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  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture




  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    The Danes were trading on the river

    Hooghly as early as 16! and"o#nded a settle$ent na$ed

    Tran%#e&ar and a 'ent#ry later(rederi)snagar* later rena$ed

    Sera$+ore* near to Cal'#tta,

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    (ort Dans&orgwas the &ase "orDanish

    settle$ent in theregion d#ring theearly 1-th



  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    Originally a .shingvillage*


    /re"erred asTran%#e&ar0 was"orti.ed &y the

    Danish* who #sed the+ort as the $aintrading +ost "or the

    'olony* with the$a or e2 ort o" the

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    D#ring the $iddle o" the 13th 'ent#ry* the'o$$er'ial i$+ortan'e o" the townde'lined and the 'entre o" te2tile+rod#'tion $oved to Sera$+ore in thestate o" 5engal,

    5#t Tran%#e&ar still re$ained thehead%#arters o" the Colony,

    The "ort and the town was sold tothe 5ritish in 137 and* along with

    Tharanga$&adi* the "ort lost its signi.'an'eas the town was not a trading +ost any$ore

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    One o" the 'hara'teristi's that setsTran%#e&ar a+art "ro$ the neigh&o#ringtowns and villages is the Danish 'olonialar'hite't#re the ho#ses* villas and the"ort that re$ind the visitor o" their "or$er

    +resen'e,The town is +er'eived as #ni%#e &e'a#se

    o" this ar'hite't#ral setting whi'h is ano#t'o$e o" a synthesis &etween Danish

    and lo'al Ta$il verna'#lar,

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    (ort Dans&org is lo'ated in theso#thern +art o"Tharanga$&adi*lo'ated 38 )$ /1-6 $i0 "ro$ the

    state 'a+ital Chennai,

    It is ilt in Danish style*

    'hara'teri9ed &y large halls*'ol#$ned str#'t#res* high 'eilingsand +roe'ting dra+ery


  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    The length o" the "ort in the side "a'ingthe sea is 6! $ /!! "t0 and the width is

    a&o#t 11 $ /86 "t0,The "ort is tra+e9oidal in sha+e with three

    roo$s in the le"t wing* originally #sed asthe governor:s residen'e* a )it'hen withan o+en .re+la'e and 'hi$ney in the to+le"t hand 'orner* and a 'h#r'h roo$* nowa $#se#$* lo'ated in the 'entre o" the

    ilding,The original re'tory and the northern +art

    o" it* whi'h are now the store roo$s* arelo'ated in the right wing,

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    The 'orner roo$ on theright side was theresiden'e o" the

    'o$$er'ial dire'tor,In $odern ti$es* it is

    #sed as a store roo$,

    The 'ore o" the ilding is

    $ade o" &ri'),The $ain door o" the "ort

    "a'es north* while anadditional door "a'es the

    east,The se'ond storey o" the

    "ort has a set o" g#ardroo$s,

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    The stair'ase leading to it are ilt with&ri')s,

    The 'entral +art o" the "ort has "o#r 'a$elh#$+ sha+ed do$es,

    The 'entral +illar o" the hall holds the entireweight o" the do$es,

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    The 'itadel en'loses a set o"ildings*

    the nota&le ones &eing the "ortilt in 16!*

    the ;asila$ani Nathar Te$+le

    ilt in the 18th 'ent#ry* the ateway ilt in 1-?*

    the Danish >overnor 5#ngalow

    ilt in 1-3

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    It is the oldest +rotestantCh#r'h o" India,

    @ro$inent with its 'o$&inationo" 'olonial and Indianar'hite't#ral "eat#res* its'onstr#'tion together with the"orti.'ation o" the town $ar)edthe $oving o#t and s+readingo" the Danish +o+#lation intothe s#rro#nding settle$ent,

    Zion's Church

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    The str#'t#re went thro#gh severalre'onstr#'tions* re"#r&ish$ents and"a'eli"tsB &e"ore it was &ro#ght to

    the +resent "or$,Ithas a s+i)ed do$e,

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    The -!! year old;asila$ani Nathar

    Te$+le ilt in 18!6 &ythe @andya ing;aravar$a$ #lase)ara@andyan is #ni%#e in its


    ;asila$ani Nathar Te$+le

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    The New JerusalemChurcho" Tran%#e&ardates &a') to the 1-th

