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INTRODUCERE Cursul Maritime English for Nautical Students (COURSEBOOK, 2 nd year of study) este structurat in zece capitole/unităţi după cum urmează: Anchoring, Mooring, Towing, Taking a Pilot Aboard, Medical Inspection of the Ship, Examining the Ship by the Customs, Reception of Cargo, Delivery of Cargo, Buying Provisions, Passing Through Narrows and Canals. Textele selectate precum şi extrasele din Cartea Pilotului (Pilot Book) au ca scop familiarizarea studenţilor cu limbajul maritim standard (SMCP) utilizat la bordul navei (On Board Communication) şi cu autorităţile portuare (External Communications) precum si formarea competentelor lingvistice in conformitate cu recomandarile IMO si STCW 95 (AI/II).

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    Cursul Maritime English for Nautical Students (COURSEBOOK, 2nd year of study) este structurat in zece capitole/uniti dup cum urmeaz: Anchoring, Mooring, Towing, Taking a Pilot Aboard, Medical Inspection of the Ship, Examining the Ship by the Customs, Reception of Cargo, Delivery of Cargo, Buying Provisions, Passing Through Narrows and Canals. Textele selectate precum i extrasele din Cartea Pilotului (Pilot Book) au ca scop familiarizarea studenilor cu limbajul maritim standard (SMCP) utilizat la bordul navei (On Board Communication) i cu autoritile portuare (External Communications) precum si formarea competentelor lingvistice in conformitate cu recomandarile IMO si STCW 95 (AI/II).


    1. Reading 2. Speaking 3. Vocabulary 4. Reading comprehension 5. Standard Marine Communication Phrases (SMPC) 5.1. Going to anchor 5.2. Leaving the anchorage 6. SMCP in context 6.1.Standard Phrases used in the text 7. Excerpts from the Pilot Book related to anchoring 8. GRAMMAR. Future 9. Grammar Progres Test 10. Progress Test Answer-key

    Unit.2 MOORING

    1.Reading 2.Speaking 3.Vocabulary 4.Reading comprehension 5.Standard Marine Communication Phrases (SMPC) 5.1. Berthing 5.2. Unberthing 6. SMCP in context 6.1. Vocabulary used in the text 7. Excerpta from the Pilot Book related to Mooring 8. GRAMMAR. Modal verbs-general 9. Grammar.Progress Test 10. Progress test Answer-key

    Unit.3 TOWING

    1.Reading 2.Speaking 3.Vocabulary 4.Reading comprehension 5.Standard Marine Communication Phrases (SMPC) 6. SMCP in context 6.1. Preparation for Towing 6.2. Connecting the Tow 6.3. Commencing Towing 6.4. Vocabulary used in the text 7. GRAMMAR. Verb + -ing or infinitive(I) 8. Grammar. Progress Test 9. Progress Test Answer key


    1. Reading 2. Speaking

  • 3. Vocabulary 4. Reading Comprehension 5. SMCP 5.1. Propulsion System 5.2. Embarking/disembarking pilot 6. Excerpts from the Pilot Book related to pilotage. 7. GRAMMAR. Infinitive and Gerund (II)


    1. Reading 2. Speaking 3. Vocabulary 4. Reading Comprehension 5. Maritime Declaration of Health 6. Excerpts from the Pilot Book on health regulations 7. GRAMMAR.Word order 8. Grammar. Progress Test 9. Progress Test answer key


    1. 1.Reading 2. Speaking 3. Vocabulary 4. Reading comprehension 5. GRAMMAR. Reported Speech 6. Grammar Progress Test 7. Progress Test Answer key


    1. Reading 2. Speaking 3. Vocabulary 4. Reading comprehension 5. GRAMMAR. The Passive 6. Grammar Progress Test 7. Progress Test Answer key


    I. Reading 2. Speaking 3. Vocabulary 4. Reading comprehension 5. SMCP related to cargo handling 6. GRAMMAR. Conditionals 7. Grammar Progress Test 8. Progress Test Answer key Unit.9 BUYING PROVISIONS

    1.Reading 2. Speaking

  • 3. Vocabulary 4. Reading Comprehension 5. GRAMMAR.Prepositions(I) 6. Grammar.Progress Test 7. Progress Test Answer key Unit.10 PASSING THROUGH NARROWS AND CHANNELS 1.Reading 2. Speaking 3. Vocabulary 4. Regulations for preventing Collisions at sea 4.1. Steering and sailing rules 4.1.1. Rule 9. Narrow Channels 4.2. Section II. Conduct of vessels in sight of one another. 4.3. Section I. Conduct of vessels in restricted visibility 5. Reading Comprehension 6. GRAMMAR.Prepositions(II) 7. Grammar.Progress Test 8. Progress Test Answer key

  • Unit 1.

    ANCHORING 1. Read the following text and try to guess the meaning of the new words and phrases from the

    context Ships may anchor either in the open roadstead or in the inner harbour. To bring the ship to anchor, it is necessary to slacken speed and stop the engine at the proper time. Both anchors must be ready to let go. The ship may ride to one or two anchors. If there is a strong wind, it is necessary to bring her head up into the wind. In case there is a strong tidal stream or current the ship should be stem on to the current. When the ship is near her intended place, she is given a little sternway with the engine (if there is no wind or current) and one anchor is dropped, then the anchor chain is paid out, and, if necessary, the other anchor is let go. When the chain is brought up, that is when the vessel has come to rest in water, the brake is set as tight as possible. The scope of chain to be paid out depends on many factors, such as the size of the ship, the weather and tide conditions, the quality of the holding ground. It is the captain or the officer of the watch (OOW) who must determine how much of chain is to be paid out in each case. Usually, a length of chain equal to about five times the depth of water is sufficient. When the ship has been anchored, the watch officer takes the anchorage bearings. He also sees that the soundings are taken at the anchorage and enters into the log book both the bearings and soundings. Then he marks the ships position on the chart. When the vessel is at anchor at night one or more men are posted on anchor watch. It is their duty under the officer of the watch to see to the security of the ship, to see that there is sufficient room for the vessel to swing with the tide without striking another vessel. 2.Role-play the following dialogues and then work out and perform dialogues of your own. 2.1. Dialogue 1 P = Pilot; C = Captain P: In an hours time we will approach the port. As its ebb time now we shall have to wait for the tide in the outer roadstead. The depths in the entrance to port are not sufficient for our draft. C: How long shall we wait for the tide? P: We will have to wait until sunset. C: Shall we have to anchor or may we make fast to the mooring buoys there? P: There are no mooring buoys there; well have to anchor half a mile off-shore. C: What landmarks will we have there for the anchorage? P: There is a conspicuous water tower on the coast, which should be kept on bearing 36 and the lighthouse at the port entrance, which should bear 78. C. What are the depths at the anchorage? P: The bottom is quite even; there are no rocks or shoals. C: What is the nature of the ground there? P: There is good holding ground; soft mud with few patches of sand. C: Is there enough room at the anchorage for swinging? P: Oh, there is plenty of room for several ships. 2.2.Dialogue 2. P: In half an hour we shall be at the anchorage. Its time to notify the engine room and to get the anchors ready. C: Thats right. Which anchor are we going to use? P: Well use the starboard anchor. C: How much chain shall we need?

  • P: I think four shackles will do. C: All right. Ive ordered a deck-hand to start taking soundings. P: Thats very good. You see that red tower over there? We must steer for that tower till the port lighthouse opens to southward. C: Well, what then? P: Then we must alter the course 40 to starboard and steer for the lighthouse till we are a mile off-shore. That is our berth. C: Oh. I see. The depths are beginning to decrease. 2.3..Dialogue 3. P: Soon well be underway and proceed into port. C: Fine! I have already given orders to stand by to weigh anchor. We have just got a radiogram from our agent. He has arranged to berth the ship at Berth No.7. P: Very good, Sir. This is a very convenient berth. C: How shall we proceed from here? P: We shall steer for the port lighthouse, keeping in the green sector of the light till we come to the entrance. Then we shall keep two red leading lights in line till we pass through the entrance. After that we shall keep the bright light ashore in line with the molehead light. This will bring us straight to the wharf. C: All right, thats clear. Shall we heave the anchor up? 3. VOCABULARY Words and expressions Road/roadstead = rad Berth = dan To pay out = a fila (parm, lan) Tidal stream = curent de maree Current = curent To let go/cast/drop anchor = a mola, a fundarisi Anchor is clear of the bottom = ancora s-a smuls de fund Foul anchor = ancor angajat/agat Dragging anchor = ancor care derapeaz Dredging anchor = ancor care grapeaz Ebb = reflux To approach = a se apropia Off-shore = la larg de coast Landmark = reper costier Anchorage = ancoraj Bearing = relevment Entrance = intrare To shelter = a adposti High land = mal, coast nalt Bottom = fund Ground = fund Good-holding ground= care ine bine (Un)tenable ground = care ine/nu ine Deck-hand = marinar de punte To steer for = a guverna pe To heave up = a vira, a recupera To bring the ship to anchor = a aduce nava la ancoraj To slacken speed = a reduce viteza To ride/lie/be at anchor = a sta la ancor The ship rides to one anchor = nava are o singur ancor fundarisit To bring the ships head up into the wind = a aduce prova in vnt

  • To bring up = a ancora To drop anchor = a fundarisi ancora To be stem on to the current = a sta cu prova n vnt To give a ship the sternway with the engine = a deplasa nava napoi folosind maina To swing at anchor = a gira la ancor To weigh anchor = a vira, a ridica ancora To keep in line = a menine un aliniament To alter the course = a schimba de drum To take bearings on = a lua relevmente la To make fast = a volta, a se lega la Mooring buoy = baliz de amarare Landmark = reper costier Conspicuous vizibil Even bottom = fund nivelat, fr asperiti Shoals = banc de nisip Soft mud = ml moale Patches of sand = ntinsur, poriuni de nisip Clay = argil, argilos (despre natura fundului) Shell= scoic, fund de scoici Chalk = calcar, fund calcaros To avoid a sweptm wreck = a evita o epav la o adncime dem 4. Reading comprehension. 4.1. Read the text again and answer the following questions: 1. Where may ships anchor? 2. Should only one anchor be ready when anchoring? 3. May the ships ride to one anchor only? 4. How is the ships head brought up in a strong wind? 5. How is the ship brought up if there is a strong current? 6. Are both anchors let go at the same time? 7. Who is to determine how much of chain should be paid out? 8. What length of chain is usually sufficient? 9. What bearings should the watch officer take after anchoring? 10. What information should he enter into the log book? 11. Where should the ships position be marked? 12. Why should a ship have sufficient room at the anchorage? 4.2. Read the dialogues again and answer the following questions. 4.2.1. Dialogue 1. 1. When should they approach the port according to the pilot? 2. Why did they have to wait for the tide? 3. Till what time did they have to wait? 4. What did the pilot say about the mooring buoys? 5. What did the pilot say about the landmarks? 6. On what bearing should they keep the water tower? 7. What did the pilot say about the nature of the ground? 8. Was there enough room for swinging?

