cooperation between research institutes and local governments

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  • COOPERATION BETWEEN RESEARCH INSTITUTES & LOCAL GOVERNMENTS

    ICLEI World Congress Seoul, South Korea April 9, 2015 ANI DASGUPTA, GLOBAL DIRECTOR, WRI ROSS CENTER FOR SUSTAINABLE CITIES, WORLD RESOURCES INSTITUTE (WRI)

    Photo : Andrew Stokols

  • Sources: Land use and emissions, UN-HABITAT. Infrastructure needs, Resilient Cities. Air pollution and traffic fatalities, WHO; IEA. 2008. World Energy Outlook 2008. Paris: International Energy Agency; Communitas Coalition, 2014. Universal Access to Affordable Housing. CO2 figure: UN-HABITAT

    >70% OF ENERGY-RELATED

    CO2 EMISSIONS

    3.7 M ANNUAL PREMATURE AIR

    POLLUTION DEATHS

    1.2 M ANNUAL TRAFFIC

    FATALITIES

    +2.5 billion people, a 63% increase EXPECTED INCREASE IN URBAN POP. BY 2050

    2

    THE URBAN CHALLENGE Risky business-as-usual

  • Source: OECD Environmental Outlook 2050, World Economic Forum, Infrastructure figure Global Infrastructure Basel. Photo by Andreas/Flickr

    THE URBAN POTENTIAL A window of opportunity to get cities right

    80% CITIES SHARE OF GLOBAL GDP

    $5 TRILLION ANNUAL GLOBAL INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT NEEDED OVER NEXT 20 YEARS

    75% OF THE INFRASTRUCTURE IN 2050 YET TO BE BUILT

    3

  • Urban population +70%

    GHG Emissions +65%

    Traffic deaths +180%

    Land area +500%

    0%

    100%

    200%

    300%

    400%

    500%

    600%

    2010 2020 2030 2040 2050

    Percentage Change Expected from 2010

    CURRENT TRENDS ARE UNSUSTAINABLE

    Sources -- Urban population: NCE. 2014. Cities paper on Transformative Urban Growth; Prosperity: MGI. 2011. Mapping Our Urban World; GHG Emissions: Global GHG Calculator. 2014; Land area: Scientific American. 2012; Traffic deaths and injuries: WHO. 2013. Linear projection from Global Status Report on Road Safety data.

    4

    Cities are key to global sustainability.

    Cities needed to meet a 2-degree scenario to address climate change.

  • Photo: Asian Development Bank/Flickr

    WE NEED SOLUTIONS, BUT ALSO KNOWLEDGE OF HOW TO IMPLEMENT THEM

    Institutions Partnerships Financing

    5

    HOW DO WE CHANGE COURSE? Towards livability, productivity, sustainability

  • NEED FOR BOTH SCALE AND CUSTOMIZATION

    Visuals: BRTData.org, T. Policanti/EMBARQ Mexico

    Scaling for GLOBAL impact

    LOCAL customization

    6

  • PARTNERSHIPS

    Source: WRI

    The key to delivering both LOCAL and GLOBAL impact

    Global platforms like city networks (ICLEI, C40) allow rapid scaling of solutions and knowledge sharing

    Scaling for GLOBAL Impact

    Working with city governments, local businesses, bus driver unions, planners for 10+ years in key cities

    Customized LOCAL Solutions

    Mexico City DF

    7

  • BUS RAPID TRANSIT: THE ROLE OF SCALING AND CUSTOMIZING

    Photo: Tas Polican7/EMBARQ Mexico

    8

  • 0"

    40"

    80"

    120"

    160"

    200"

    0"

    5"

    10"

    15"

    20"

    25"

    1965" 1970" 1975" 1980" 1985" 1990" 1995" 2000" 2005" 2010"

    Cum

    ulativ

    e Nu

    mbe

    r of C

    ities"

    New

    Citie

    s"NUMBER OF CITIES WITH BUS PRIORITY SYSTEMS

    Partners:

    2000: Bogot (TransMilenio)"

    1974: Curitiba"1968: Lige"

    Source: BRTData.org, February 2015. City counted at start year for bus system.

    2007: Istanbul BRT"

    2009: Ahmedabad BRT"

    2002: Mexico City"

    9

    .org

  • Source: WRI

    HOW DID THIS HAPPEN?