    'ent#ry,The 'h#r'h was ilt &y


  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    The 'h#r'h was'onstr#'ted $ainly "orthe 'onverted Indians,

    New =er#sale$ Ch#r'hhas a s$all 'e$eterythat dates &a') to 13th


    In the 'h#r'hyard o" the+retty* whitewashedNew =er#sale$ Ch#r'his ried 5artholo$a#s

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    the Town >ate* ilt to $ar) the entran'e o"Tharanga$&adi in the year 166!,

    Town >ateway

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    Landporten , as the Town Gate is'alled in Danish* is +art o" the

    "orti.'ations ilt aro#nd the town o"Tran%#e&ar in the 166!s,

    In 1-?1 the original gate* whi'h wasin a deteriorated state* wasde$olished and re+la'ed &y a newone designed &y the then governor*@eter An)er and e2e'#ted &y the

    engineer* ;hldorF* in 1-?,The Gan)ing g#ard +osts are $issing

    "ro$ the original +lan,

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    Now tho#gh* +art o" it has &eenen'roa'hed #+on &y settle$ents*

    h#ts stand alongside the gater#&&ing sho#lders with it* n#lli"yingits eFe't as an entran'e to the villagethat stands testi$ony to a +ie'e o"

    history owing to its 'olonial +ast,

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    This ilding got its na$e as it was #sed asresiden'e o" Danish >overnor in 1-3,

    Danish >overnor 5#ngalow

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    @res#$a&ly laid o#t in 'onne'tion with the

    ere'tion o" the "ort in the 16!s d#e tothe high $ortality rates o" the E#ro+eansettlers* the esta&lish$ent o" a 'e$etery$#st have &een ne'essary "ro$ the very


    In the 16!!s it was 'onne'ted to the

    Dans&org Cha+el and a"ter 1-!1* to

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    The settle$ent inside the 'itadel is $odeled li)e

    a s$all E#ro+ean town with a land gate and

    wooden doors leading to the $ain street*

    na$ely* the ing:s Street,So$e o" the nota&le ildings in the ing:s street

    are the >ate Ho#se* ;#hldorF:s Ho#se* @ort;aster:s 5#ngalow and Rehling:s Ho#se,

    There were originally 'itadel walls towards thesea* whi'h eroded with ti$e on a''o#nt o" the

    salty nat#re o" the environ$ent,

    The "orti.'ation 'o#ld not withstand an atta') &y

    reg#lar $ilitary "or'es* t a'ted as a +rote'tion"or the 'iti9ens o" the settle$ent against

    +redatory 'avalry raids,

    The &astions o" the "ort are 'onstr#'ted with

    &la') stone,

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture



  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    In 1-77 the Danish Asiati' Co$+any

    was granted the right to esta&lish atrading +ost at Sera$+ore/Srira$+#r0 at the Hooghly River inJest 5engal* a&o#t 7 )$ north o"Cal'#tta /ol)ata0,

    The na$e o" the +la'e was o'ially'hanged to Frederiksnagore inhono#r o" the Danish ing (rederi) K*however* the lo'al na$e was

    $aintained in daily #se,

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    S#&se%#ently Sera$+ore 'a$e #nderdire't ad$inistration o" the Danish

    Crown in 1--- and re$ained onDanish hands* with only a "ewinterr#+tions* #ntil 137* when thetrading +ost was 'eded to the 5ritish

    together with the other Danishsettle$ent in India* Tran%#e&ar/Tharanga$&adi0 in Ta$il Nad#,

    A+art "ro$ its +osition as a'o$$er'ial settle$ent* Sera$+ore&e'a$e an i$+ortant 'entre o"

    ed#'ation and learning in India,

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    Several ildings originating "ro$ the Danish+eriod are still signi.'ant land$ar)s*'ontriting to the distin't identity o"Sera$+ore

    The Danish >overn$ent Ho#se /1--10*

    The Catholi' Ch#r'h /1--60*

    The L#theran St, Olavs 'h#r'h /13!60* and

    The Sera$+ore College /1380,

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    1810 . A view of Serampore from the rivershowing the long row of stately villas (1810.a!!er".