  • 4.2.2. Dialogue 2. 1. Which anchor were they going to use? 2. How many shackles of chain were needed? 3. Who did the captain tell to take soundings? 4. For what landmark was the captain to steer? 5. Till what moment was he to steer for the water tower? 6. How many degrees was he to alter the course when the lighthouse opened? 7. How far off-shore was that anchorage? 4.2.3. Dialogue 3. 1. When were they going to get underway? 2. What orders had the captain given? 3. What did he say about a radiogramme? 4. At which berth did the agent arrange for the ship to berth? 5. Was that berth convenient? 5.Standard Marine Communication Phrases (SMCP) 5.1. Going to anchor Is/are the anchor(s) ready for dropping? = Este/sunt ancorele gata pentru fundarisire? We are going to an anchorage = Ne ndreptm spre un loc de ancoraj Have (port/starboard/both) anchor(s) ready. = Pregtii ancora/ancorele din babord/tribord/ambele. We will drop ( port/starboard/both) anchor(s) = Vom lsa (fundarisi) ancora/ancorele din babord/tribord/ambele Putshackles in the water = Lsai ..chei de lan n ap Put shackles in the pipe. = Lsai chei de lan in nar Put shackles on deck = Lsaichei de lan pe punte. Walk back (port/starboard/both) anchor(s) one/one and a half shackle(s) = Filai ancora/ancorele din babord/tribord/ambele o cheie/ o cheie de lan i jumtate. We will let go ( port/starboard/both) anchor(s)shackle(s) and dredge it/them = Vom mola (fundarisi) ancora/ancorele din babord/tribord/ambele/cu..chei(e) de lan i o/le vom grapa. Drop port/starboard/both) anchor(s) = Funda ancora/ancorele/ din babord/tribord ambele. Pay out the cable(s) = Fila lanul/lanurile de ancor Check the cable (s) = Controleaza lanul/lanurile de ancor Hold on (port/starboard/both cable(s) = ine lanul/lanurile de ancor/din babord/tribord/ambele. How is the cable leading? = Cum ntinde lanul o nava? The cable(s) is/are leading (ahead/astern/to port/to starboard/round the bow up and down) = Lanul/lanurile de ancora ntind(e)/nainte/napoi/spre stnga/dreapta/ dublnd prova/ la pic. Is/are the anchor(s) holding? = in(e) ancora/ancorele? Are you brought up? = Eti ancorat/oprit prin ancorare? Switch on anchor light(s) = Aprindei lumina/luminile de ancoraj Switch off anchor light(s) = Stingei lumina/luminile de ancoraj Hoist anchor ball = Arborai bula neagr Lower anchor ball = Cobori bula neagra Check the anchor position by bearings = Verificai pozitia de ancoraj cu relevmente 5.2. Leaving the anchorage How much cable is out? = Ct lan de ancor este deasupra ancorei? Stand by to heave up = Pregtii-v pentru virat Put the windlass in gear = Cuplati vinciul de ancor. Heave up the ( port/starboard/both) cable(s) = Virai lanul/lanurile din babord/tribord/ambele

  • How much weight is on the cable? = Ct este de solicitat/virat lanul de ancor? Much weight is on the cable= Lanul de ancor este solicitat (virat) mult Too much weight is on the cable = Lanul de ancor este solicitat (virat) prea mult. No weight is on the cable = Lanul de ancor nu este solicitat (virat). Stop heaving = Oprii virarea How many shackles are left to come in ? = Cte chei de lan mai sunt de adus la post? There is a turn in the cable(s) = Lanul/lanurile prezint o rsucire Anchor(s) aweigh/clear of the bottom = Ancora/ancorele s-a/s-au desprins de fund Anchor(s) is/are clear of the water = Ancora/ancorele este/sunt liber/libere/a/au ieit din ap Anchor(s) is/are home = Ancora/ancorele este/sunt la post Anchor(s) is/are foul = Ancora/ancorele este/sunt/agate/prins/prinse Anchor(s) secured = S-a/s-au asigurat ancora/ancorele la post 6. SMCP in context.

    Role -play the following anchoring scenario, then imagine and role-play an anchoring scenario of your own.

    The Pastoria is approaching the anchorage. The Chief Officer is making preparations for a standing moor. He is on the forecastle head with the carpenter, Grey and other hands. Chief Officer: Take the covers off the spurling gates and unplug them, Chippy. Carpenter: Yes, Sir. Chief Officer: Grey, take the lashings from the cables and ease back the compressors. Grey: Lashings off. Compressors eased back, Sir. Chief Officer: Chippy! Put the gipsy of the port anchor in gear and lower the anchor out of the hawse-pipe. Carpenter: Yes, SirAnchor clear of the hawse-pipe, Sir. Chief Officer: Good. Same for the starboard anchor now. Carpenter: Yes, Sir. Starboard anchor clear of the hawse-pipe, Sir. We are all ready now to make a standing moor. The ship is travelling against the tide towards her intended anchorage. On the bridge the Captain is watching the situation closely. He says to the helmsman: Captain: You see that white tower one point to starboard, Jenkins? Jenkins: Yes, Sir. Captain: Steer for it. Jenkins: Yes, Sir Captain: Very well. Stop her. 3rd.Officer: Stop her, SirEngine stopped, Sir. Now that the way is off the ship, she is taken away by the tide and begins to come astern. As she does so, the Chief Officer on the forecastle head waits for the Captains signal before giving orders. Chief Officer: Let go port anchor. Carpenter: Let go port, Sir. Chief Officer: One shackletwothree. Check her. Fourfivesix shackles, Sir.

  • Six shackles of cable have been veered. This now lies in a straight line on the sea bed. The Pastoria has been brought up and the starboard anchor is now let go underfoot. Chief Officer: Let go starboard anchor. Carpenter: Let go starboard, Sir. On the bridge, the Captain will ease the strain on the port anchor by going ahead. Captain: Dead slow ahead. 3rd Officer: Dead slow ahead , Sir. Captain: Keep the white tower ahead, Jenkins. Jenkins: Ay, ay, Sir. As the ship begins to move forward, the Chief Officer says: Chief Officer: Heave in the port cable, Chippy. Grey, slack out the starboard cable, easy. Carpenter: Heave in port cable. Grey: Slack out starboard cable. Chief Officer: Twothree shackles. Avast heaving. Thats enough. Make all fast. Grey and Carpenter: Ay ,ay, Sir. Make all fast. 6.1. Standard phrases used in the text above: A standing moor = Ancorare cu dou ancore cu maina oprit. Spurling gates = nri de ancor To unplug = A degaja (nrile de ancor) To take the lashings from = A dezarma (lanurile) To ease back the compressors = A slbi stopele To put the gipsy/windlass in gear = A cupla vinciul de ancor Hawse-pipe = Manon al nrii de ancor One point to starboard = Un cart la dreapta Now that the way is off the ship = Acum, pentru c nava a fost stopat Six shackles have been veered = S-au filat ase chei de lan To ease the strain on the port/starboard anchor = A reduce solicitarea ancorei babord/tribord Avast heaving = Stop virarea Make all fast = Volta peste tot 7. Read and study the following excerpts from the Pilot Book related to anchoring. Notice how the vocabulary is used and then discuss what information you can derive from these excerpts. Have in mind the quality and the nature of the holding ground, location of anchorages, recommendations and warnings. 3.21

    There is anchorage about 2 miles S of the harbour entrance in depths from 5.5 m to 7.3m, stiff blue clay. This anchorage is considerably sheltered and the sea is kept down by The Owers (5040N, 040W), which acts as a natural breakwater during W and WSW winds. Small craft awaiting the tide to enter the harbour can anchor nearer the entrance E or W of the leading line according to the wind.

  • 3.48 There is anchorage off Shoreham harbour in any convenient depth from 4m, sand over clay and chalk, about 3 cables off the entrance to 9m, sand and shingle with patches of chalk, 2 miles offshore. The pilots consider the best holding ground, sand and gravel over chalk and clay, is 1 miles off the entrance, in a depth of 7m, with High Lighthouse bearing 000. 3.84 Good anchorage, in offshore or E winds, can be found in a depth of 7.5m in Seaford Road, 1 miles ESE of the breakwater head, with Beachy Head Old Lighthouse in line with the foot of Seaford Cliff, bearing 109, and Seaford church, bearing 055. This anchorage is clear of the track of cross-channel ferries to and from Newhaven, and provides good shelter with winds from E by S, through N, to WNW. 4.17 Anchorage off Folkstone harbour is much exposed and is only used by vessels waiting for the tide to enter harbour. The best holding ground is in depth from 12m to 18m, clay and sand. A good berth is with Copt Point in line with Folkstone Breakwater Light, bearing 025, the latter distant 2 cables. Vessels anchored 7 cables S of the breakwater have reported dragging their anchors over apparently rocky bottom. 4.40 Vessels whose draft permits, proposing to anchor in Outer harbour, must do so within the anchorage area indicated on the chart, which lies parallel with, and between 2 and 3 cables NW of Southern Breakwater. The area has been dredged to a depth of 6.5m. The W and N corners of the anchorage area are marked by C and D Light-buoys (special) and buoys (special) mark the NW limit. The area of Outer Harbour NW of the dredged anchorage area is reserved for yachts and pleasure craft. The E limit of this anchorage is marked by three buoys (special). The holding ground in the anchorage area is fairly good, but caution is advisable during strong winds. Strong gales between SW and W raise considerable scend at about HW, which renders berths alongside Prince of Wales Pier and Easter Arm untenable. In east gales smooth water may be found under the lee of eastern Arm. Foul area. It is dangerous to navigate or anchor within the foul area in the NE corner of Outer Harbour, indicated on the chart, between Pier B and Castle Jetty. 4.58 No vessel shall anchor in the approach to the E or W entrance to the harbour in such a position as to obstruct the free passage of any other vessel through either of these entrances. No vessels without the permission of the Harbour Master are allowed to anchor in the fairway. Vessels shall moor or anchor in accordance with the direction of the Harbour Master, and when any such vessels have been moored or anchored, they shall not be moved therefrom without the permission of the Harbour Master except in case of emergency.

