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    A Rigorous Simulation Based Study of Gate

    Misalignment Effects in Gate Engineered

    Double-Gate (DG) MOSFEs

     A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF

     THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

    Master of TechnologyIn

    VLSI Design and EmbeddedSystems

    By: 

    SANTUNU SARANGI 

    Roll No. 211EC2111

    Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringNational Institute of Technology

    Rourela! "rissa! India#$%&

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    I

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    A Rigorous Simulation Based Study of Gate

    Misalignment Effects in Gate Engineered

    Double-Gate (DG) MOSFEs

     A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF

     THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

    Master of TechnologyIn

    VLSI Design and EmbeddedSystems

    By:

    SANTUNU SARANGI

    Roll No. 211EC2111

    !nder t"e guidance of 

    Prof. (Dr.) P.K. TIWARI

    Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringNational Institute of Technology

    Rourela! "rissa! India#$%&

    II

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     This is to certify that the Thesis Report entitled 'A Rigorous Simulation Based S To the best of my no+ledge! the matter embodied in the thesis has not been submi

    3

    DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND

    COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

     NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, ROURKELA

    ORISSA, INDIA-769008

    #ER$F$#AE

    %lace& Rour'ela

    Date& rd

    une* +,%rof. (Dr.) %. /. $0AR$

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    4

    Dep!

    "# E!C!E

     N$%"&$'

    I&(%)e "#

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    R")./e'$ 769008

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     ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

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     This thesis is dedicated to

    the li.ing memories of my fatherLate 1rundaban Sarangi

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     TABLE OF CONTENTS

    ACKNOLEDGEMENT !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! I

    INDE@ OF FIGUREG!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!>

    INDE@ OF TA:LES! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! >III

    ACRONYMS !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! I@ 

    A:STRACT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! @I

    % INTRODUCTION!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!%

    %/% M"S2ET and its scaling3 4 5istorical  6erspecti.e!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!%

    %/# ".er.ie+ of M"S2ETs!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!#

    %/& M"S2ET operation!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!7

    %/&/% Metal  "8ide Semiconductor structure!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!7

    %/&/# M"S2ET structure and channel  formation!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!7

    %/7 M"S2ET scaling!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!9

    %/: Reasons for M"S2ET scaling!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!;

    %/9 Scaling problems!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!;

    %/9/% 5igher subthreshold conduction!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!<

    %/9/# Increased gate-o8ide leaage!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!%$

    %/9/& Increased =unction leaage!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!%$%/9/7 Lo+er output resistance!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!%%

    %/9/: Lo+er transconductance!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!%%

    %/9/9 Interconnect capacitance!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!%%

    %/9/; 5eat production!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!%%

    %/9/> 6rocess .ariations!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!%#

    %/9/< Modeling challenges!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!%#

    %/;  Technology 1oosters3 Solution to Scaling!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!%#

    %/;/% Channel  Engineering Techni*ues!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!%#

    %/;/# ?ate Engineering Techni*ues!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!%7

    %/>  Thesis "b=ecti.es!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!%9

    %/< Moti.ation!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! %9

    %/%$  Thesis "utline!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! %;

    # LITERATURE REVIEW!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!%>

    #/% Double gate M"S2ETs!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!%>

    #/# ?ate engineered D? M"S2ETs!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!#$

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    >II

    #/& 4d.antages of D? M"S2ETs!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!#%

    #/7 Challenges of D? M"S2ETs!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!#%

    #/: ?ate misalignment of D? M"S2ETs!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!#%

    #/9 E@ect of misalignment3 past +ors!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!##

    & SIMULATION METHODOLOGY!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!#9

    &/% Introduction!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! #9

    &/# Structure De)nition!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!#9

    &/#/% Asing The Command Language To De)ne 4 Structure!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!#9

    &/& De)ning material  parameters and models!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!#<

    &/&/% Specifying Contact Characteristics!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!#<

    &/&/# Specifying Material  6roperties!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    Semiconductor! Insulator!  or Conductor!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    7 DEVICE STRUCTURE & SIMULATION!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!&:

    7/%  The De.ice Structure!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!&:

    7/# Model  used for simulation!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!&9

    : RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!&>

    :/% Introduction!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! &>

    :/# Surface potential !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!&>

    :/&  Threshold .oltage!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!77

    :/7 Drain induced barrier lo+ering BDI1L!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!7:

    :/: Sub threshold slope!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!7;

    :/9 Sub threshold current!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!7>

    :/; Ma8imum drain current!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!:%

    :/>  Tranconductance!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!:#

    :/< "utput Conductance!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!:&

    9 CONCLUSION!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! :;

    9/% 6erformance 4nalysis!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!:;

    9/# Scope of 2uture +or!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!:;

    RE2ERENCE/!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! :>

    6A1LIC4TI"NS/!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 97

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    8

    INDEX OF FIGURES

    F%).e !!B F%.( IC #$.%*$e2 ;$ L$(( 2e5e'"pe& .")p $ F$%.*+%'2 C".p!  4 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !#

    F%).e !!B T.$&(%(". I&e.$%"& "& C+%p 2%(p'$%& M"".e( L$1!  !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!#

    F%).e !!B C."(( (e*%"&$' 5%e1 "# *"&5e&%"&$' )'/ MOSFET 7 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!&

    F%).e !3!B Me$'-"%2e-(e%*"&2)*". (.)*).e( "& p-pe (%'%*"& 7 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!7

    F%).e !3!B C+$&&e' #".$%"& %& &-*+$&&e' MOSFET 7 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!:

    F%).e !6!B S+.%&/%& $e 'e&+ 1%+ "# (*$'%&!  $.%$%"& "# $*/ ().#$*e p"e&%$'  1%+  '$e.$'  2%.e*%"&  "#   SMDG    = 

    MOSFET (.)*).e!  !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! &<

    F%).e !!B >$.%$%"& "# #."& ().#$*e p"e&%$'  1%+  '$e.$'  2%.e*%"&  "#   SMDG    = 

    MOSFET (.)*).e!  !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! &<

    F%).e !!3B >$.%$%"& "# $*/ ().#$*e p"e&%$' 1%+  '$e.$'  2%.e*%"&  "#   DMDG  ,

    φ  M = 4!6 e> = MOSFET (.)*).e $.%$%"& "# #."& ().#$*e p"e&%$' 1%+  '$e.$'  2%.e*%"&  "#   DMDG   ,

    φ  M = 4!6 e> = MOSFET (.)*).e $.%$%"& "# $*/ ().#$*e p"e&%$' 1%+  '$e.$'  2%.e*%"&  "#   TMDG    ,

    φ  M = 4!6 e> ,φ  M 3 = 4!4e>

    = MOSFET (.)*).e  !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!7:

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    9

    F%).e  !3!B  T+.e(+"'2  5"'$e  5$.%$%"&  1%+  $e  %($'%&e&  #".   SMDG  < φ MA = 4!8 e> =, 

    DMDG    ,φ M =  4!6  e>  = $&2  TMDG    ,φ M = 4!6 e> ,φ M 3 = 4!4e>

    =  MOSFET  (.)*).e(  #".   V ds =  > !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!7:

    F%).e !4!B DI:L 5$.%$%"&  1%+  $e  %($'%&e&  "#   SMDG    =,  DMDG <

    φ  M A = 4!8 e> ,φ  M = 4!6 e> = $&2 TMDG ,φ  M = 4!6 e> ,φ  M 3 = 4!4 e> = MOSFET (.)*).e(

    !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    7;

    F%).e !!B S)+.e(+"'2 ('"pe 5$.%$%"&  1%+  $e  %($'%&e&  SMDG    =,  DMDG <

    φ  M A = 4!8 e> ,φ  M = 4!6 e> = $&2 TMDG ,φ  M = 4!6 e> ,φ  M 3 = 4!4 e> =MOSFET (.)*).e( !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!7>

    F%).e !6!B S)+.e(+"'2 2.$%&-*)..e& 5$.%$%"&  1%+  $e  5"'$e  #".   SMDG    = 

    MOSFET (.)*).e!  !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! :$

    F%).e !6!B S)+.e(+"'2 2.$%&-*)..e& 5$.%$%"&  1%+ $e  5"'$e  #".   DMDG 

    φ  M = 4!6 e> = MOSFET (.)*).e φ  M 3 = 4!4 e> = MOSFET (.)*).e

    ,φ  M 3 = 4!4e>

    = MOSFET (.)*).e(!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!:%

    F%).e !8!B M$%) .$&(*"&2)*$&*e  = $&2 TMDG ,φ  M = 4!6e>

    ,φ  M 3 = 4!4e>

    = MOSFET (.)*).e(!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!:#

    F%).e !9!B O)p)  *"&2)*$&*e  = MOSFET (.)*).e $ (").*e (%2e %($'%&e&!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!::