    High-profile successes

    Knowledge sharing

    Conferences

    National funding mechanisms

    10

  • Source: BRTData.org, WRI

    Guangzhou, China

    BRT IN 190 CITIES AROUND THE WORLD

    iBus-Indore, India Ahmedabad, India Bogota, Colombia

    Mexico City, Mexico

    11

  • MEXICO CITYS METROBUS

    Photo: WRI

    12

  • Photo: Mexico City

    19 million people 22 million trips per day 4,000 deaths per year due to pollution No coordinated transport policy at the

    federal, state, and municipal levels

    MEXICO CITY, 2002 13

  • FORMING A PARTNERSHIP

    Source: EMBARQ Mexico

    WRI partners with Mexico City, Ministry of Environment to find solutions to citys pollution and transport problems

    2002: Center for Sustainable Transport (now EMBARQ Mexico) formed

    WRI performs research, financial analyses, arranges site visits for city officials to view existing BRT systems in Curitiba and Bogota

    14

  • Source: EMBARQ Mexico, Dario Hidalgo

    BRINGING PRIVATE SECTOR ON BOARD

    Individual owners of minibuses initially oppose new BRT

    Government negotiates with microbus owners to consolidate into a single company

    EMBARQ Mexico supports this process: technical assistance financial calculations

    15

  • Photo Source: EMBARQ Mexico

    Coalition convinces Secretary of Transport and Mayor of Mexico City of the feasibility of BRT

    2005: First 20 km line of BRT system (called Metrobs) unveiled on a primary arterial road in Mexico City

    SUPPORTING LOCAL GOVERNMENTS 16

  • METROBUS TODAY

    Source: EMBARQ Mexico

    1 million daily ridership 5 lines in service, 6th in

    construction, 7th announced

    Integrated system connects to existing metro network

    122,000 tons of CO2 reduced annually

    Reduced vehicle accidents by 20%

    17

  • GLOBAL PLATFORMS FOR SCALING SOLUTIONS Global Protocol for Community-scale Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GPC)

    18

  • FRAMEWORK

    GPC is the first, global standard to consistently measure city-level emissions.

    - Accounting - Reporting - City-wide

    Source: WRI

    19

  • WHY GPC?

    Source: World Energy Outlook

    Different types of measurements

    Account for only a portion of emissions

    Unclear if targets will be met

    Incomplete data limits investment

    Unable to relate to national

    climate action

    WITHOUT GPC

    One measurement Consistently account for all

    emissions

    Emissions trajectory will understood

    Good data drives investment

    Can measure citys contribution to national action

    WITH GPC

    20

  • LEAD AUTHORS

    Over 30 years experience in promoting sustainability worldwide

    Represent 70 mega and innovative cities across the globe

    Represent >1,200 local governments across the globe

    21

  • Photo Source: EMBARQ Brasil

    GOVERNANCE PROCESS

    Advisory Committee Transparent Trials Pilot cities selected

    from all over the world Rio de Janeiro

    (pictured) becomes one of first cities to implement standards

    22

  • October 2011 Launched GHGP City Project

    Year 2 (2013): 60+ cities use GPC to measure emissions

    Year One (2012) Launched GPC Pilot Version 1.0

    100+ cities adopt GPC

    Year 3 (2014): Publish GPC Final Version, Convene 100 cities to adopt the GPC

    HOW DID WE GET HERE? 23

  • TESTED IN PILOT CITIES + WIDELY ENDORSED

    Photo: Juliana Swenson/The Climate Group

    Tested and scaled in 35 cities on 6 continents

    24

    Endorsed by the Compact of Mayors

  • CONSISTENLY CREATING SYSTEMATIC KNOWLEDGE

    Photo; Andrew Stokols, Pictured: Seoul Dongdaemun Design Plaza

    solutions evaluate adapt

    re-evaluatescale

    25

    PARTNERSHIPS =

    SUSTAINABLE LOCAL SOLUTIONS

  • CONSISTENLY CREATING SYSTEMATIC KNOWLEDGE

    Photo; Andrew Stokols, Pictured: Seoul Dongdaemun Design Plaza

    26

    PARTNERSHIPS =

    SUSTAINABLE LOCAL SOLUTIONS

    Join us!