  • 4.84 Holding ground is not good in parts of The Downs, particularly S of Goodwin Fork Light-buoy (5113,2N, 127.2E). The best anchor berth on the W side of the charted anchorage for large vessels is in a depth of 12.5m, with South Foreland lighthouse in line with the beacon on the HW line in Oldstairs Bay, bearing 208, and Deal Castle bearing 290. There is good anchorage farther S, in a depth of 12.5m, with Walmer Castle (5112N, 124E) bearing about 295, distant 11 cables. With NE winds it is better to anchor in Trinity Bay, in a depth of 21m, with Deal Castle bearing 280, distant 3 miles. Vessels drawing up to 5m can anchor in The Small Downs, as indicated on the chart, 1 1/4miles NE of Deal Pier. This anchorage is better for small vessels than that in The Downs, as it is more sheltered and the holding ground is better. Care must be taken to avoid a swept 4.4m wreck, in the SE part of the anchorage area and a 2.6m shoal, 4 cables N of the wreck. This shoal forms part of a small sandwave area extending S from the S end of Brake. 5.23 The recommended outer anchorage is within a circle radius 5 cables, centered 12 cables W of Jetee Nord Light, in depths from 10m to 16m (33 to 53ft), sand and shell, bad holding ground. The anchorage is exposed to winds from SW, through N, to NE. the sea rises very rapidly and vessels should only anchor here in fine weather. The best anchorage is reported to be on the edge of the above area in a depth of 10m (3.3ft), with Jetee Sud light-tower bearing 085, distant 7 cables. The mooring of fishing gear within 1000m of Jetee Sud Light-tower is prohibited and anchoring in this area is not advised. 5.40 There is anchorage for vessels awaiting the tide to enter harbour in depth from 7m to 9m (23ft to 30ft), mud, off the entrance. This anchorage is only tenable in calm weather, or during winds from between SE and S. 5.76 This area lies within a radius of about 1 miles of D1 light-buoy, with depths from 6m to 12m. The bottom is sand and shingle or sand and shells; the holding ground is good. The anchorage is exposed to winds from W, through N to NE. In bad weather from the W, the swell runs round Point dAilly and breaks on the beach. In bad weather from between NW and NE, the sea is very high at the entrance to the harbour during the out-going tidal stream, and the swell is felt in avant-port. Prohibited area. Anchoring and fishing are prohibited in the triangular area, indicated on the chart, extending 5 cables from the harbour entrance. 8. GRAMMAR : FUTURE 8.1. Will 8.1.1. Form will + infinitive without to contractions : ll= will ; wont = will not We use will with all persons. We can also use shall instead of will with I and We eg. I/We shall work ( but in every day speech, we normally use contractions Ill and Well.)

  • 8.1.2. Use We can use will to predict the future e.g.. Tomorrow will be another cold day in all parts of the country. In the future, machines will do many of the jobs that people do today.

    Who do you think will win the football match on Sunday? We wont arrive home before midnight tonight.

    When we predict the future, we often use will with the following verbs and expressions: Think expect believe be sure be afraid hope

    e.g. I expect theyll be here at around 10 oclock tomorrow morning. Im sure youll enjoy the film if you go and see it.

    We also se will in this way with adverbs of probability, e.g. probably, perhaps, certainly

    e.g. Martin will probably phone us this evening. Perhaps Ill see you tomorrow. We also use will when we decide to do something at the moment of speaking.

    e.g. Would you like something to drink? Oh., thank you. Ill have some orange juice. Theres someone at the door. Is there? Oh, Ill see who it is. Im going out shopping. Oh, are you? Ill come with you, then. I need to get some things myself.

    8.2. Going to 8.2.1. Form be+going to+infinitive e.g. I am going to work Are you going to work? I am not going to work. 8.2.2. Use Sentences with going to connect the future and the present We use going to to talk about something in the future which we can see as a result of something in the present.

    e.g. Look at those black clouds in the sky. Its going to rain. Those people are going to get wet. Hurry up! Its getting late. Youre going to miss your train. Look out! That ladder is going to fall

    For this reason, sentences with going to are often about the near future. We also use going to to talk about what we intend to do in the future. We use going to when we have already decided to do something.

    e.g. Why have you moved all the furniture out of this room? Im going to clean the carpet Lynne has just sold her car. Is she going to buy a new one?

  • 8.3. Will and Going to 8.3.1.We use both will and going to in predictions about the future, but there is a difference: We use will to talk about what we think or believe will happen in the future. e.g. That boat doesnt look very safe. Itll sink in that heavy sea. Dont climb that tree. Youll fall and hurt yourself. We use going to to talk about something in the future which we can see as a result of something in the

    present. e.g. Look at that boat! Its going to sink. Look out! Youre going to fall! 8.3.2. We use both will and going to to talk about what we intend to do, but there is a difference here: We use will when we decide to do something at the moment of speaking. e.g. Oh dear! Ive spilt some wine on my jacket. Dont worry. Ill clean it for you. What shall I do tomorrow? I know! Ill paint the kitchen. We use going to when we have already decided to do something.

    e.g. Why have you moved all the furniture out of this room? Im going to clean the carpet. Why are you putting on those old clothes? Im going to paint the kitchen.

    8.4. Present continuous for the future

    We use the present continuous to talk about something that we have already arranged or planned to do in the future.

    e.g. What are you doing on Saturday evening? Im meeting Sarah Sarah is taking an exam on Monday. Were visiting some friends in Scotland next weekend.

    When we use the present continuous in this way, we often give the future time (e.g. on Saturday evening, on Monday, this afternoon, next weekend)

    8.4.1. Present continuous and going to When we talk about things we have already arranged to do or planned to do in the future, we can use the present continuous or going to. e.g. Im having lunch with Lynne tomorrow. Im going to have lunch with Lynne tomorrow. When we make predictions about the future, we can use going to (or will), but not the present continuous. e.g. Its going to rain tomorrow. (Its raining tomorrow is not possible)

  • 8.5. Present simple for the future We use the present simple to talk about future events which are part of a fixed timetable or fixed programme.

    e.g. What time does the tennis start tomorrow? At 6.15. Next summer the school holidays begin on July 25th and end on September 10th. The film starts at 7.10 and finishes at 9.00. What time does your plane leave tomorrow?

    We use the present simple in this way when we think of something in the future as a fact, or as an arrangement or plan which cannot change. 8.5.1. Present simple for the future after when, if, etc. We use the present simple to refer to the future in clauses of time and condition after when while, as soon as, after, before, until, if, unless, as/so long as and provided/providing (that). Will/wont present simple Ill buy a newspaper when I go out. We wont go out until it stops raining. Well go to the beach if the weather is nice. Ill go to the party provided you go too. 8.6. Future continuous: will be+-ing 8.6.1. Form will be+ing I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they will be working (affirmative) I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they will not be working(negative) Will I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they be working ?(interrogative)

    This form is sometimes called the future progressive CONTRACTIONS: ll =will ; wont = will not We can use shall instead of will with I and We e.g. I/We shall be working(but , in every day speech , we normally use the contractions Ill and Well). The negative of shall is shall not (contraction: shant). 8.6.2. Use We use will be+-ing to talk about something which will be in progress at a time in the future. e.g. Ill be having dinner at 7.00. Dont phone me at 8.00. Ill be doing my homework then. What will you be doing this time next week? We also use will be+-ing to talk about things in the future which are already planned, or which are part of a regular routine. e.g. Ill be driving into town later on. Do you want a lift?

    Would you like me to give peter a message for you? Oh, I dont want to trouble you. its no trouble, really. Ill be seeing Peter tomorrow anyway.

  • We often use will be+-ing as a polite way of asking about someones plans, especially when we want someone to do something for us.

    e.g. Will you be going out this morning? Yes, why? Oh, could you get me a newspaper? Will you be using your camera at the weekend? I wondered if I could borrow it.

    When we use will be+-ing form in this way, it often suggests that we do not want to change the other persons plans. 8.7. Future perfect: will have+past participle 8.7.1. Form will have + past participle I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they will have finished/gone (affirmative) I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they will not have finished/gone (negative) Will I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they have finished/gone? (interrogative) CONTRACTIONS: ll = will ; wont = will not

    We can use shall instead of will with I and We e.g. I/we shall have finished ( but, in everyday speech, we normally use the contractions Ill and well). The negative of shall is shall not ( contraction: shant), 8.7.2. Use We can use will have + past participle to talk about something that will be completed by (not later than) a certain time in the future. When we use this structure, we think of a future time and look back from that future time to say that something will be completed. e.g. Ill have finished dinner by 8.00. Ill have worked here for a year next September. 8.8. Future in the past: was/were going to We can use was/were going to + infinitive to say that something was planned for the future at a past time. e.g. They were going to get married, but in the end they changed their minds Note that when we use this structure, it often means that the planned future action did not happen. e.g. I was going to stay at home last night, but I decided to go out instead.