    F%).e !9!B O)p)  *"&2)*$&*e 

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    0

    φ  M = 4!6 e> ,φ  M 3 = 4!4 e> = MOSFET (.)*).e $ (").*e (%2e %($'%&e&!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!:9

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    INDEX OF TABLES

     Table 7/#/%3 De5%*e p$.$ee.( )(e2 #". (%)'$%"& !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!&;

    T$'e !!B Re%"& 1%(e 'e&+ "# +e *+$&&e' $&2 *"%&$%"&( "# #."&-$*/ $e e$' 1"./- #)&*%"&( $ 2%##e.e& %($'%&e& 'e&+( #". DMDG MOSFET

    !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    7%

    T$'e !!B M%&%) ().#$*e p"e&%$',  $e $&2 .e%"& .e(p"&(%'e #". +.e(+"'2 5"'$e "# DMDG 

    MOSFET $ 2%##e.e& %($'%&e& 'e&+

    !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    7%

    T$'e !!3B Re%"& 1%(e #."& $&2 $*/ $e e$' 1"./-#)&*%"& *"%&$%"&( $ 2%##e.e& 

    %($'%&e& 'e&+ #". TMDG MOSFET (.)*).e

    !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    7&

    T$'e !!4BT+e %&%) ().#$*e p"e&%$' .e(p"&(%'e #". +.e(+"'2 5"'$e "# TMDG MOSFET $ 

    2%##e.e& %($'%&e& 'e&+ 1%+ +e 2e*%2%& $e $&2 .e%"&

    !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    7&

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     ACRONYMS

    CGAAB C'%&2.%*$' G$e-A''-A.")&2

    CLMB C+$&&e' Le&+ M"2)'$%"&

    CMOSB C"p'ee&$. Me$' O%2e Se%*"&2)*".

    DGB D")'e G$e

    DI:LB D.$%& I&2)*e2 :$..%e. L"1e.%&

    DMDGB D)$' M$e.%$' D")'e G$e

    DSMB D.$%& S%2e M%($'%&e&

    FDSOIB F)'' Dep'ee2 S%'%*"& O& I&()'$".

    GAAB G$e A'' A.")&2

    HCEB H" C$..%e. E##e*

    ICB I&e.$e2 C%.*)%

    ITRSB I&e.&$%"&$' Te*+&"'" R"$2$p #". Se%*"&2)*".

    LACB L$e.$' A(e.%* C+$&&e'

    MISFETB Me$' I&()'$". Se%*"&2)*". F%e'2 E##e* T.$&(%(".

    MOSFETB Me$' O%2e Se%*"&2)*". F%e'2 E##e* T.$&(%(".

    RFB R$2%" F.e)e&*

    SCEB S+". C+$&&e' E##e*

    SMDGB S%&'e M$e.%$' D")'e G$e

    SEMOIB Se%*"&2)*". O& I&()'$". 

    SOIB S%'%*"&-"&-I&()'$". 

    SSMB S").*e S%2e M%($'%&e&

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    @II

    TMDGB T.%p'e M$e.%$' D")'e G$e

    TTLB T.$&(%(". T.$&(%(". L"%*

    UTCB U'.$ T+%& C+$&&e'

    >LSIB >e. L$.e S*$'e I&e.$%"&

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    @III

     ABSTRACT

    C)..e&', +e ep$&(%"& "# >LSI %&2)(. %( p.%$.%' #"*)((e2 "& +e 1$ " +e e##%*%e&*

    "# (e%*"&2)*". 2e5%*e( 1+%*+ %& ).& %( e.ee' 2epe&2e& "& +e $25$&*ee& %& +e

    CMOS e*+&"'"! A( +e (*$'%& 2"1& "# 2e5%*e 2%e&(%"&( $.e e%& $.e((%5e, *$..%e. 

    "%'% .e2)*e2 2)e " 2"p$& #')*)$%"&, $e )&&e''%& e##e* %&*.e$(e( $&2 p-& )&*%"&

    'e$/$e *)..e& %&*.e$(e(! M".e p.e*%(e $&2 &"5e' 2e5%*e (.)*).e( $.e .e)%.e2 " e

    2e5e'"pe2 #". ($%(#%& +e $"5e .e)%.ee&(! T+e(e &ee2( +$5e 'e2 " 2e5e'"pe& "# 

    $'e.&$%5e e*+&"'"! T+e 2")'e-$e

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    Chapter 1

    1 INTRODUCTION

    ! MOSFE and its scaling& A 2istorical %ers3ecti4e

    O5e. +e p$( +%. e$.(, +e ."1+ "# %*."e'e*."&%*(, $)"$%"&, %".$%"& (+$.%&,

    (%&$' p."*e((%& +$( (."&' 2epe&2e& "& 5e. '$.e (*$'e %&e.$e2 *%.*)% LSI=

    %&2)(.! A25$&*ee& "# *"p)e. $&2 #$(*%&$%& $2e( 1%+ e5e. p"((%'e $pp'%*$%"&(?

     e % $)2%", 5%2e", $& pe "# $e ". +%+ (pee2 *")&%*$%"&? .e5"')%"&%e2 +e 1".'2

    "# %&e.*"&&e*%5% $&2 e&e.$%&e&! I( $'' *.e2%e2 " +e +%+ (pee2 )'.$ ($'' (%e2,

    '"1 p"1e. (e%*"&2)*". 2e5%*e(, (e&(".(, $'' &e1 $e.%$'( $&2 +e%. %p'ee&$%"&

    +.")+ >LSI 2e(%&!

    I $'' ($.( 1%+ +e %&(%+ "# L%'%ee'2 "# I&()'$e2 G$e F%e'2 E##e* T.$&(%(". %&

    9 1+%*+ ".e +e p"e&%$' " ()(%)e +e 5$*)) )e e*+&"'" 1%+ ($'' (%e2

    (e%*"&2)*". .$&(%(". e*+&"'" ! T+e #%.( p.$*%*$' e+%%%"& ""/ p'$*e %& 960

    K$+& $&2 A%''$ %& +e #". "# +e S%'%*"&-$(e2 Me$' O%2e Se%*"&2)*". F%e'2

    E##e* T.$&(%(".

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    (*$'e %&e.$%"&

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    Figure ..& First $# fabricated by ay 5ast6s de4elo3ment grou3 at Fairc"ild #or3. 789

    Figure ..+& ransistor $ntegration on #"i3 dis3laying Moore6s 5a1. 7:9

    ! O4er4ie1 of MOSFEs

    T+e e$' "%2e (e%*"&2)*". #%e'2 e##e* .$&(%(".

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    Figure .+.&

    I& e&+$&*ee& "2e MOSFET(, $ 5"'$e 2."p $*."(( +e "%2e %&2)*e( $ *"&2)*%&

    *+$&&e' e1ee& +e (").*e $&2 2.$%& *"&$*( 2)e " +e #%e'2 e##e*! T+e &$e e&+$&*ee&

    "2e .e#e.( " e&+$&*e "# *"&2)*%5% 1%+ %&*.e$(e %& "%2e #%e'2 +$ $.$* *$..%e.( " +e

    *+$&&e', $'(" /&"1& $( +e %&5e.(%"& '$e.! T+e *+$&&e' *$& %&*')2e e'e*."&(

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    de.ice may be referred to as a metal-insulator-semiconductor 2ET BMIS2ET/7

    !3 MOSFE o3eration

    .. Metal O

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    I# +e MOSFET %( $& &-*+$&&e' MOSFET, +e& +e (").*e $&2 2.$%& $.e & .e%"&( $&2 +e

    ()(.$e %( $ p .e%"&! I# +e MOSFET %( $ p-*+$&&e' MOSFET, +e& +e (").*e $&2 2.$%&

    $.e p .e%"&( $&2 +e "2 %( $ & .e%"&! T+e (").*e %( (" &$e2 e*$)(e % %( +e (").*e "# 

    +e *+$.e *$..%e.(

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    &e$%5e 5"'$e #". p-*+$&&e'= %( $pp'%e2 e1ee& $e $&2 (").*e, +e *+$&&e' 2%($ppe$.(

    $&2 "&' $ 5e. ($'' ()+.e(+"'2 *)..e& *$& #'"1 e1ee& +e (").*e $&2 +e 2.$%&!