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    The Danish >overn$ent 'o$+o#nd dates &a')to 1-77 when the Asiati' Co$+any esta&lishedtheir trading +ost in Sera$+ore,

    D#e to the +oliti'al #nrest in the area at theti$e* the Co$+any "elt it ne'essary to s#rro#ndthe s$all estate &y a +rote'tive wall,

    Jithin this wall* the govern$ent ho#se wasere'ted together with a +owder $aga9ine* ag#ardroo$* a ail* a )it'hen* a henho#se* a

    godown and %#arters "or the staF and o'ers

    The Danish Governmentcompound

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    The 'o$+o#nd and all the relatedstr#'t#res were laid o#t a''ording to

    a northso#th a2is leading "ro$ theNishan >hat with the Gag staF at theriver &an) onwards thro#gh the

    northern $ain gate to thegovern$ent ho#se and to theso#thern gateway ilding,

    180! The compound in front of the Govern!ent o#se. $ehind thelow wall on the left was a garden #sed as a retreat for the %anishGovernor and the higher ranking o&'ers

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    18"# . The Danish govern!ent 'o!po#nd (18).Tho!pson".

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    18$0 . The Danish govern!ent 'o!po#nd (18*0.Gastrell".

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    "00%! Plan of the government compound

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    A &ri')Milt gate on the northernside o" the 'o$+o#nd is .rst$entioned in the re'ords in 1--and +arts o" the original str#'t#reare +ossi&ly in'or+orated in the+resent gate,

    Shortly a"ter the 5ritisho''#+ation o" Sera$+ore 13!3M17

    the gate was reilt with +aired+ilasters headed &y Ioni' 'a+italsand a triang#lar +edi$ent

    The main &ate

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    The .rst wall aro#nd the 'o$+o#nd"ro$ 1-77 was ere'ted in 'lay andstraw and needed re+eatedly re+air

    d#ring the $onsoon,In 1-3!* on the initiative o" >overnor

    Ole 5ie* the $#d wall was re+la'ed &y

    a $ore d#ra&le &ri') wall at the totallength o" a++ro2i$ately 6!! $ o"whi'h large +arts are still +reserved

    The compound wall

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    The western +art along Ch#r'h Street isa++ro2i$ately 17!$ long with a thi')ness o"!,- $ and a height o" a&o#t 8,! $,

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    On the western +art o" the'o$+o#nd* the town engineer>tting d#g o#t a new water tan) in

    1-36 and 'onstr#'ted the &ri')Miltste+s leading down to the water

    The water tan

    The southern &ateway

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    I$$ediately to the so#th o" the Danishgovern$ent ho#se* the 'o$+o#nd 'ontains

    a r#ined t highly interesting gatewayilding* whi'h was +ro&a&ly 'onstr#'tedso$e ti$e a"ter the 5ritish o''#+ation


    The southern &ateway(uildin&

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    D#ring the Danish and thes#&se%#ent 5ritish +eriod the

    ilding "#n'tioned as a detentionand sa"e)ee+ing "or stolen eFe'tssei9ed &y the +oli'e,

    Jhen the orientation o" the townshi"ted away "ro$ the river towardsthe new railway station a"ter 137*this so#thern gateway +ro&a&ly&e'a$e the +re"erred entran'e to the'o$+o#nd and the govern$ent

    ho#se* whi'h was re'onstr#'ted and

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    The s$all ilding is very well +ro+ortionedwith a +er"e't sy$$etri'al layMo#t aro#ndthe $iddle a2is o" the 'o$+o#nd,

    The ri'hly orna$ented northern "aadehave +aired +ilasters with Ioni' 'a+italsand triang#lar +edi$ents o" the 'lassi'alorder a&ove the window o+enings,

    To the so#th* "a'ing on to the 5had#&iSarani street* the gateway is e$+hasised&y r#sti'ated $asonry,

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    The Danish govern$ent ho#se was "ro$

    the esta&lish$ent in 1-77 the 'entre o" theDanish ad$inistration* as well as the+rivate residen'e o" the Head o"Sera$+ore,

    Initially the govern$ent ho#se was asi$+le $#d and wattle 'onstr#'tion with athat'hed roo" 'onsisting o" a hall* "o#rlarge roo$s* two s$all roo$s* twoverandas and one godown


  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    The $aor +art o" this ilding 'olla+sed d#ringa dinner +arty on ndDe'e$&er 1--!,

    The re$aining +art was de$olished and in 1--1the Danish Head o" Sera$+ore* =ohan Leonard(i2 /1--!M1--80 &egan the 'onstr#'tion o" anew &ri')Milt govern$ent ho#se 'onsisting o"a hall* two roo$s and a veranda,