    We were going to eat at the Italian restaurant, but it was full, so we ate somewhere else. 9.Grammar-Progress Test I. Complete the sentences. Use will or going to and the verbs in the box. Teach lend live bite take look have buy meet rain

    1. Would you like to come to come to the cinema with us? All right. Iyou at 7.00. 2. Look at those black clouds. It

  • 3. I cant find my umbrella. Dont worry. Iyou mine. 4. Have you seen my tennis racket? No. I havent.. Just a minute. Iin the cupboard. 5. I cant play chess. Iyou if you like. 6. Why are you putting on your coat? Ithe dog for a walk. 7. Why are you selling your house? Wein the country. 8. Dont go near that dog! Ityou. 9. Im going to buy Sally a Walkman for her birthday. Shes already got one. Has she? Well,

    Iher a new sweater. 10. Have you heard the news? Mrs Greens pregnant again. Sheanother baby.

    II. There are mistakes in some of these sentences. Which sentences have mistakes in them?

    1. Were going to see a film this evening. 2. The weather forecast says its snowing tomorrow. 3. What are you doing next weekend? 4. I think England are winning the soccer match tonight. 5. Im staying at home this evening. 6. Do you think Sarah is passing her exams this summer?

    III. Choose the correct answer-A or B.

    1. Well go for a picnic tomorrow if the weathernice. A will be B is

    2. Simon will get a ticket for the U2 concert, providing heall night. A will queue B queues 3. If you go to Moscow, youRed Square. A will see B see 4. Sue will give me some money when she paid. A will get B gets 5. Ill phone Mike as soon as I any news. A will hear B hear 6. Unless you work hard, youyour exams. A will fail B fail IV. Ken and Kate are going to Paris tomorrow. Here is their timetable for tomorrow morning:

    7.30-8.30 Drive to the airport 8.30 Check-in at the airport 10.00-11.00 Flight to Paris 11.15-11.45 taxi to the hotel 1.00 Lunch at the hotel

    Complete the sentences about Ken and Kate. Put the verbs into the future continuous or future perfect.

    1. At 8.00 they(leave) home and they ---(drive) to the airport. 2. At 8.00 they (arrive) at the airport and they(check-in). 3. At 10.15 they(fly) to Paris. 4. At 11.30 they(arrive) in Paris and they(drive) to their hotel. 5. At 1.10 they(have) lunch at the hotel.

    V. Make sentences with was/were going to

  • Example: I/take/the dog for a walk/it/start/to rain I was going to take the dog for a walk but, it started to rain. 1 Robert/watch/the film on TV/he/fall asleep 2.I/visit/you/I/not have/enough time 3. Sarah/change/some travellers cheques/the bank/be/closed 4. we/go/to the concert/it/be/cancelled 5. I/finish/work early/my boss/ask/me to work late 6. my parents/fly to Scotland/they/decide/to go by train

    10.Progress test-Answer-key I. 1. ll meet, 2. s going to rain, 3. ll lend, 4.ll look, 5.ll teach, 6.m going to take, 7. re going to live, 8. ll bite, 9. ll buy, 10.s going to have. II. 1.Right, 2. its snowing is a mistake, 3.Right.4. are winning is a mistake, 5.Right, passing is a mistake. III. 1.B, 2.B, 3.A, 4.B, 5.B, 6.A IV 1. ll have left, ll be driving, 2. ll have arrived, ll be checking-in, 3. ll be flying, 4. ll have arrived, ll be driving, 5. ll be having, V. 1. Robert was going to watch the film on TV but he fell asleep. 2. I was going to visit you but I did not have enough time. 3.Sarah was going to change some travellers cheques but the bank was closed. 4.We were going to go to the concert but it was concelled. 5. I was going to finish work early but my boss asked me to work late. 6.My parents were going to fly to Scotland but they decided to go by train.

  • Unit 2.

    MOORING 1. Read the text and try to guess the new words and phrases from the context Ships make fast to a wharf either alongside or stern to. When approaching a berth ships must proceed at slow speed. On deck, heaving lines and mooring ropes, as well we fenders, should be ready for use. The anchors must be ready to let go.

    At an appropriate distance from the berth the engine is stopped and the ships headway is used to bring her alongside the wharf. This headway should be just enough to keep the ship moving ahead without losing steerage way.

    If a ship has too much headway, it should be stopped by backing the ship with the engine or by letting the anchor go. As a matter of fact, only the off-shore anchor is dropped and then a heaving line is passed ashore. A head-rope, a bow spring and two breast lines are run out from the ship and secured to bollards ashore.

    Working on these lines, as well as on the stern rope and stern spring which are also run out in due time, the ship is hove into her berth and made fast.

    After the ship is secured in her berth, rat-guards should be placed on all the lines. For permanent moorings wire ropes are preferred to ordinary fibre ropes.

    All the mooring lines should be constantly watched, as the change of weather or rise and fall of tide can make the lines either too taut or too slack and this will necessitate from time to time veering them in or out. In stormy weather the ships secured in their berths usually have to double up fore and aft.

    2. Role-play the following dialogues and then work out and perform dialogues of your own.

    2.1. Dialogue 1 C = Captain ; P = Pilot C: Is taking a tug compulsory here? P: No, it is not compulsory, but it is advisable, and I shall tell you why. There are several strong currents in the harbour and as there is a lot of traffic now, it is pretty difficult to manoeuvre in congested waters. C: Will the tug take us only into the port or will she bring the ship alongside the wharf? P: Yes, the tug will work the ship into her berth. C: At what berth shall we moor? P: We shall moor at berth No. 17 C: We will need a 15 ton crane to discharge heavy-lifts. P: Your agent must have been informed about it as there is a 15ton crane at the berth. C: Thats good. Which side shall we make a landing? P: We will make a starboard side landing. 2.2.Dialogue 2 C: So, where are we going to berth? P: Do you see. Sir, a vacant place between the two big tankers tied up stern to? C: Do you mean those two big tankers over there with streamlined funnels? P: Yes, thats what I mean, and thats where we should now steer for. C: There isnt too much space there anyhow, but still enough to get the ship moored alongside. What is the depth alongside the berth? P: The depth is five fathoms, Sir. C: Is the bottom even there? P: No, there must be a little hump some 30 yards from the wharf, as the bottom was recently dredged.

  • C: Which side shall we go alongside? P: We will go along starboard side. C: Shall we drop an anchor? P: Yes, Sir. We shall drop the port anchor. 2.3. Dialogue 3 P: The ship has too much headway. Sir, I think its time to back her. C: Slow astern! Helm a-port! You know, she swings her bow to starboard on backing. P: I see. Now, Sir, give her a little swing to port. Steady so! Is your port anchor ready? C: The port anchor is ready. Stand by the port anchor. P: Let go the port anchor, Sir. C: Let go the port anchor! Veer out the cable handsomely! Send on shore the bow spring. P: Thats right, Sir. We must get the bow in first. C: Yes, now we can heave the ship alongside. P: I think, Sir, you must now steer the stern a little off the pier. C: Good. I think Ill start heaving the bow alongside with the bow lines. 3. VOCABULARY Words and phrases To make fast = a se laga la cheu To moor = a se lega, a acosta, a amara, a afurca Wharf = cheu, debarcader Fender = aprtoare, tranchet To let go = a mola, a fundarisi (ancora) Steerage way = viteza de guvernare, capacitate de a menine drumul Head rope/line = parma de legare prova Bow spring/backspring forward = spring prova Breast line = traversa To heave, hove, hove = a aduce nava ntr-o pozitie, a trage Taut = ntins Slack = slbit To veer in/out = a vira To make fast alongside = a acosta/lega cu bordul To make fast stern to = a acosta/lega cu pupa To get moored = a acosta, a se lega Streamlined funnel = cos de nava cu forme aerodinamice To get berthed/tied up = a aduce nava la cheu To bring the ship alongside the quay/to work the ship into her berth = a aduce nava la cheu To make a starboard/port landing/to get alongside starboard/port side to = a acosta (a se lega) cu tribordul/babordul To run out a line = a da o legtura It is advisable = este recomandabil To swing the bow to starboard/port = a gira, a aduce prova la dreapta/stnga To sheer the stern from the quay = a abate pupa de la cheu To double up fore and aft = a da dublin la prova i pupa.

  • 4. Reading Comprehension 4.1. Read the text again and answer the following questions: 1 How do ships make fast to a wharf?

    2. At what speed should a ship approach the berth?

    3. What should be made ready for use on deck?

    4. What is the ships headway used for in this case?

    5. What should be done if the ship has too much headway?

    6. When the ship has approached the berth what line is passed ashore first?

    7. What other ropes are run from the ship and secured to the bollards ashore?

    8. How is the ship hove into her berth?

    9. Where are rat-guards placed?

    10. Why should the mooring lines be constantly watched?

    11. Why should we veer in the ropes from time to time?

    12. When should we veer them out?

    13. In what weather should we double up the lines?

    14. How should the lines be watched if the weather is changeable?

    4.2.Read the dialogues again and answer the following questions:

    4.2.1. Dialogue 1

    1. What did the pilot say about taking a tug?

    2. Why was taking a tug advisable?

    3. Was there heavy traffic in the port?

    4. What did the pilot say about manoeuvering in congested waters?

    5. How far was the tug to take that ship?

    6. What did the captain need a crane for?

    7 Was there any crane at the berth?

    8.Was the ship to be berthed port side to?