    T+e 2e5%*e $ *"&$%& S%'%*"& "& I&()'$".

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    7

    5e.%*$' 2%e&(%"&( "# +e .$&(%(". (+")'2 e (*$'e2 +e ($e (*$'%& #$*". %& ".2e. "

    $5"%2 +e SCE( $&2 e&().e ""2 e'e*."($%* *"&."' 1+e& #$.%*$%& +e ($''e. 2e5%*e(,

    $&2 +e ($e (*$'%& #$*"., +e ()pp' 5"'$e (+")'2 e .e2)*e2 $&2 ()(.$e 2"p%&

    *"&*e&.$%"& (+")'2 e %&*.e$(e2!

    ! Reasons for MOSFE scaling

    S$''e. MOSFET( $.e $.$*%5e #". $ &)e. "# .e$("&(! T+e $%& .e$("& " )%'2

    .$&(%(".( ($''e. %( " .")p ".e $&2 ".e 2e5%*e( %& $ %5e& *+%p $.e$! T+%( .e()'( %& $

    *+%p 1%+ +e ($e #)&*%"&$'% %& $ 'e((e. $.e$, ". *+%p( 1%+ ".e #)&*%"&$'% %& +e

    %2e&%*$' $.e$! A( #$.%*$%"& *"(( #". $ (e%*"&2)*". 1$#e. $.e .e'$%5e' #%e2, +e *"( pe. 

    %&e.$e2 *%.*)%( %( "(' .e'$e2 " +e &)e. "# *+%p( +$ *$& e p."2)*e2 pe. 1$#e.!

    He&*e, ($''e. IC( $''"1 ".e *+%p( pe. 1$#e., 2e*.e$(%& +e p.%*e pe. *+%p! I& #$*, "5e. 

    +e p$( 30 e$.( +e &)e. "# .$&(%(".( pe. *+%p +$( ee& 2")'e2 e5e. 3 e$.( "&*e $

    &e1 e*+&"'" &"2e %( %&."2)*e2! F". e$p'e +e &)e. "# MOSFET( %& $

    %*."p."*e((". #$.%*$e2 %& $ 4 & e*+&"'" *$& 1e'' e 1%*e $( $& $( %& $ 6

    & *+%p! T+%( 2")'%& "# .$&(%(". 2e&(% 1$( #%.( epe.%e&e2 G".2"& M"".e %& 96

    $&2 %( *""&' .e#e..e2 " $( M"".e( '$1 !

    I %( $'(" )()$' +$ ($''e. .$&(%(".( (1%*+ ".e .$p%2'! F". e$p'e, "&e $pp."$*+ "2%e&(%"& .e2)*%"& %( $ (*$'%& "# +e MOSFET +$ .e)%.e( $'' 2e5%*e (%e( " 2e*.e$(e

     p."p".%"&$''! T+e $". 2e5%*e 2%e&(%"&( $.e +e *+$&&e' 'e&+, *+$&&e' 1%2+, $&2

    "%2e +%*/&e((! +e& +e $.e (*$'e2 2"1& +e ($e #$*"., +e .$&(%(". *+$&&e'

    .e(%($&*e 2"e( &" "2%#, 1+%'e $e *$p$*%$&*e %( *) +$ #$*".! He&*e, +e RC

    2e'$ "# +e .$&(%(". (*$'e( 1%+ $ (%%'$. #$*".!

    +%'e +%( +$( ee& *"&5e&%"&$'' +e *$(e #". +e "'2e. e*+&"'"%e(, #". +e ($e-"#-+e-$.

    MOSFET( .e2)*%"& "# +e .$&(%(". 2%e&(%"&( 2"e( &" &e*e(($.%' .$&(#". " +%+e. 

    *+%p (pee2 e*$)(e +e 2e'$ 2)e " %&e.*"&&e*%"&( %( ".e (%&%#%*$&!

    !6 Scaling 3roblems

    M$&)#$*).%& MOSFET( 1%+ )*+ ($''e. *+$&&e' 'e&+( +$& $ %*."e.e %( $ %

    *+$''e&e, $&2 +e 2%##%*)'%e( "# (e%*"&2)*". 2e5%*e #$.%*$%"& $.e $'1$( $ 1$.&%&

    #$*". %& $25$&*%& %&e.$e2 *%.*)% e*+&"'"! I& .e*e& e$.(, +e ($'' 2%e&(%"& "# +e

    MOSFET, )&2e. $ #e1 e&( "# &$&"e.e(, +$( *.e$e2 "pe.$%"&$' .")'e(!

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    I&e.$%"& "# %''%"&( "# .$&(%(".( "& $ *+%p +$( ee& .e$'%$'e 2)e " +e p"((%%'% "

     p$e.& e5e. ($''e. #e$).e "& (%'%*"& +.")+ "p%*$' '%+".$p+! A( "p%*$' '%+".$p+

    e&e.( +e ()-1$5e'e&+ .e%e, '%+ 2%##.$*%"& $&2 %&e.#e.e&*e #." () 1$5e'e&+

     p$e.& #e$).e *$)(e( %$e 2%(".2e.! T+e.e#".e, p$e.&%& e*"e( 2%##%*)' 1%+")

    $2"p%& .e("')%"& e&+$&*ee& e*+&%)e(!

    T+e ITRS( "( .e*e& p."e*%"& p."5%2e( ("e %&(%+ $( " *)..e& $./e 2.%5e.(! F%! 4

    %'')(.$e( +$ +e p"1e. *"&()p%"& .e&2 5e.()( p"1e. .e)%.ee&( %( *.e$%& +e

    P"1e. G$pJ $/%& " +e De(%& G$pJ +$ +e %&2)(. 2e$' 1%+ $ 2e*$2e $"! T+%( $p %(

    *.e$%& $ &ee2 " $&$e p"1e. $ $'' 'e5e'( "# $(.$*%"& $&2 $".' $ +e 2e5%*e 'e5e'!

    T+e p"1e. *"&()p%"& %( $pp."%$e2 8

      −V   th   P 

    = P + P = α  fC V

    + V  I 

    + I A0  s 

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    Figure .=.+& %o1er #onsum3tion trends 1it" years of scaling. (#ourtesy& $RS +,,:)

    T+)( V  DD$&2

    V th $.e %& *"'%* #". 1+%*+ +e $e "%2e &ee2( " e (*$'e2 .ee&2")('

    1+%*+ %& ).& %&*.e$(e( $e )&&e''%& 'e$/$e(! A'(", +%+e. ()(.$e 2"p%& %( )( "

    *+e*/ +e (+". *+$&&e' e##e*(

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    %$

    !6! $ncreased gate-o! F". $& "+e. 2%e'e*.%*( +e 5$')e %( *"&(%2e.$' '"1e., e&2%& "

    %&*.e$(e +e )&&e''%& *)..e&, ("e1+$ "pp"(%& +e e&e#%( "# +%+e. 2%e'e*.%* *"&($&!

    T+e e.ee $e-(").*e 5"'$e %( *$'*)'$e2 +e (.e&+ "# +e e'e*.%* #%e'2 $'e " e

    ()($%&e2 +e $e 2%e'e*.%* e#".e (%&%#%*$& 'e$/$e "**).(! S%&*e +e %&()'$%&

    2%e'e*.%* %( $2e +%&&e., +e e'e*.%* #%e'2 $&%)2e 1%+%& % "e( +%+ #". $ *"&($&

    5"'$e! T+%( .e)%.e( )(%& '"1e. 5"'$e( 1%+ +e +%&&e. 2%e'e*.%*!

    !6!3 $ncreased >unction lea'age

    T" $/e 2e5%*e( ($''e., )&*%"& 2e(%& +$( e*"e ".e *"p'e, #".*%& "

    +%+e. 2"p%& 'e5e'(, (+$''"1e. )&*%"&(, +$'" 2"p%& e*!6,7 $'' " .e2)*e 2.$%& %&2)*e2

     $..%e. '"1e.%&

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    !6!4 5o1er out3ut resistance

    F". $&$'" #)&*%"&(, ""2 $%& .e)%.e( +%+ MOSFET ")p) .e(%($&*e, 1+%*+ %( " ($,

    +e MOSFET *)..e& (+")'2 5$. "&' $ '%'e 1%+ +e $pp'%e2 2.$%&-"-(").*e 5"'$e! A(

    2e5%*e( $.e $2e ($''e., +e %')e&*e "# +e 2.$%& *"pee( ".e ()**e((#)'' 1%+ +$ "# +e $e 2)e " +e ."1%& *'"(e&e(( "# +e(e 1" e'e*."2e(, %&*.e$(%& +e (e&(%%5% "# +e

    MOSFET *)..e& " +e 2.$%& 5"'$e! T" *")&e. +e .e()'%& 2e*.e$(e %& ")p) .e(%($&*e,

    *%.*)%( $.e $2e ".e *"p'%*$e2, e%+e. .e)%.%& ".e 2e5%*e(, #". e$p'e

    +e *$(*"2e $&2 *$(*$2e $p'%#%e.(, ". #ee2$*/ *%.*)%. )(%& "pe.$%"&$' $p'%#%e.(, #". 

    e$p'e $ *%.*)% '%/e +$ %& +e $2$*e& #%).e!

