UP THE FOOD ITEM. Then cover the pot or pan tightly, and finish the food slowly in the oven or on the stovetop until it is tender. A bed of seasoning adds moisture and flavor. Can add vegetables to braised meat or chicken near end of cooking time. As meat cooks, its flavor is released into the cooking liquid which becomes the sauce. Long and slow is the key to braising. Meat should fall apart.
  • Slide 15
  • About Braising Braising causes the connective tissue of lean meat to become fork tender and well done. More tender food requires less cooking fluid and can be heated at lower temps for a shorter time. Very few nutrients are lost with braising. Braised food that is finished in the oven is less likely to be scorched than food that is finished on the stovetop. Braised food should be extremely tender.
  • Slide 16
  • Braising Techniques Daube: Usually made with red meat, often beef, vegetables, red wine, and seasoning. The main item is often marinated before braising. Estouffade Refers to both the braising method and the dish itself (a beef stew made with red wine). Pot Roasting A common American term for braising as well as the name of the traditional dish.
  • Slide 17
  • STEWING Similar to braising but the pre-preparation is a little different. Cut the main food item into bite-sized pieces, and either blanch or sear them. As with braising, cook the food in oil first, and then add liquid. Stewing requires more liquid than braising. Cover the food completely while it is simmering.
  • Slide 18
  • OTHER COOKING METHODS SOUS VIDE food is cooked for a long time; sometimes cooked well over 24 hours. French word for under vacuum. Instead of using a slow cooker, food is put in airtight bags in water that is hot but well below boiling point.It cooks food using precisely controlled heating, at the temperature it should be served. Temperatures are measured in tenths of a degree. Locks in all of the flavor molecules in the vacuum seal. The flavor intensifies and is improved.
  • Slide 19
  • Other Cooking Methods Microwave Cooking Cooks food with waves of energy or radiation rather than heat. Foods can become tough or rubbery. Alters or denatures protein cuasing it to toughen. Cant brown something in microwave. (like steaming or poaching) Never use brown grocery bags, newspaper, metal, or foil in the microwave!
  • Slide 20
  • Determining Doneness Has the food reached its desired texture? Has it reached the minimum internal temperature it needs to be safe?
  • Slide 21
  • Stews seen in classical European cooking Bouillabaisse Mediterranean fish stew combining a variety of fish & shellfish. Fricassee white stew, often made from veal, poultry, or small game. Goulash originated in Hungary and is made from beef, veal, or poultry, seasoned with paprika, and generally served with potatoes or dumplings. Ragout This French term for stew that means restores the appetite.
  • Slide 22
  • Read purple box on page 336 About Braising
  • Slide 23
  • Classwork: READ PAGE 341 Answer the review questions of page 343. Group work: Page 344, Number 1
  • Slide 24
  • MOLECULAR GASTRONOMY SPHERIFICATION FOAMS FLASH-FREEZING MEAT GLUE Ell-Bulli in Spain WD 50 in New York