    4.2.2. Dialogue 2

    1. Where did the pilot show a vacant place for the ship?

    2. What did the captain say about it?

    3. Why did he ask the pilot about the depths?

    4. Was the bottom even alongside that berth?

    5. Which side was the ship going to berth?

  • 4.2.3. Dialogue 3

    1. What did the pilot say about the ships headway? 2. How did the captain stop her headway? 3. Why did he command Helm-a-port when going astern? 4. Which anchor did the captain order to let go? 5. Which rope did he order to be sent ashore first? 5. Standard Marine Communication Phrases (SMCP) Relating to Berthing and Unberthing 5.1. Berthing We will berth port/starboard side alongside = Vom acosta cu bordul babord/tribord We will moor to (a ) buoy(s) ahead and astern = Ne vom lega la (o) geamandur/geamanduri n prova i n pupa. We will moor alongside = Vom acosta cu bordul We will moor to dolphins = Ne vom lega la piloi Send out(head/stern/breast) lines = Dai parmeprova/pupa/traversa Send outspring(s) forward/aft = Daispring(uri) prova/pupa We will useshore (head/stern/breast) lines/wires = Vom folosi parme/srme/prova/pupa/traverse de la mol (cheu) Do you have tension winches? = Avei vinciuri de ntindere? Have heaving lines ready forward and aft = Pregtii bandule la prova si pupa Send a (heaving/head/stern/breast) line ashore = Dai o parm bandula/prova/pupa/traversa la cheu Have a messenger line ready = Pregtii o parm intermediar Use the centre/panama lead forward/aft = Folosii nara central/panama din prova/pupa Use the bow lead = Folosii nara din centru Use the port/starboard quarter lead = Folosii nara din pupa babord./tribord. Heave online(s)/spring(s) = Virai parma/parmele/springul/springurile Pick up the slack on theline(s)/spring(s) = Luai din banda parmei/parmelor/springului/springurilor Heave away = virai Stop heaving = Stop virarea Slack awayline(s)/spring(s) = Filai parma/parmele/springul/springurile Stop slackingline(s)/spring(s) = Stop filarea parmei/parmelor/springului/springurilor Hold on line(s)/spring(s)= ine parma/parmele/springul/springurile Heave in easy = Vira uor Heave alongside = Tragei pe parme de-a lungul cheiului Keep lines tight = ine parmele ntinse Do not break the lines = Nu rupe parmele Report the forward/aft distance to = Raporteaza distana prova/pupa la We have to movemetres ahead/astern = Trebuie s ne deplasmmetri n prova/pupa We are in position = Suntem in poziie 5.2. Unberthing Is/are the engine(s) ready? = Este/sunt motorul/motoarele gata? How long does it take to have the engine(s) ready? = Ct dureaza pregtirea motorului/motoarelor? It takesminutes to have the engine(s) ready? = Dureazminute pentru pregtirea motorului/motoarelor Are you ready to get underway? = Suntei gata de mar? Prepare to let go = Pregtii de molat

  • Single upline(s) andsprings forward and aft = Reducei parma/parmelei springul/springurileprova i pupa. Slack away (head/stern/breast) line = Filai parma/prova/pupa/traversa Slack away (forward/aft) spring = Fila springul prova/pupa Heave on (head/stern) line = Vira parma prova/pupa Heave on (head/stern) spring = Vira springul prova/pupa Let go everything forward/aft = Mola toate parmele la prova/pupa Let go (head/stern) line = Mola parma.prova/pupa Let go towing line = Mola parma de remorcaj Let go spring = Mola springul Keep someone forward to stand by the anchor = inei pe cineva n prova s pregteasc ancora 6.Standard Marine Communication Phrases in context. Role play the berthing scenario below and then imagine and act out a berthing/unberthing scenario of your own.

    The Pastoria is coming up the river on the flood tide. Her berth is on her starboard side, and six cables ahead. The Chief Officer is on the forecastle and is giving the boatswain orders. Chief Officer: Anchors are clear; got the heaving lines, fenders and mooring ropes ready, boatswain? Boatswain: Yes, Sir. Chief Officer: The Captain is going to take her round, now. The next thing, after seeing that the equipment is ready, is to turn the ship round and stem the tide. We are now a little way past our berth and Captain Jones is doing this. Captain: Hard-a-starboard. Stop her. Full ahead. Helmsman: Hard-a-starboard, Sir. 3rd Officer: Full ahead, Sir. Captain: Midship. Stop her. Full astern. Helmsman: Midship 3rd Officer: Full astern, Sir. Captain: Stop her. Port a bit. 3rd Officer: Stop her, Sir. Helmsman: Port a bit. The Pastoria was turned around by this manoeuvre. Now she is stemming the tide. Captain: Slow ahead. Steady as you go. 3rd Officer: Slow ahead, Sir. Helmsman: Steady as you go, Sir. The ship is now approaching the berth against the tide, and Captain Jones has given us a slight cant towards it. On the forecastle, the Chief Officer says: Chief Officer: Heaving line ready? Bend on the head rope. Now pay her out. The shore party makes her head rope fast. Captain: Stop her. 3rd Officer: Stop her, Sir. Now the weight comes on the head rope and the ship is dropping alongside. On the stern of the Pastoria the Second Officer is in charge. He says:

  • Captain: Make fast your stern rope. Stern rope, breast ropes and spring are now led ashore and made fast. On the bridge, the Captain says: Captain: Ring Finished with the engine, Third. 3rd Officer: Finished with the engines, Sir. Captain: Very good. Helmsman, finished with the wheel. Helmsman: Finished with the wheel, Sir. 6.1. Vocabulary and expressions used in the text above. To come up the river = A naviga n amonte Flood tide = Perioada de flux Berth = Dan To stem the tide = A naviga contra mareei To give a slight cant = A aduce uor Heaving line = Bandul To bend on = A lega To pay out = A fila Shore party = Echipa de la cheu Now the weight comes on the head rope = Acum parma prova fiind solicitat The ship is dropping alongside = Nava vine prea repede la cheu Make fast your stern rope = Voltai parma pupa Let ashore = dai (pamele) la cheu 7. Read the following excerpts from the Pilot Book and then discuss the information you can derive. To what extent is this information important when entering or leaving the harbour?


    2.96. Berths. Piers Nos 1 and 2 project 137m SSE from a seawall mile NW of Point Sinet; there are depths of 8.5m along both sides of each pier. A vessel 168.5m in length with draught of 8.7m has berthed at No2, the W pier; it is recommended, however, that the maximum draught for entering Carenage Bay should be 8.2m and that berthing should only take place at or near HW. Submarine cables exist close SE of Pier No1 and off the NE shore of the bay. Approach. White framework towers stand on the head of Pier No2 and 1 cables NNW; in line, bearing 346 , they lead towards this pier. Care should be taken not to get W of the alignment, to avoid the shoal depths in the W part of Carenage Bay. 2.89 WHARVES. In the NE corner of Chaguaramas Bay, the Aluminium Co. of Canada has two wharves for handling bauxite and manganese ore. The W wharf, for loading is 275m in length with a depth of 9.1m alongside; it is equipped with fixed cranes and a transporter. The N wharf, for discharging, is 122m in length with a depth of 7.6m alongside and is equipped with two 4-ton travelling grabs.

  • 2.97 Berths. A pier projecting S from the shore is 297m long on the W side, which is for loading, and 206m long on the E side, for discharging; the berths on both sides are dredged to 11m.

    Secure anchorage can be obtained to mile off the pierhead. Approach. The pier is approached from SW with the leading lights at the terminal in line, bearing 042 . The range of the lights may be much reduced due to the bauxite dust. The front light (10 40.9'N, 61 36.0' W) (white square daymark with black stripe) is situated at the N end of the discharging berth. The rear light (white square daymark with black stripe) is situated 180m from the front light. A dredged approach channel on the leading line, and a turning basin between it and the pier, were dredged to 11m in 1963 The NE end of the approach channel and the turning basin are marked by 3 light-buoys and a buoy.

    WHARVES 2.115 Kings Wharf, at the E end of Grier basin, is 1189m in length; it comprises berths Nos1 to 6, for general cargo vessels and tourist vessels with a draught up to 9.1m Berth No 6A,extending NW from Kings Wharf, is a Container terminal 330m in length with a planned depth alongside of 9.7m; it is equipped with two 40-ton gantry cranes, each capable of handling 20 containers an hour. Kings Wharf Extension, at the NW end of Grier Basin, is 365m in length; it comprises Berths Nos 7 and 8, and can accommodate vessels with a draught up to 9.1m. This wharf is backed by malasses tanks (for transhipment) and oil tanks. There are dolphins close NW of the wharf. The wharves are equipped with cranes up to 36 tons capacity. 2.116 Smaller wharves and jetties at the port are: Saint Vincent Jetty (1038.7'N, 61 30.9' W) with a depth of 2.4m alongside. Guide Jetty, close NW of Saint Vincent Jetty, has depths on its S side of 4.0m at the outer end and of 2.7m at the inner end, and a depth on its N side of 2.4m Saint Vincent Wharf, close N of Guide Jetty, has a depth of 1.8m alongside. Queens Wharf, close E of Saint Vincent Jetty has a depth of 1.8m alongside. A pier extends SSE from the shore 2 cables E of Saint Vincent Jetty. Schooners and inter-island coasting vessels berth in this part of the port. The Harbour Masters Office is situated near the root of Saint Vincent Jetty. The customs house stands close N of Queens Wharf. PIERS 2.125 Two piers project W from the E side of the turning basin. The N or solids pier can accommodate a vessel 91m in length, with a draught of 5.6m, and is equipped with a 10-ton mobile crane; it is used for discharging sulphur and plant equipment, and loading bulk and bagged fertilisers and sulphuric acid in drums. The S or Liquids pier is for vessels up to 1000 dwt, with a draught of 8.5m, and has two dolphins off its head on which vessels normally berth heading S. This pier handles liquid ammonia, molasses and petroleum gases through pipelines, and bulk sugar by overhead conveyors and gantry.