    !6! 5o1er transconductance

    T+e .$&(*"&2)*$&*e "# +e MOSFET 2e*%2e( %( $%& $&2 %( 2%.e*' p."p".%"&$' " +"'e

    ". e'e*."& "%'% 2epe&2%& "& 2e5%*e pe, #". '"1 2.$%& 5"'$e(! A( MOSFET

    2%e&(%"& %( 2e*.e$(e2, +e #%e'2( %& +e *+$&&e' %p."5e $&2 +e 2"p$& %p).% 'e5e'(

    %&*.e$(e(! :"+ *+$&e( 2e*.e$(e +e *$..%e. "%'%, $&2 +)( +e .$&(*"&2)*$&*e! A(

    *+$&&e' 'e&+( $.e 2e*.e$(e2 1%+ &" p."p".%"&$' .e2)*%"& %& 2.$%& 5"'$e, %&*.e$(%& +e

    e'e*.%* #%e'2 %& +e *+$&&e', +e .e()' %( '%%%& +e *)..e&, 5e'"*% ($).$%"& "# +e

    *$..%e.(, $&2 +e .$&(*"&2)*$&*e!

    !6!6 $nterconnect ca3acitance

    C"&5e&%"&$'', (1%*+%& %e 1$( .")+' p."p".%"&$' " +e $e *$p$*%$&*e "# 

    MOSFET(! O& +e "+e. +$&2, 1%+ .$&(%(".( e*"%& ($''e. $&2 &)e. "# .$&(%(".(

     e%& '"*$e2 "& +e *+%p, %&e.*"&&e* *$p$*%$&*e

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    P"1e. MOSFET( $.e $ 2$&e. "# +e.$' .)&$1$! A( +e%. "&-($e .e(%($&*e %&*.e$(e(

    1%+ epe.$).e, %# +e '"$2 %( $pp."%$e' $ *"&($&-*)..e& '"$2 +e& +e p"1e. '"((

    %&*.e$(e( *"..e(p"&2%&', e&e.$%& e.$ +e$! +e& +e +e$ (%&/ %( &" %&e''%e& "

    .e$%& +e epe.$).e '"1 e&")+, +e )&*%"& epe.$).e $ %&*.e$(e .$p%2' $&2

    )&*"&."''$', .e()'%& %& 2e5$($%"& "# +e 2e5%*e!

    !6!8 %rocess 4ariations

    %+ MOSFET( e*"%& ($''e., +e &)e. "# $"( %& +e (%'%*"& +$ *.e$e $& "# +e

    .$&(%(".( p."pe.%e( %( e*"%& #e1e., 1%+ +e .e()' +$ *"&."' "# 2"p$& &)e.( $&2

     p'$*ee& %( ".e .$&2"! D).%& *+%p $&)#$*).%&, .$&2" p."*e(( 5$.%$%"&( $##e* $''

    .$&(%(". 2%e&(%"&(B 'e&+, 1%2+, )&*%"& 2ep+(, "%2e +%*/&e(( etc., $&2 e*"e $

    .e$e. pe.*e&$e "# "5e.$'' .$&(%(". (%e $( +e .$&(%(". (+.%&/(! T+e .$&(%(". *+$.$*e.%(%*( e*"e 'e(( *e.$%&, ".e ($%(%*$'! T+e .$&2" &$).e "# $&)#$*).e

    e$&( 1e 2" &" /&"1 1+%*+ p$.%*)'$. e$p'e MOSFET( $*)$'' 1%'' e&2 )p %& $

     p$.%*)'$. %&($&*e "# +e *%.*)%! T+%( )&*e.$%& #".*e( $ 'e(( "p%$' 2e(%& e*$)(e +e

    2e(%& )( 1"./ #". $ .e$ 5$.%e "# p"((%'e *"p"&e& MOSFET( 0!

    !6!9 Modeling c"allenges

    M"2e.& IC( $.e *"p)e.-(%)'$e2 1%+ +e $% "# "$%&%& 1"./%& *%.*)%( #." +e 5e.

    #%.( $&)#$*).e2 '"! A( 2e5%*e( $.e %&%$).%e2, +e 2%##%*)' "# +e p."*e((%& $/e( %

    +$.2 " p.e2%* e$*' 1+$ +e )'%$e 2e5%*e( '""/ '%/e, $&2 "2e''%& "# p+(%*$'

     p."*e((e( e*"e( ".e *+$''e&%& $( 1e''! I& $22%%"&, %*."(*"p%* 5$.%$%"&( %& (.)*).e

    2)e (%p' " +e p."$%'%(%* &$).e "# $"%* p."*e((e( .e)%.e ($%(%*$' p.e2%*%"&(!

    T+e(e #$*".( *"%&e " $/e $2e)$e (%)'$%"& $&2 .%+ +e #%.( %e $&)#$*).e

    2%##%*)'!

    T" %&%%e +e 2%##%*)'%e( "# ($'' (%e )'/ MOSFET(, Re(e$.*+e.( $&2 e&%&ee.(

    2%(*"5e. (e5e.$' $'e.&$%5e 2e5%*e (.)*).e(, 1+%*+ +e e*+&"'" *$& #).+e. (*$'e2

    2"1& 1%+ $ %p."5e2 pe.#".$&*e! T+e(e $.e, 2")'e $e

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    L"1e.%& +e (").*e2.$%& )&*%"& 2ep+(

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    !7! Gate Engineering ec"ni?ues 2ig"-'

    dielectric

    H%+-/e$' $e( 1e.e %&."2)*e2 %&" $(( p."2)*%"& %& 007 I&e' %& +e 4 &

    CMOS e*+&"'" e&e.$%"&! T+%( %( +e #%.( %e +$ .$2%%"&$' "%2e( ". "&%.%2e( +$5e

     ee& .ep'$*e2 %& $e ($*/(, " e&$'e *"&%&)")( (*$'%& "# +e EOT!

    Metal Gate

    I&%%$'', p"'-S%+%+-/ *"%&$%"& $e ($*/ 1$( *"&(%2e.e2 $( $ .")e " %p."5%& $e

    'e$/$e! H"1e5e. +e".e%*$' ()2%e( $&2 epe.%e&$' 2$$ (+"1 "%'% 2e.$2$%"&

    *"p$.e2 " +e )(e "# e$' $e(! Depe&2%& "& +e $e 2%e'e*.%*, +e 1"./ #)&*%"&

    5$.%e( 2)e " 2%##e.%& $&2 $'%&e&(!

    Multi-Material Gate

    O&e "# +e p."%&e& e$&( " e .%2 "# +" *$..%e. e##e*

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    Multi3le Gate

    Figure .;.+& %rogress of t"e MOSFE ec"nology t"roug" multi3le-gates (79)

    A p"e&%$' *$&2%2$e " *"&%&)e +e MOSFET (*$'%& #).+e. %( +e #)''-2ep'ee2 (%'%*"&-

    "&-%&()'$".