  • SINGLE POINT MOORING 2.130a A single point mooring (SPM) buoy (orange; light flashing 4 white every 15 seconds; fog horn) is situated 2 miles WNW of the island berths (1019.8'N, 61 29.3'W). Three floating and lighted black and orange hoses, 288m in length, extend as a single unit from the mooring buoy. The depth at the mooring is 24m, but it decreases to 23m about mile E of the buoy. Tankers up to 260 000dwt and 22.4m draught can secure to the buoy, normally only by day, and must keep main engines at immediate readiness whilst there. Portable RT sets are available for tankers at the buoy. The emergency signal to stop pumping is a continuous blast on the ships whistle. BERTH AND APPROACH CHANNEL 2.135 The jetty, a solid structure extending 4 cables WNW from Point-a-Pierre (1019.3' N, 61 28.1' W), has two freighter berths, one on each side. No 7 Berth comprises the head of the jetty, with a dolphin and catwalk close off it, and is used for supplying fuel oil, lubricants and fresh water. No 8 Berth is the only one where stores can be handled and has a mobile crane. The approach channel to these berths is entered 1 miles WNW of the head of the jetty and is marked by light-buoys, numbered from W: N side by No 2, 4, 6 and 8 Light-buoys (red can; lights quick flashing or flashing red) and: S side by Nos 1, 3, and 5 Light-buoys (black flashing green). A conical buoy marks the W edge of shoal water close N of the jetty. Four mooring buoys exist 4 cables N of the head of the jetty. The least charted depth in the approach channel is 11.6m An island jetty is situated 1 miles WNW of Point-a-Pierre; it is marked by a light and comprises several dolphins. No 6 Berth North and number 6 Berth South lie on either side of the island, respectively. No 5 Berth is a fixed platform with dolphins, situated 2 cables ESE of the island jetty 2.136 THE VIADUCT, supported on concrete piles, extends nearly 1 mile WSW from the S side of Pointe-a-Pierre dolphins off the N side of its outer part provide No1, No2 North, No3 North, and No4 Berths. These berths are approached through an area, indicated on the plan, with a minimum charted depth of 13.1m; the S side of the entrance to this area is marked by No7 Light buoys (black conical, white stripes; light flashing white), moored 6 cables WNW of the head of the viaduct (10 18.9'N, 61 28.9' W). Off the S side of the outer part of the viaduct are No 2 South and No 3 South Berths, with dolphins. These berths are approached through a narrow channel which is extended between Nos 9 and 10 Light-buoys, moored 2 cables WSW of the head of the Viaduct; the channel leads into the turning basin, with a least charted depth of 58m, the limits of which are marked by conical buoys and, at its SE corner, by a light. BERTHS 3.54 A floating stage off the customs house pier is 90m in length, with depths alongside of 9.1m at high river and 4.8m at low river. Berthing is not difficult; a vessel approaches the stage stemming the current and keeping a careful watch for the counter-current which is no strong. There are three berths alongside, or close to, the river bank for local traffic; cargo is worked by means of temporary gangways rigged to the bank. Vessels may not take the ground as the river bed is both steep and uneven.

  • The floating stage has a system of elevators with a capacity of 10 tons to the top of the river bank, and a 7-ton mobile crane. There is also a 25-ton crane on the custom house pier. No regular landing places exist; boats go alongside anywhere at the city. BERTH 3.69 Pier. An iron pier on concrete piles extends 128m ENE from the W shore of Ensenada Macuro; at its head, there is a loading platform 20m long with a conveyor belt and loading tower, from which a light is exhibited. Vessels up to 80m in length are berthed alongside the head of the pier, starboard side to, using the port anchor and securing to three mooring buoys, one on the starboard bow and one on each quarter. It has been reported that a maximum draft of 7.9m is allowed alongside the pier. BERTHS 3.80 A quay on the inner side of the S breakwater, near its head, is 130m in length and has a depth of 7.3m alongside. A quay on the inner side of the N breakwater, 5 cables from its head, is 170m in length with depths from 7.3m to about 4m alongside. A pier for small craft, situated 1 mile NNE of the harbour. Two boat piers project from the W side of the harbour. PIERS 3.94 There are 4 piers, all with breasting and mooring dolphins: Muelle No1 is 106m in length and can berth vessels 137m in length with a draught of 7.0m. Muelle Nos 2 and 3, for the larger tankers, are situated down the river from Muelle No1; both piers are T-headed with depths of 10.7m alongside. Muelle No4, situated up the river from Muelle No1, is T-headed and has a depth of 4.3m alongside, it is used by small vessels. Berthing and unberthing are carried out throughout the day and night, but only during the flood tide. However, vessels may leave Muelle No3 at any stage of the tide. BERTHS AND WHARVES WHARVES 4.87 Of the eight principal wharves along the river frontage, the Guyana National Trading Corporation Wharf (649.0'N, 5810.1'W) is 280m in length with a depth of 4.8m alongside, but some wharves have depths up to 6.0m alongside. Vessels work cargo, except bulk sugar, with their own appliances. The Demerara Sugar Terminal, situated at the S end of the port, has a wharf 126m in length, with a least depth of 5.5m alongside and can accommodate vessels up to 161m in length; the loading rate is 500 tons an hour with two chutes. As the bottom is soft mud along the wharves, vessels can safely take ground at LW. 8. GRAMMAR: MODAL VERBS-GENERAL The modal auxiliary verbs or modal verbs are can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, ought to, must, need and dare.

  • 8.1.Use We use modal verbs to talk about, for example, possibility, willingness, ability, obligation, certainty and permission. e.g. It might rain. (possibility) Will you help me? (willingness) Can she swim? (ability) You must be home by 11 oclock. (obligation) You havent eaten all day. You must be hungry. (certainty) May I borrow your car? (permission)

    8.1.2.Form form the affirmative by putting the modal verb between the subject and the full verb. I can swim We should go now. Modal verbs take the same form in all persons. There is no-s ending in the third person singular. She can swim. He should go now. After all modal verbs (except ought) we use the infinitive without to e.g. swim, go etc. After ought we use to + infinitive e.g. to swim, to go etc. form the negative by putting nt/not after the modal verb. e.g. She cant swim We shouldt go. It might not rain. We form questions by inverting the subject and the modal verb. Compare: e.g. She can swim.- Can she swim? We should go Should we go? Note that we do not use do in questions and negatives. can use the structure modal verb+be+-ing e.g. Its getting late. We really must be going now. sometimes use expressions such as be able to, be allowed to and have to instead of modal verbs.

    These expressions give us certain meanings and forms which are not possible with modal verbs. e.g. Id like to be able to play the piano.(Can has no infinitive) She had to go to the doctors yesterday. (Must is not used to talk about the past) we talk about the past, we can use modal verb + have = past participle. We use this structure to

    talk about things that possibly happened or things that did not happen.

  • e.g. Peter is late. He may have missed his train( Perhaps he missed/has missed his train) I feel really tired today. I should have gone to bed earlier last night.( But I did not go to bed very

    early last night.) 8.2. Ability:can. Could, be able to 8.2.1. Can We use can to talk about ability. The negative of can is cannot(cant) e.g. Can you swim? He can play the guitar I cant open this bottle. Can you meet me tomorrow evening? We can use be able to instead of can e.g. Are you able to swim? (but can is more common) 82.2. Could and was/were able to can use could to say that someone had the general ability to do something in the past.

    e.g. I could swim when I was 4 years old. My sister could talk when she was 15 months old.

    We also use was/were able to with this meaning. e.g. I was able to swim when I was 4 years old. when we want to say that someone had the ability to do something, and that they did it in a particular situation, we must use was/were able to (could is not possible)

    e.g. Even though Id hurt my led, I was able to swim back to the boat. The manager wasnt in the office for very long, but we were able to speak to him for a few minutes.

    We can use managed to (+ infinitive) or succeeded in (+ -ing form) instead of was/were able to in this meaning.

    e.g. Even though Id hurt my leg, I managed to swim back to the boat/ I succeeded in swimming back to the boat. We normally use managed to or succeeded in when the action was difficult to do. is an exception with the verbs of perception see, hear, smell, taste, feel, and some verbs of thinking e.g. understand, remember. We use could with these verbs when we actually did these things in particular situations.

    e.g. We could see a man in the garden. I could hear a noise outside my bedroom door use could not (couldnt) for both general ability and particular situations.

    e.g. My grandmother couldnt dance. He tried very hard, but he couldnt swim back to the boat.

    8.2.3. Could have

    We use could have + past participle to say that someone had the ability or the opportunity to do something in the past but did not do it.

    e.g.You could have helped me. Why didnt you? I could have gone to China on holiday last year, but I decided not to. 8.2.4. Expressing ability in other forms:be able to Can has no infinitive, -ing form or participles. So, when necessary. we make these forms with be able to.

  • e.g. Id like to be able to play the piano.

    In the future, people will be able to live on other planets. She enjoys being able to speak foreign languages. Ive been able to drive since I was 18. 8.3. Permission: can, could, may, might, be allowed to 8.3.1. Asking for permission e.g. Can I borrow your dictionary? Could I ask you a personal question? May I make a suggestion? Could is less direct and more polite than can hare. May is more formal than can and could, but can and could are more common. We can also use might to ask for permission in a less direct, more formal style. Might I make a suggestion? 8.3.2. Giving permission When we give permission, we use can or may 9but not could or might) e.g. Can I use your pen for a moment? Yes, of course you can. You can borrow my camera if you want to. Could I make a suggestion? Of course you may. 8.3.3. Talking about permission When we talk about things that are already permitted or not permitted (e.g. when there is a law or a rule), we use can(t) or be (not) allowed.

    e.g. You cant smoke/arent allowed to smoke in this room. You can/are allowed to get married in Britain when you are 16.(Thats the law)

    The children normally go to bed at 9 oclock, but they can stay up/are allowed to stay up later on Saturdays. (Their parents have decided this.)

    8.3.4. Could and was/were allowed to use could to say that we had general permission to do something in the past.

    e.g. When I was 18, I could borrow my parents car whenever I wanted to. When I was 18, I was allowed to borrow my parents car whenever I wanted to. .But when we want to say that someone had permission to do something and they did it in a particular past situation, we must use was/were allowed to (could is not possible)

    e.g. I was allowed to borrow my parents car last night.( Not: I could borrow)

    8.4. Obligation and necessity (1); must, have to, have got to

    8.4.1. Must and have to .We use both must and have to to express obligation or necessity, but there is sometimes a difference between them:

  • We normally use must when the authority comes from the speaker. You must be home by 10 oclock. (I insist). Ive got a terrible pain in my back. I must go and see the doctor. (I think it is necessary). You must drive carefully. (I insist). We normally use have to when the authority comes from outside the speaker. I have to be home by 10 oclock.(My parents insist) I have to go and see the doctor at 9.00 tomorrow morning. (I have got an appointment.) you have to drive on the left in Britain.(That is the law) only use must (+infinitive) to talk about the present and the future. When we talk about past obligation or necessity, we use had to.

    e.g. I had to work late yesterday. Must has no infinitive, -ing form or participles. So, when necessary, we make these forms with have to.

    e.g. Ill have to work late tomorrow. He hates having to get up early. Shes had to work hard all her life. Note that in questions and negatives with have to we use do/does in the present simple and did in the past simple. e.g. What time do you have to start work? We dont have to hurry. Weve got plenty of time. Did you have to walk home last night?

    8.4.2.Have got to We often use have got to instead of have to to talk about obligation and necessity. Have got to is more informal. e.g. I have to hurry. Ive got to hurry. Do you have to go? Have you got to go? We normally use have to, not have got to, for things that happen repeatedly, especially when we use one-word adverbs of frequency e.g. always, often. Compare: e.g. I always have to work late on Wednesday evenings Ive got to work late this evening. Do you often have to get up early? Have you got to get up early tomorrow? We use got mostly in the present. To talk about the past, we normally use had to, not had got to. e.g. I had to work late last night.

    8.5. Obligation and necessity (2): mustnt, dont have to, dont need to, havent got to, neednt 8.5.1.Compare mustnt and dont have to Annie has got a bad cold. You mustnt get up today. Sally is on holiday. I dont have to get up today. We use mustnt when there is an obligation not to do something. e.g. You mustnt get up today.(=Do not get up.) You mustnt wash that sweater. It has to be dry-cleaned(=Do not wash it.) We use dont have to when it is not necessary to do something. e.g. I dont have to get up today. (=It is not necessary to get up) You dont have to wash that shirt. It isnt dirty.(=It is not necessary to wash it.)

  • 8.5.2.We can also use dont need to, havent got to or neednt to to say that it is not necessary to do something.

    e.g. I dont need to get up today. I havent got to get up today. I neednt get up today Note that we often use neednt when the speaker gives someone permission not to do something. e.g. You neednt pay me back the money until next week. (= I give you permission not to pay me back

    the money until then.)

    8.6. Neednt have and didnt need to 8.6.1.Neednt have + past participle says that someone did something, but it was not necessary- it was a waste of time.

    e.g. I neednt have made so much food for the party. Nobody was very hungry. (= it was not necessary to make so much food, but I did,) I neednt have told Kate what happened. She already knew. (=It was not necessary to tell Kate, but I did)

    8.6.2.Didnt need to + infinitive says that something was not necessary (but it does not say if someone did it or not).

    e.g. She neednt have waited. (=It was not necessary to wait, but she did.) She didnt need to wait.(=It was not necessary to wait: we dont know if she did or not.) They neednt have worried. (=It was not necessary to worry, but they did.)

    They didnt need to worry.(=It was not necessary to worry; we dont know if they did or not)

    8.6.3.When we use didnt need to, it often means that someone did not do something (because it was not necessary).

    e.g. I didnt need to unlock the door because it was already unlocked. I didnt need to write to you so I phoned you instead. But we can also use didnt need to (with stress on need) when something was not necessary, but someone did it. e.g. I didnt need to write to you, but I wrote to you anyway.

    8.7. Obligation and advice: should, ought to, had better, be supposed to, shall 8.7.1.Should and ought to can use both Should and ought to talk about obligation and duty, to ask for and give advice, and , in general, to say what is right or good.

    e.g. You should learn to swim/You ought to learn to swim. You shouldnt tell lies./You oughtnt to tell lies. What do you think I should do?/What do you think I ought to do? Should and ought to are very similar in meaning, but we often prefer ought to to talk about authority which comes from outside the speaker e.g. from laws or rules Note that after should, we use the infinitive without to e.g. learn, tell, but after ought we use to+infinitive e.g. to learn, to tell.

  • use should have/ought to have + past participle to say that someone did the wrong thing in the past.

    e.g. I should have posted this letter yesterday, but I forgot. (I did not post it) I am really tired this morning. I shouldt have stayed up so late last night.(I stayed up late) Havent you finished your homework yet? You ought to have done it last night. (You did not do it)

    8.7.2Had better

    Had better+ infinitive without to expresses a strong recommendation in a particular situation. e.g. Im going to an interview tomorrow. Id better iron my shirt. Its going to be cold tonight. Wed better turn on the heating. We always use had not have with better in this structure, but the meaning is present or future, not past We form the negative with had better not. e.g. Wed better not be late. Had better often suggests a kind of threat or warning, and is stronger than should or ought to.

    8.7.3Be + supposed to

    We can use supposed to to talk about what people are expected to do because of an arrangement, a rule, or a duty. e.g. Youre supposed to start work at 8.00 every morning. Im supposed to see Maria this afternoon. We use not supposed to to express prohibitions.

    e.g. You know youre not supposed to eat in the classroom. There is often a difference between what is supposed to happen and what really happens. e.g. Im supposed to see Maria this afternoon, but Im not going to have enough time. Put those sweets away! You know youre not supposed to eat in the classroom. He was supposed to phone me yesterday, but he didnt. 8.7.4.Shall

    We can use shall I? When we want to know someones opinion, or when we want advice or instructions. e.g. Ive missed my last bus. What shall I do? Im not sure what to do. Shall I apply for the job or not? How long shall I cook this spaghetti?

    8.8. Possibility: may, might, could 8.8.1. Present and future possibility We use may, might and could to talk about present or future possibility.

    e.g. Theres someone at the door. It may be Sarah. (=perhaps it is Sarah) We arent sure what we are going to do tomorrow. We might go to the beach.(=Perhaps we will go to the beach.)

  • Wheres Simon? He could be in the living room. (=Perhaps he is in the living room.) Might is normally a little less sure than may. Could is normally less sure than may or might. + + + may + + might + could use the negatives may not and might not (mightnt) with this meaning, but not could not. e.g. Simon may not be in the living room(=Perhaps he is not in the living room.) We might not go to the beach. (=Perhaps we will not go to the beach.) the form: may/might/could + be + -ing

    E.g. They may be having dinner at the moment. (Perhaps they are having dinner.)

    8.8.2. Possibility in the past can use may/might/could + have+past participle to talk about possibility in the past

    e.g. Where was sally last night? I think she may have been at the cinema.(=I think perhaps she was at the cinema.) Peter is late. He might have missed his train.(=Perhaps he missed/has missed his train.) I cant find my wallet anywhere. You could have left it at home. (Perhaps you left/have left it at home.) She walked straight past me without saying hello. She might not have seen you.(=perhaps she didnt see you.) also use could and might (but not may) with have + past participle to say that something was possible in the past but did not happen

    e.g. I forgot to lock my car last night. You were very lucky. Someone could have stolen it You were stupid to try to climb that tree. You might have killed yourself.

    8.9 Deduction: must, cant 8.9.1 .Must, cant We use must in deductions to say that we are sure about something.

    E.g. Its not very warm and youre not wearing a coat. You must be cold. (= I am sure that you are cold.) Mrs Woods must know London very well. She has lived there all her life. (=I am sure that she knows London very well.) We use cant (not mustnt) as the negative of must in this meaning. We use cant in deductions to say that something is impossible.

    e.g. Peter was here a moment ago, so he cant be far away. (=It is impossible that he is far away.) Annie cant be asleep. Theres a light on in her bedroom. (=It is impossible that she is asleep) Note the form: must/cant + be + -ing e.g. Youve been working hard all day. You must be feeling tired. ( I am sure that you are feeling tired.) Simon has bought two tickets for the concert, so he cant be going on his own. (=It is impossible that he is going on his own.)

  • We also use can in questions about possibility. e.g. The telephone is ringing. Who can that be? Sally is late. Where can she be?

    8.9.2. Must haveand cant have We use must/cant + have + past participle for deductions about the past.

    e.g. Those shoes you bought are very nice. They must have been expensive. (=I am sure that they were expensive.) You cant /couldnt have been at the swimming pool yesterday! The swimming pool was closed all day yesterday! (=It is impossible that you were at the swimming pool!) We use can have and could havein questions about past possibility. e.g. Where can they have gone ? Sally is very late. What could have happened to her?

    8.10. Requests: can, could, may, will, would 8.10.1 .Asking for something We can ask for things with can, could and may. e.g. Can I have a glass of water, please? Could I have the bill please? May I have some more coffee? Could is less direct and more polite than can here: may is more formal than can/could.

    8.10.2 .Asking for permission We also use can, could and may to ask for permission. e.g. Can I borrow your dictionary? Could I ask you a personal question? May I have a look at your newspaper? 8.10.3. Asking someone to do something We often use can you? (=are you able to?) to ask someone to do something for us. e.g. Can you post this letter for me? Can you switch on the light, please? We use could as a less definite, more polite form of can in this meaning. e.g. Could you pass me the newspaper please? Could you give me some advice? We also use will you? (=are you willing to?)to ask someone to do something. e.g. Will you switch on the light, please? We use would as a less definite, more polite form of will in this meaning. e.g. Would you pass this letter for me? The phone is ringing. Would you answer it? We also use would with the verb mind 9=object to or dislike) to make polite requests. e.g. Would you mind switching on the light? We sometimes make requests by using would like as a polite way of saying what we want. e.g. Id like a glass of water, please. Id like to ask you a personal question.