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    6

    "# +e &)e. $&2 +e "%'% "# e'e*."&( $&2 +"'e( $( 1e'' $( 2.%5%& *)..e& ecti4es

    T+e $%& "e*%5e( "# +%( +e(%( $.e " )&2e.($&2 +e (.)*).e 2e(%& "# $e e&%&ee.e2

    DG MOSFET( $'"& 1%+ %( $*/ $e %($'%&e&, 1+%'e *"p$.%& +e 1%+ (%&'e

    $e.%$' 2")'e $e

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    $e.%$' $e 1%+ 2%##e.e& 1"./ #)&*%"& "+ %& "p $&2 "" "# +e 2e5%*e %&(e$2 $

    (%&'e $e.%$' $e! F).+e.".e " .e2)*e +" *$..%e. e##e*

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    Chapter 2

    2 LITERATURE REVIEW

    ! Double gate MOSFEs

    T+e 2")'e-$e

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    Figure +..+& #ross-sectional 4ie1 of double gate MOSFE structure

    D")'e-$e MOSFET +$( 1" $e( (%)'$&e")(' *"&."''%& +e *+$.e %& +e +%& (%'%*"&

     "2 '$e., $''"1%& #". 1" *+$&&e'( #". *)..e& #'"1! :e*$)(e +e (%'%*"& #%' %( +%&, $

    2%.e* *+$.e *")p'%& e%(( e1ee& +e #."& $&2 $*/ $e %&5$.%$' 3, %')e&*%& +e

    e.%&$' *+$.$*e.%(%*( "# +e 2e5%*e

    General DG O3eration

    T+e 2e5%*e *$& e "pe.$e2 %& (e5e.$' 1$( 36!T+e 5"'$e $pp'%e2 "& +e $e e.%&$'(

    *"&."'( +e e'e*.%* #%e'2, 2ee.%&%& +e $")& "# *)..e& #'"1 +.")+ +e *+$&&e'! T+e

    "( *""& "2e "# "pe.$%"& %( " (1%*+ "+ $e( (%)'$&e")('! A&"+e. "2e %( "

    (1%*+ "&' "&e $e $&2 $pp' $ %$( " +e (e*"&2 $e

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    (1) F."& *+$&&e' $'"&e *"&2)*%&, +e $*/ *+$&&e' e%& e%+e. 2ep'ee2 ". $**))'$e2!

    (2) :"+ *+$&&e'( *"&2)*%&, "+ ". e%+e. "# +e *+$&&e'( e%& %& 1e$/ ". (."&

    %&5e.(%"&!

    T+e *)..e&-5"'$e *+$.$*e.%(%*( "# +e 2e5%*e 1%+ +e #."& *+$&&e' %& (."& %&5e.(%"&

    $&2 +e $*/ *+$&&e' e%+e. %& $**))'$%"& ". %& 2ep'e%"& +$( ee& "2e''e2 $&$'%*$''

    37,38,39 S%&*e (%'%*"& #%'( $.e +%&, +e e'e*.%*$' p."pe.%e( "# MOSFET( #$.%*$e2 $.e

    %&+e.e&' %')e&*e2 +e *+$.e *")p'%& e1ee& +e #."& $&2 $*/ $e(! D)e "

    e.ee' ($'' 2e5%*e 2%e&(%"&(, '"1 5"'$e "pe.$%"& 1%'' e $&2$". 1+e.e +e '"1

    +.e(+"'2 5"'$e %( .e)%.e2 40!

    ! Gate engineered DG MOSFEs

    G$e e&%&ee.%& "# +e MOSFET e$&(, +e "$' $e $e.%$' "# +e MOSFET %(

    e&%&ee.e2 ". 2%5%2e2 %&" 1" $e.%$'( ". +.ee $e.%$'(! I# +e "$' $e.%$' 'e&+ %( +e

    *"%&$%"& "# 1" 2%##e.e& $e.%$'( +$5%& 2%##e.e& e$' 1"./ #)&*%"&, +e& +e

    MOSFET (.)*).e %( /&"1& $( 2)$' $e.%$' $e

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    #." pe&e.$%& %&" +e *+$&&e'! T+%( (ep p"e&%$' %( +)( .e(p"&(%'e #". '"1e. ()

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    +.e(+"'2 'e$/$e *)..e&, .e2)*e2 DI:L e##e*( $&2 %&*.e$(e2 ")p) .e(%($&*e %& DMG

    MOSFETS! T+%( (" *$''e2 $e 1"./-#)&*%"& e&%&ee.%& $''"1( +e DMG 2e5%*e( " +$5e

    ($e +.e(+"'2 5"'$e #". $ .e2)*e2 2"p%& *"&*e&.$%"& %& +e *+$&&e' .e%"&, .e()'%& %&

     ee. %)&% " "%'% 2e.$2$%"& $&2 +e&*e +%+e. .$&(*"&2)*$&*e 4!

    !3 Ad4antages of DG MOSFEs

    %! .e2)*%"& "# %"##!

    %%! )&2"pe2 *+$&&e' e'%%&$e( %&.%&(%*

    %%%! p$.$ee. #')*)$%"&( $&2 %&%%e(

    %5! %p).% (*$e.%&!

    5! 2")'e $e $''"1( #". +%+e. *)..e& 2.%5e

    *$p$%'%

    5%! ee. *"&."' "# (+". *+$&&e' e##e*(!

    !4 #"allenges of DG MOSFEs

    %! C"&."' "# +.e(+"'2 5"'$e!

    %%! F$.%*$%"& "# +e DG-FET %( 2%##%*)'!

    %%%! A'%&e& "# "+ $e( %( +$.2 " $*+%e5e,

    %5! M%($'%&e2 $e( .e()' %& e.$ *$p$*%$&*e $&2 '"(( "# *)..e& 2.%5e!

    ! Gate misalignment of DG MOSFEs

    M%($'%&e& e1ee& "p $&2 "" G$e "# +e DG MOSFET( $.e +e "( *""&

     p"((%%'% 2).%& #$.%*$%"&! :e*$)(e "# %($'%&e& ("e p$. "# +e *+$&&e' +$( "&' "&e

    $e $&2 e+$5e( $( $ (%&'e $e *"&5e&%"&$' )'/ MOSFET! F).+e.".e 2)e " +e $(e&

    "# e'e*.%* #%e'2, +e e'e*."($%* *"&."' "5e. +e $e .e2)*e( $&2 +e *+$&&e' .e(%($&*e

    %&*.e$(e(, +e.e#".e 2.%5e *)..e& 2e*.e$(e(! T+e %($'%&e& *$& e +$ppe&e2 e%+e. (%2e "# 

    +e 2e5%*e? %!e! 2.$%& (%2e ". (").*e (%2e! I# +e $e (+%#e2 "1$.2( (").*e (%2e +e& % %(

    *$''e2 $( 2.$%& (%2e %($'%&e&

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    !6 Effect of misalignment& 3ast 1or's

    T+e >LSI %&2)(. +$( ee& 2e5e'"p%& 'e$p( $&2 ")&2( %& +e p$( #e1 2e*$2e( (%&*e %(

    %&*ep%"& $&2 % %( ("'e' *.e2%e2 " +e *"&%&)")( 2%e&(%"&$' (*$'%& "# MOSFET(! T+e

    "( (.$%+#".1$.2 $25$&$e( "# MOSFET (*$'%& $.e +%+e. p$*/%& 2e&(%, '"1

    2&$%* p"1e. 2%((%p$%"& $&2 %p."5ee& "# (pee2 4! F).+e., +e (.%&e& 2"1&

    (*$'%& "# *"p'ee&$. e$'-"%2e-(e%*"&2)*".

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    #)&*%"& "# +e e$' $e &e$. +e (").*e

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    3

    #)&*%"&( .e()'( %& $ (ep-'%/e ().#$*e p"e&%$' p."#%'e e'"1 +e e$' %&e.#$*e e&().%& +e

    (*.ee&%& "# +e %&%) ().#$*e p"e&%$' #." +e 2.$%& 5"'$e 5$.%$%"&(! T+e e$' $e

     M %( +)( .%+#)'' /&"1& $( +e Screen Gate $&2 +e

    e$'

     M  $( +e Control Gate!

    Re22 et al. $2"pe2 +%( e*+&%)e " p."p"(e 2")'e-$e.%$' 2")'e-$e

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    e&e.$'' epe*e2 $&2 60 " 80 %($'%&e& %( *"&(%2e.e2 " e "'e.$'e %& ("e *%.*)%

    $pp'%*$%"&(!

    F". +e #%.( %e %& 004, E! C! S)& $&2 ;! :! K)" 60 $&$'(e2 +e $e %($'%&e& e##e*

    "& +e +.e(+"'2 5"'$e "# 2")'e-$e )'.$+%& #)'' 2ep'ee2 (%'%*"&-"&-%&()'$". &MOS

    2e5%*e( )(%& $ *"p$* "2e''%&! T+e $'(" *"&(%2e. +e #.%&%& e'e*.%* #%e'2 e##e* "

     p.e2%* +e $**).$e e+$5%"). "# +e +.e(+"'2 5"'$e!