  • 8.11. Offers: will, shall, can, could, would 8.11.1. We use will to say that we are willing to do something or to offer to do something. e.g. Ill help you with your suitcase. Ill lend you my bicycle if you want. Are you hungry? Ill make you something to eat. We also use will you? In offers and invitations. e.g. What will you have to drink? Will you have dinner with us? 8.11.2. We use shall I? (=do you want me to?) to offer to do something for someone. e.g. Shall I help you? Shall I open the door for you? Shall I post this letter for you? 8.11.3. We also use can/could(=ability) to offer to do something for someone. e.g. I can post this letter for you. I could lend you some money if you want. Sometimes when we use can or could to ask for permission, we are really offering to do Something. e.g. Can I make you something to eat? Could I carry that bag for you? In these uses, could is less direct and more polite than can. 8.11.4.We also use would with verbs such as like, prefer and rather to make polite offers and invitations. e.g. Would you like to go to a party on Saturday?

    Would you like me to help you? Would you prefer to stay in or go out this evening? 8.12. Suggestions: shall, lets, why dont we, how/what about, can, could 8.12.1. We use shall we? To ask for and make suggestions. e.g. Where shall we go? What time shall we leave? Shall we stay at home? Shall we play tennis tomorrow? 8.12.2. We can also make suggestions in these ways: e.g. Lets watch TV. Lets go for a swim. Why dont we(+infinitive without to)? e.g. Why dont we go for a swim? Why dont we play tennis? How/What about (+-ing form/noun)? e.g. How about playing tennis/a game of tennis? 8.12.3. We use can and could to suggest possible actions. e.g. We can watch TV if you like. We could go to the cinema tomorrow. In this use, could is less direct and more polite than can.

  • 8.13. Habits: used to, will, would 8.13.1. Used to Use. We use used to + infinitive to talk about past habits which are now finished. e.g. Robert used to play football when he was younger, but he stopped playing 20 years ago.(=Robert played football regularly in the past, but he does not play now.) Kate used to go swimming a lot, but she never goes swimming now. When I was a child, I used to suck my thumb. We also use used to for past states and situations which are no longer true. e.g. Robert used to be very slim when he was younger. I used to live in London, but I moved in 1980. We only use used to to talk about the past. When we talk about present habits or present states, we use the present simple. e.g. Robert never plays football now. Kate goes sailing quite often nowadays. I live in Manchester. Robert is quite fat. We do not use used to to say how long something happened. e.g. I worked in Rome for six months. Form Used to + infinitive takes the same form in all persons. I/You/He/She/It/We/You/They used to play football. live in London. be very slim. The negative of used to is normally didnt use to (=did not use to) I didnt use to live in London. You didnt use to like classical music. We also use never used to e.g. You never used to like classical music. We normally form questions with diduse to? e.g. Where did you use to live? Did you use to like classical music? 8.13.2. Will and Would we can use will to talk about someones typical behaviour or characteristic habits. e.g. Simon loves music. Hell sit for hours listening to his stereo. Kate is very kind. Shell always help people if she can. We use would with the same meaning to talk about the past. e.g. When I was a child my father would sometimes take me fishing.

    My grandmother was very absent-minded. She would often buy something and then leave the shop without it.

    Will and Would are not stressed in this use. 8.13..2.2. If will or would are stressed (), it suggests criticism. e.g. He `will slam the door when he comes in. It really makes me angry. She borrowed my camera without asking. She `would do a thing like that. Shes always borrowing things without asking. Used to and would When we talk about past habits, we can use used to or would.

  • e.g. When we were children, we used to/would play Cowboys and Indians together. When I was a child, my elder brother used to/would take me to the cinema every Saturday morning. When we talk about past states, we can use used to, but not would. e.g. My grandfather used to be a policeman. I used to have a moustache, but I shaved it off.

    9. Grammar-Progress Test 1. Review of permission and obligation Choose the most suitable answer-A, B or C 1. It isnt cold outside. Youwear a coat. A mustnt B can C neednt 2. You keep out of that room. Its private. A dont have to B mustnt C must 3. You fall asleep when you drive a car. A mustnt B neednt C must 4. Im going to retire soon. Then I wontwork any more. A must B have to C can 5. You vote in Britain until you are 18. A have to B can C arent allowed to 6. Youwear a uniform in the army.

    A can B have to C mustnt 7. Tomorrow is a holiday. Wego to work. A dont have to B arent allowed to C have to 8. You ride a bicycle on a motorway in Britain. A must B dont have to C cant 2. Review of possibility, probability and deduction

    Choose the correct answer-A, B or C. 1. Ita lovely day tomorrow. A can be B could b C must be 2. Im getting fat, I think Ieating the wrong kind of food. A must be B cant be C can be 3. Im not sure, but ISue in town last night. A can see B must have seen C may have seen 4. Mikedriving to London tomorrow. He cant drive! A might be B cant be C must be 5. My letteryesterday, but it didnt. A must have arrived B may arrive C should have arrived 6. I can hear footsteps in the flat upstairs, so there someone there. A must be B might be C cant be 7. Were very busy tomorrow so wetime to visit you. We arent sure. A could not have B might not have C ought to have 8. That girl20 years old. She looks about 12! A may be B must be C cant be

    10.Progress Test-Answer-key 1. 1.C 2.C 3.A 4.B 5.C 6.B 7.A 8.C 2. 1.B 2A 3C 4B 5C 6 A 7 B 8 C

  • Unit 3.

    TOWING 1. Read the text and try to guess the meaning of the new words and expressions from the context.

    Ships may need towing in a number of cases. When in port, tugs may be required to take ships to or from their berths. Sometimes it may be necessary to shift the ship from one berth to another and the port tug is usually ordered to do this job. It may also happen that the ship will need dry docking for cleaning the bottom and repairs to the hull. A tug-boat will then be required to manoeuvre the ship into the dock. A ship may become disabled at sea and in this case she will need some other vessel or a tug to tow her to the nearest port. Big ships require big tow-lines. Most modern vessels are provided with steel wire tow-lines of sufficient length. It is advisable to use wire hawsers connected with a good length of manila rope, as this will afford the necessary elasticity to tow-line. The towing and towed vessels communicate with each other to coordinate their actions. Usually they signal with the International Code, using single letter signals. It should be added here that ships communicate with each other and with shore in a number of ways: by radio, by flags, by light and sound signals and by semaphore. The International Convention adopted a uniform system of International Code Signals, which is widely used by all the countries. In this system a single letter or combination of letters signifies a whole sentence. When the ship receives these signals the watch officer translates them into letters (or their combination) and finds their meaning in the code book, where they are grouped in a certain order. Single-letter signals are used to denote urgent or very common messages. For instance, signal G means: I require a pilot. As it was mentioned above, they also have a special meaning when used between towing and towed vessels. For example, the same signal G in this case means: Cast off the towing hawser; the signal A signifies: The towing hawser is fast, etc. 2. Role-play the following dialogues and then work out and perform dialogues of your own. 2.1. Dialogue 1 C = Captain; A = Agent C: I shall require a tug tomorrow to take my ship to another berth. A: At what time are you going to shift? C: Well be ready to start at about 5 p.m. A: Shall I order the tug for 5 p.m.? C: Yes, thats what I was going to ask of you. So, please order the tug to be here by 5 p.m. tomorrow. A: Well, the time is set then. Shall I also order the tug beforehand to take you out of port? C: Yes, kindly make preliminary arrangements with the tug company for Friday this week. I am leaving your port on this day. A: What time shall I order the tug for you? C: I cannot tell you the exact time as yet, I think Ill let you know the exact time on Wednesday. A: Good, thats settled then. I would advise you to take two tugs, because there is a strong current in the entrance and the port tugs are not very powerful. C: How much do they charge for towage? A: They charge 15 pounds for each tug to take the ship out of port. C: All right. Ill take your advice. Thank you. So, please order two tugs for Friday.

  • 2.2. Dialogue 2. C = Captain; P = Pilot C: Look over there. What's the matter with that ship? They have hoisted the Code Flag. Obviously they are going to signal something to us. Hoist the answering pendant. P: Oh, it's rather far away. I can't see so far as that. Let me take my binoculars. Well, now I see the ship quite clearly. Yes, you are right, they have hoisted the International Code flag. If I am not mistaken, that's a Norwegian ship, and the ship is obviously aground. C: How do you know that the ship is aground? P: There is a small shoal in that vicinity and they must have run aground. Yes, that's it. Do you see three black balls one over the other? C: Oh, yes, now I see the balls too. You are right. But how on earth could they have run against that shoal! So far as I remember the chart, there's but one shoal in that area, and it is well off the usual track. P: I think we'll soon learn about it. See, they hoisted two other flags below the Code Flag. C: I can see the flags but I can't distinguish them, I am afraid. I must take my binoculars too. P: To my mind, that's a two letter signal "CB2" C: Yes, there is no doubt about that any more. I can clearly see the flags now. These are the flags "CB" and pennant 2. Let me see the code book. This group means "I am aground. I require immediate assistance." P: So they ask you to help them. What are you going to do about that? C: We'll hoist now the group "DN" meaning "I am coming to your assistance." P: Shall we alter the course right away? C: Yes, certainly. (To the helmsman). Port 5! Steer for that ship on our port bow. 2.3.Dialogue 3 C: Unfortunately, I cannot understand them. Evidently they are speaking Norwegian. You told me you know the Norwegian language, didnt you? Now, can you act as an interpreter?

    P: Ill try to. C: Take this megaphone. Ask them whats the matter with their ship? P: The captain says that their engine was disabled and they were drifted to that shoal. C: I see. Ask them please, what they want us to do. P: They ask you to tow them off the ground and then to tow them to Rotterdam. They say they are not very deep in the ground and the hull is not damaged. C: All right, tell them well manoeuvre our ship now so as to come as close as possible with our stern to their ship. It will take us about an hour or so before rigging the bridle from our ships quarter. P: Well, Ive told them as you said. The captain says that meanwhile they are preparing the towing hawser at their stern. The captain wonders how you are going to pick the towing line up. C: Tell him that well try to pass a heaving line from our stern. In case the distance wont allow us to do so, they will have to lower the boat to run the hawser to our stern. P: The Norwegian captain thanks you for your arrangements. He wants to know also in what manner you will signal him while towing off. C: Well use single-letter