    I& 00, C! Y%& $&2 C! H! C+$& 6 %&5e(%$e2 +e S").*eD.$%& A(e.%* E##e*( D)e

    " G$e M%($'%&e& %& P'$&$. D")'e-G$e MOSFET( "+ epe.%e&$' 2$$ $&2

    (%)'$%"& .e()'(! T+e #")&2 +$, +e "5e.'$p .e%"& $ 2.$%& (%2e *$& .e2)*e( DI:L, 1+%'e

    +e "5e.'$p .e%"& $ (").*e (%2e 2e*.e$(e( 2.$%& (%2e *$p$*%$&*e $&2 $e 'e$/$e *)..e&!

    T+e $'(" *"%. +$ +e *%.*)% 1%'' 1"./( 1%+") $& 2e.$2$%"& 1%+ $ "p%$'

    %($'%&e& 'e&+ "# 0 "# "$' $e 'e&+!

    I& 008, A! K.$&% $&2 G! A! A.(."& 6 ()2%e2 %& +%( .e(e$.*+ +$, $*/ $e

    %($'%&e& *$& e "'e.$e2 1%+") $& (%&%#%*$& 2e.$2$%"& %& *)-"## #.e)e&* $&2

    %&.%&(%* 5"'$e $%& #". )'.$ '"1 5"'$e $&$'" $&2 .$2%" #.e)e&*

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    2%##e.e& p$.$ee.( "# TMDG MOSFET (.)*).e( $.e $'(" *"p$.e2 1%+ .e(pe*%5e

    *")&e.p$.( "# DMDG $&2 SMDG!

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    Chapter 3

    3 SIMULATION METHODOLOGY

    3! $ntroduction

    M"(' #". 2e5%*e (%)'$%"& p).p"(e $'$( 2e5%*e (%)'$". $.e )(e2! ATLAS %( $ 5e.

     p"1e.#)' ""' %5e( *""& *$p$%'%%e( #". p+(%*$''-$(e2 1"

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    III! Re%"&( 1%+%& +e e(+ $.e $((%&e2 " 2%##e.e& $e.%$'( $( .e)%.e2 " *"&(.)* +e

    2e5%*e! F". e$p'e, +e (pe*%#%*$%"& "# $ MOS 2e5%*e .e)%.e( +e (pe*%#%*$%"& "# 

    (%'%*"& $&2 (%'%*"& 2%"%2e .e%"&(!

    I>!A#e. +e .e%"&( $.e 2e#%&e2, +e '"*$%"& "# e'e*."2e( %( (pe*%#%e2!

    >! T+e #%&$' (ep %( " (pe*%# +e 2"p%& %& e$*+ .e%"&!

    T" 2e#%&e $ (.)*).e )(%& *"$&2 '$&)$e, +e #"''"1%& #"). ()-(e*%"&( )( e

    (pe*%#%e2 %& +e p."pe. (e)e&*e $( '%(e2!

    S3ecifying t"e initial mes"

    T+e.e $.e +.ee ($ee&( #". (pe*%#%& $ %&%%$' e(+B

    I! Mes" statement

    T" (pe*%# $ e(+ +e #%.( ($ee& )( eB

    MESH SPACE!MULT>ALUEV

    T+%( %( #"''"1e2 $ (e.%e( "# @!MESH $&2 Y!MESH ($ee&(!

    @!MESH LOCATION>ALUEV SPACING>ALUEV Y!MESH

    LOCATION>ALUEV SPACING>ALUEV

    T+e SPACE!MULT p$.$ee. 5$')e %( )(e2 $( $ (*$'%& #$*". #". +e e(+ *.e$e2 +e

    @!MESH $&2 Y!MESH ($ee&(! T+e 2e#$)' 5$')e %( ! >$')e( .e$e. +$& 1%'' *.e$e $

    '"$'' *"$.(e. e(+ #". #$( (%)'$%"&! >$')e( 'e(( +$& 1%'' *.e$e $ '"$'' #%&e. e(+

    #". %&*.e$(e2 $**).$*! T+e @!MESH $&2 Y!MESH ($ee&( $.e )(e2 " 2e#%&e +e

    '"*$%"&( %& %*."&( "# 5e.%*$' $&2 +".%"&$' '%&e(, .e(pe*%5e', "e+e. 1%+ +e 5e.%*$' ". 

    +".%"&$' (p$*%& $(("*%$e2 1%+ +$ '%&e!

    II! Elimination statement

    A#e. *"p'e%"& "# %&%%$' e(+%&, "&e *$& .e"5e .%2 '%&e( %& (pe*%#%e2 .e%"&(! T+%( %(

    p%*$'' 2"&e %& .e%"&( "# +e 2e5%*e 1+e.e $ *"$.(e .%2 %( epe*e2 " e e&")+ ()*+ $(

    +e ()(.$e! T+e e'%%&$%"& "# .%2 '%&e( %( *"p'ee )(%& +e ELIMINATE ($ee&! T+e

    ELIMINATE ($ee& $/e $1$ e5e. (e*"&2 e(+ '%&e %& +e p$.%*)'$. 2%.e*%"& #."

    1%+%& $ (pe*%#%e2 .e*$&'e! F". e$p'e, +e ($ee&B

    ELIMINATE COLUMNS @!MIN0 @!MA@4 Y!MIN0!0 Y!MA@3

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    E'%%&$e( e5e. (e*"&2 5e.%*$' .%2 '%&e 1%+%& +e .e*$&'e ")&2e2 0, 4, 0 $&2

    3 %*."&(!

    III!Region statement

    O&*e +e e(+ %( (pe*%#%e2, e5e. p$. "# % )( e $((%&e2 $ $e.%$' pe! T+%( %( 2"&e

    1%+ REGION ($ee&(! F". e$p'eB

    REGION &)e.%&ee.V $e.%$'WpeV p"(%%"& p$.$ee.(V

    Re%"& &)e.( )( ($. $ $&2 $.e %&*.e$(e2 #". e$*+ ()(e)e& .e%"& ($ee&!

    M$%) 00 2%##e.e& .e%"&( *$& e 2e#%&e2 %& ATLAS! A '$.e &)e. "# $e.%$'( $.e

    e%(%&! I# $ *"p"(%%"&-2epe&2e& $e.%$' pe %( (pe*%#%e2, +e $&2 *"p"(%%"&

    #.$*%"&( *$& $'(" e 2e#%&e2 %& +e REGION ($ee&!

    I>!%osition statement

    T+e p"(%%"& p$.$ee.( $.e (pe*%#%e2 %& %*."&( )(%& +e @!MIN, @!MA@, Y!MIN, $&2

    Y!MA@ p$.$ee.(! I# +e p"(%%"& p$.$ee.( "# $ &e1 ($ee& "5e.'$p +"(e "# $ p.e5%")(

    REGION ($ee&, +e "5e.'$ppe2 $.e$ %( $((%&e2 $( +e $e.%$' pe "# +e &e1 .e%"&!

    S3ecifying Electrodes

    O&*e +e .e%"&( $&2 $e.%$'( +$5e (pe*%#%e2, $ 'e$( "&e e'e*."2e (+")'2 e 2e#%&e +$

    1%'' *"&$*( $ (e%*"&2)*". $e.%$'! T+%( %( $**"p'%(+e2 1%+ +e ELECTRODE

    ($ee&! F". e$p'eB

    ELECTRODE NAMEe'e*."2e &$eV p"(%%"&Wp$.$ee.(V

    T+e $%) &)e. "# e'e*."2e( +$ *$& e (pe*%#%e2 %( 0! M".e +$& "&e e'e*."2e

    ($ee&( $ +$5e +e ($e e'e*."2e &$e! N"2e( +$ $.e $(("*%$e2 1%+ +e ($e

    e'e*."2e &$e $.e .e$e2 $( e%& e'e*.%*$'' *"&&e*e2!

    S3ecifying Do3ing

    F". (pe*%#%& +e 2"p%& DOPING ($ee& %( )(e2 %& ATLAS! F". e$p'eB

    DOPING 2%(.%)%"&WpeV 2"p$&WpeV p"(%%"&Wp$.$ee.(V

    Analytical Do3ing %rofiles

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    A&$'%*$' 2"p%& p."#%'e( $.e 1" pe(? %!e )&%#". ". G$)((%$& #".(!

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    9

    I! !niform do3ing 3rofile

    T+e p$.$ee.( 2e#%&%& +e $&$'%*$' 2%(.%)%"& $.e (pe*%#%e2 %& +e DOPING ($ee&

    DOPING UNIFORM CONCENTRATIONE6 N!TYPE REGION

    T+e $"5e 2"p%& ($ee& %5e( $ )&%#". &-pe 2"p%& 2e&(% "# 06 *-3 %& +e .e%"&

    +$ 1$( p.e5%")(' '$e''e2 $( .e%"& X! T+e p"(%%"& p$.$ee.(B @!MIN, @!MA@, Y!MIN,

    $&2 Y!MA@ *$& e )(e2 %&(e$2 "# $ .e%"& &)e.!

    II! Gaussian do3ing 3rofile

    T+e p$.$ee.( 2e#%&%& +e $&$'%*$' 2%(.%)%"& $.e (pe*%#%e2 %& +e DOPING ($ee&

    DOPING GAUSSIAN CONCENTRATIONE8 CHARACTERISTIC0!0 P!TYPE

    @!LEFT0!0 @!RIGHT!0 PEAK0!

    T+e $"5e 2"p%& ($ee& %5e($ $ p-pe G$)((%$& p."#%'e 1%+ $ pe$/ *"&*e&.$%"& "# 

    08

    *-3

    ! T+%( ($ee& (pe*%#%e( +$ +e pe$/ 2"p%& %( '"*$e2 $'"& $ '%&e #." 0 "

    %*."&(! I# $ G$)((%$& p."#%'e %( e%& $22e2 " $& $.e$ +$ 1$( $'.e$2 2e#%&e2 1%+ +e

    "pp"(%e 2"p$& pe, ") *$& )(e +e ;UNCTION p$.$ee. " (pe*%# +e p"(%%"& "# +e

     )&*%"& 2ep+ %&(e$2 "# (pe*%#%& +e ($&2$.2 2e5%$%"& )(%& +e CHARACTERISTIC

     p$.$ee. 

    . Defining material 3arameters and models

    O&*e +e e(+, e"e., $&2 2"p%& p."#%'e( $.e *"p'ee2, "&e *$& *+$&e +e

    *+$.$*e.%(%*( "# e'e*."2e(, *+$&e +e 2e#$)' $e.%$' p$.$ee.(, $&2 2e*%2e 1+%*+

     p+(%*$' "2e'( ATLAS 1%'' )(e 2).%& +e 2e5%*e (%)'$%"&! T+e(e e+$5%").( $.e #%&%(+e2

    )(%& +e CONTACT, MATERIAL, $&2 MODELS ($ee&( .e(pe*%5e'! Ip$*

    %"&%$%"& "2e'( *$& e e&$'e2 )(%& +e IMPACT ($ee&! I&e.#$*e p."pe.%e( $.e (e

      )(%& +e INTERFACE ($ee&!

    .. S3ecifying #ontact #"aracteristics

    0or' function for Gates or Sc"ott'y #ontacts

    T+e *"&$* e1ee& e'e*."2e $&2 (e%*"&2)*". $e.%$' %( $(()e2 2e#$)' $( "+%*! I# 

    $ 1"./ #)&*%"& %( (pe*%#%e2, +e e'e*."2e e+$5e( $( $ S*+"/ *"&$*! T+e CONTACT

    ($ee& %( )(e2 " 2e#%&e +e e$' 1"./ #)&*%"& "# "&e ". ".e e'e*."2e(! T+e NAME p$.$ee. %( )(e2 " %2e&%# 1+%*+ e'e*."2e 1%'' +$5e %( p."pe.%e( "2%#%e2!

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    30

    T+e ORKFUNCTION p$.$ee. (e( +e 1"./ #)&*%"& "# +e e'e*."2e! F". e$p'e, +e

    ($ee&B

    CONTACT NAME$e ORKFUNCTION4!8

    T+e 1"./ #)&*%"& "# +e $e e'e*."2e (e( " 4!8e>! T+e 1"./ #)&*%"&( "# (e5e.$'

    *""&' )(e2 *"&$* $e.%$'( $ e (pe*%#%e2 )(%& +e &$e "# +e $e.%$'! "./ 

    #)&*%"&( #". ALUMINUM, N!POLYSILICON, P!POLYSILICON, TUNGSTEN, $&2

    TU!DISILICIDE *$& e (pe*%#%e2 %& +%( 1$! T+e #"''"1%& ($ee& (e( +e 1"./ #)&*%"&

    #". $& &-pe p"'(%'%*"& $e *"&$*!

    CONTACT NAME$e N!POLYSILICON

    T+e CONTACT ($ee& *$& $'(" e )(e2 " 2e#%&e $..%e. $&2 2%p"'e '"1e.%& "# +eS*+"/ $..%e. +e%+! :$..%e. '"1e.%& %( e&$'e2 (pe*%#%& +e :ARRIER p$.$ee.,

    1+%'e 2%p"'e '"1e.%& %( (pe*%#%e2 )(%& +e ALPHA p$.$ee.! F". e$p'e, +e ($ee&B

    CONTACT NAME$&"2e ORKFUNCTION4!9 :ARRIER ALPHA!0e-7

    T+e 1"./ #)&*%"& "# $&"2e S*+"/ *"&$* (e( " 4!9e> e&$'e( $..%e. '"1e.%& $&2 #%e(

    *"e##%*%e& "# +e 2%p"'e '"1e.%& " &!

    Setting #urrent Boundary #onditions

    T" $'e. $& e'e*."2e #." 5"'$e *"&."' " *)..e& *"&."', CONTACT ($ee& %( $'("

    )(e2! F". (%)'$%& 2e5%*e( C)..e& *"&."''e2 e'e*."2e( $.e )(e#)', 1+e.e +e *)..e& %(

    +%+' .e(p"&(%5e " 5"'$e!

    T+e ($ee& #". *)..e& ")&2$. *"&2%%"&( %(B

    CONTACT NAME2.$%& CURRENT

    He.e, *+$&e( +e 2.$%& e'e*."2e " *)..e& *"&."'! T+e NETON ". :LOCK ("')%"&

    e+"2( $.e &e*e(($. #". $'' (%)'$%"&( 1%+ $ *)..e& ")&2$. *"&2%%"&!

    Defining E

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    T+e $"5e ($ee& (pe*%#%e( $ p$.$''e' .e(%(". $&2 *$p$*%". "# 0 "+( $&2 0 pF

    .e(pe*%5e' %& (e.%e( 1%+ $ ZH %&2)*".! N"e +$ %& D (%)'$%"&(, +e(e p$((%5e

    e'ee& 5$')e( $.e (*$'e2 +e 1%2+ %& +e +%.2 2%e&(%"&! S%&*e %& D ATLAS $(()e( $

    Z 1%2+, +e .e(%($&*e e*"e( 0 [-Z!

    D%(.%)e2 *"&$* .e(%($&*e #". $& e'e*."2e *$& e (pe*%#%e2 )(%& +e CON!RESIST

     p$.$ee.! F". e$p'e, +e ($ee&B

    CONTACT NAME(").*e CON!RESISTANCE0!0

    T+e $"5e ($ee& (pe*%#%e( +$ +e (").*e *"&$* +$( $ 2%(.%)e2 .e(%($&*e "# 0!0

    [*!

    Floating #ontacts

    F". (pe*%#%& $ #'"$%& e'e*."2e +e CONTACT ($ee& %( $'(" )(e2! T+e.e $.e

    *"p'ee' 1" 2%##e.e& (%)$%"&( 1+e.e #'"$%& e'e*."2e( $.e (%&%#%*$&! T+e #%.(

    *"&2%%"& %( #". #'"$%& $e e'e*."2e( )(e2 %& EEPROM $&2 "+e. p.".$$'e 2e5%*e(!

    T+e (e*"&2 *"&2%%"& %( +e *"&$*( 1%+ +e (e%*"&2)*". $e.%$'( ()*+ $( #'"$%& #%e'2

     p'$e( %& +%+ p"1e. 2e5%*e(!

    F'"$%& $e( $.e e&$'e2 2e#%&%& +e p$.$ee. FLOATING "& +e CONTACT

    ($ee&! F". e$p'e, +e ($ee&B

    CONTACT NAME#$e FLOATING

    T+e $"5e ($ee& %5e( +$ +e e'e*."2e &$e2 #$e 1%'' e #'"$%& $&2 +$ *+$.e

     ")&2$. *"&2%%"&( 1%'' $pp'!

    F". 2%.e* *"&$*( " +e (e%*"&2)*"., +e FLOATING p$.$ee. *$&&" e )(e2! T+%(

    pe "# #'"$%& e'e*."2e %( e( (%)'$e2 2e#%&%& *)..e& ")&2$. *"&2%%"&( "& +e

    CONTACT ($ee&! F". e$p'e, +e ($ee&B

    CONTACT NAME2.$%& CURRENT

    T+e $"5e ($ee& %5e( *)..e& ")&2$. *"&2%%"&( #". +e e'e*."2e &$e2 2.$%&! O&

    ()(e)e& SOL>E ($ee&(, +e 2.$%& *)..e& ")&2$. *"&2%%"& 1%'' 2e#$)' " e."

    *)..e&, +e.e#".e #'"$%& +e *"&$*!

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    S"orting 1o #ontacts oget"er

    I %( #e$(%'e %& ATLAS " (+". 1" ". ".e *"&$* "e+e. (" +$ 5"'$e( "& "+

    *"&$*( $.e ($e! T+%( %( )(e#)' #". $& e*+&"'"%e( #". e$p'e 2)$' $e MOSFET(!

    T+e.e $.e ("e e+"2( #". $*+%e5%& +%( 2epe&2%& "& +"1 +e (.)*).e 1$( ".%%&$''

    2e#%&e2!

    I# +e (.)*).e %( (pe*%#%e2 )(%& ATLAS (&$, "&e *$& +$5e &)e. "# ELECTRODE

    ($ee&( 1%+ +e ($e NAME p$.$ee. (pe*%#%& 2%##e.e& '"*$%"&( %&(%2e +e 2e5%*e

    (.)*).e! I& +%( *$(e, +e $.e$( (pe*%#%e2 " e e'e*."2e( 1%'' e *"&(%2e.e2 $( +$5%& +e

    (%%'$. $pp'%e2 5"'$e! A (%&'e *)..e& 1%'' *"e %&" 5%e1 *"%&%& +e *)..e& +.")+

     "+ ELECTRODE $.e$(!

    Ma'ing an O3en #ircuit #ontact

    I %( "#e& &e*e(($. " *$.. ") $ (%)'$%"& 1%+ $& "pe& *%.*)% "& "&e "# +e (pe*%#%e2

    e'e*."2e(! T+e.e $.e +.ee 2%(%&* e+"2( " *.e$e $& "pe& *%.*)% *"&$*!

    I! T+e #%.( e$&( %( " "$'' .e"5%& $& e'e*."2e #." +e (.)*).e #%'e!

    II! T+e (e*"&2 1$ %( " $22 $& .ee&2")(' '$.e ')pe2 .e(%($&*e! F". e$p'e, 000 [

    "&" +e *"&$* " e $2e "pe& *%.*)%!

    III! T+e +%.2 e$&( %( " (1%*+ +e ")&2$. *"&2%%"&( "& +e *"&$* " e *.e$%& "pe&

    *%.*)% #." 5"'$e *"&."''e2 " *)..e& *"&."''e2 $&2 +e& 2e#%&%& $ 5e. &e'%%'e

    *)..e& +.")+ +$ e'e*."2e!

    T+e $"5e e+"2( $.e p"((%'e ) %# $ #'"$%& .e%"& %( e&e.$e2 1%+%& +e (.)*).e, +e&

    &)e.%*$' *"&5e.e&*e $ +$5e ("e p."'e! S" +e (e*"&2 e+"2 %( ee. e*$)(e %

    %5e( ee. *"&5e.e&*e!

    ..+ S3ecifying Material %ro3erties

    Semiconductor* $nsulator* or #onductor

    A'' $e.%$'( $.e 2%5%2e2 %&" +.ee *'$((e(B (e%*"&2)*".(, %&()'$".( $&2 *"&2)*".(! E$*+

    *'$(( .e)%.e( $ 2%(%&* (e "# p$.$ee.( " e 2e#%&e2! F". (e%*"&2)*".(, +e(e p."pe.%e(

    %&*')2e $&2 $p, e'e*."& $##%&%, ($).$%"& 5e'"*%%e( $&2 2e&(% "# ($e(! T+e.e $.e +e

    e&e.$' p$.$ee.( )(e2 %& (%)'$%"&( "# 2e5%*e( #". $& $e.%$'(!

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    Setting %arameters

    T+e MATERIAL ($ee& pe.%( " (pe*%# )(e. 2e#%&e2 5$')e( #". +e(e e&e.$'

     p$.$ee.(! F". e$p'e, +e ($ee&B

    MATERIAL MATERIALS%'%*"& EG300! MUN00

    T+e $"5e ($ee& %5e( +e $&2 $p 5$')e "# ! e> $&2 '"1 #%e'2 e'e*."& "%'% "# 

    00 *5-( %& $'' (%'%*"& .e%"&( %& +e 2e5%*e! I# +e $e.%$' p."pe.%e( $.e 2e#%&e2

    .e%"&, +e .e%"& %( (pe*%#%e2 )(%& +e REGION ". NAME p$.$ee.( %& +e MATERIAL

    ($ee&! F". e$p'e, +e ($ee&B

    MATERIAL REGION TAUN0e-7 TAUP0e-

    T+e $"5e ($ee& %5e( +e e'e*."& $&2 +"'e S+"*/'e-Re$2-H$'' .e*"%&$%"& '%#e%e(

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    +e REGION ($ee&, +e& +e ($ee&B

    MATERIAL NAME$(e NC3003e9

    T+e $"5e ($ee& %5e( +e *"&2)*%"& $&2 2e&(% "# ($e( $ 300 K #". +e .e%"&

    &$e2 $(e!

    2etero>unction Materials

    T+e +ee.")&*%"& $e.%$' p."pe.%e( *$& $'(" e *)("%e2 1%+ +e MATERIAL

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     p$.$ee.( *$& e (pe*%#%e2! T+e(e %&*')2e *"p"(%%"& 2epe&2e& $&2 p$.$ee.(,

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    F". +ee.")&*%"& $e.%$' ((e(, +e $&2$p 2%##e.e&*e e1ee& +e $e.%$'( %( 2%5%2e2 e1ee& *"&2)*%"& $&2 5$'e&*e $&2(! T+e ALIGN p$.$ee. (pe*%#%e( +e #.$*%"& "# +%(

    2%##e.e&*e +$ %( $pp'%e2 " +e *"&2)*%"& $&2 e2e! T+%( 2ee.%&e( +e e'e*."& $&2 +"'e

     $..%e. +e%+ $&2 "5e..%2e( $& e'e*."& $##%&% (pe*%#%*$%"&! F". e$p'e, +e ($ee&B

    MATERIAL MATERIALI&G$A( ALIGN0!3

    MATERIAL MATERIALI&P ALIGN0!3

    T+e $"5e ($ee& (pe*%#%e( +$ 3 "# +e $&2 $p 2%##e.e&*e e1ee& I&G$A( $&2 I&P

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    %( %5e& " +e *"&2)*%"& $&2 $&2 6 %( %5e& " +e 5$'e&*e $&2! F". e$p'e, %# +e

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     $&2 $p 2%##e.e&*e < E= #". +%( $e.%$' ((e %( 0!6 e>, +e& +e *"&2)*%"& $&2 $..%e. 

    +e%+ %( 0!0 e> $&2 +e 5$'e&*e $&2 $..%e. +e%+ %( 0!390 e>!

    Specifying Interface Properties

    T+e ($ee& #". INTERFACE %( )(e2 " (pe*%# +e %&e.#$*e *+$.e 2e&(% $&2 ().#$*e

    .e*"%&$%"& 5e'"*% $ %&e.#$*e( e1ee& (e%*"&2)*".( $&2 %&()'$".(! F". e$p'e, +e

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    INTERFACE \F3e0

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    300

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    2"&e 1%+ +e @!MIN, @!MA@, Y!MIN, $&2 Y!MA@ p$.$ee.( "& +e INTERFACE

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    e$p'e, +e ($ee&B

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    '%%( +e %&e.#$*e *+$.e " +e (e%*"&2)*".-%&()'$". ")&2$. 1%+%& +e (pe*%#%e2

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    e%((%"& $.e e&$'e2 $&2 2e#%&e2 1%+ +e INTERFACE ($ee&!

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    Chapter 4

    4 DEVICE STRUCTURE & SIMULATION

    8. "e De4ice Structure

    F%).e( 4! $&2 4! (+"1 +e *."(( (e*%"&$' 5%e1 "# +e TMDG MOSFET( 1%+ 2.$%&

    (%2e %($'%&e&

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    Figure 8..& A sc"ematic 4ie1 of t"e MDG MOSFE structure 1it" drain side misalignment 5engt" of 

    control gate* first screen gate and second screen gate are ta'en as  L*

     Land

     L3 res3ecti4ely. t  si and

    t o x

    are silicon c"annel t"ic'ness and gate o

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    bet1een front and bac' gate at t"e drain end.