    In 1-31 "#nds were allo'ated "or the

    'onstr#'tion o" the new veranda* ilt as a$on#$ental "ront +orti'o in the Ioni' order* andtwo roo$s were added at ea'h side o" theilding* e2tending the whole length o"the"aade,

    I 138 th > t H t d

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    In 138 the >overn$ent Ho#se was re+ortedto 'ontain large roo$s in the 'entre* 7s$aller roo$s with o+en verandas to ea'h

    side* as well as a large veranda to the so#thwith a terra'e

    A&ove, The sa$e year two additional roo$s

    have &een .tted #+ at ea'h end o" theso#thern veranda* $ost li)ely &y adding twonew +artition walls inside the veranda,

    In 13 and 138 an #++er story was addedwith a roo" +avilion rising a&ove the "a'ade&elow* there&y 'reating the +ro+ortions o" an

    Italian +ala99o ,

    Jhen the ilding was trans"erred to the

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    Jhen the ilding was trans"erred to the5ritish in 137 it th#s 'onsisted o" threelarge roo$s and eight side roo$s on the

    gro#nd Goor and two roo$s on the #++erstory,

    The trans"or$ation o" the ilding has

    ta)en +la'e over a +eriod o" a&o#t !!years and ea'h ilding +hase reGe'ts thevarying style and "ashion o" the day,

    The $any alterations and e2tensions givethe ilding a s+e'ial 'hara'ter andi$$ense i$+ortan'e as one o" the oldestildings in the town* reGe'ting the history

    o" Sera$+ore thro#gh the Danish* 5ritish

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    The )ail and co rt ( ildin&

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    The Danish ad$inistration o" Sera$+ore wasvery li$ited in ter$s o" &oth staF and.nan'ial $eans,

    Still the Danish >overnor had theres+onsi&ility o" $aintaining law and order inthe town* whi'h i$+lied the dealing with all)inds o" 'ri$inal 'ases as well as religio#sdis+#tes,

    The )ail and court (uildin&*Catcherie+

    A t h d il + t h i it

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    A 'o#rt ho#se and ail* or +at'herie as it waster$ed at the ti$e* was there"ore a ne'essary$eas#re o" the Danish #di'ial syste$,

    The .rst Danish ail in Sera$+ore was a singleilding* 'ontaining two roo$s only with averanda and a s#rro#nding &ri') wall,

    In 1-3- so$e atte$+ts were $ade to i$+rove

    the e2isting ail &y e2tending the o+en&a')yard and &y adding a new &athroo$,

    However* d#ring the 5ritish o''#+ation 13!1M13! the ilding was not $aintained

    +ro+erly* and the whole 'o$+le2 &e'a$eherea"ter dila+idated and not 'onsideredworthy o" renovation,

    A l t & ht i 13!8 d th

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    A new +lot was &o#ght in 13!8 and theDanish engineer and ;aor* 5, A, vonJi')ede* +re+ared a +lan "or a new ailor +at'herie.

    The new -ail was ina#g#rated the sa$eyear and a+art "ro$ a 'o#rt ho#se it

    'onsisted o" a n#$&er o" se+arategaols "or the diFerent ethni' andreligio#s 'o$$#nities,

    In 138 the +rison was "#rthere2tended with a new ward "or wo$enand a wall s#rro#nding the adoining


  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    (#nded +artly &y +rivates#&s'ri+tion in Den$ar) andSera$+ore and +artly &y +#&li'grants* the 'onstr#'tion o" St,Olavs 'h#r'h was initiated in 13!!&y the Danish >overnor Ole 5ie,

    The nave was 'o$+leted in 13!6* ayear a"ter the de'ease o" Ole 5ie*whereas the +orti'o and the &ell

    tower were 'o$+leted in 131 ,The 'h#r'h &e'a$e a $aor

    land$ar) o" Sera$+ore* a++earingat all the early de+i'tions o" the


    St, Olav:s 'h#r'h

    The original drawing "ro$

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    The original drawing "ro$13!6* signed &y theEnglish lie#tenant

    Ale2ander Ar$strong*shows the +lan* elevationand "#t#re internalorganisation o" the 'h#r'h,

    @lanned as a three aisleilding with a Gat roo"and an o+en +orti'o thedesign was later $odi.ed

    &y adding a +edi$ent witha &ro)en 'orni'e "eat#ringthe royal $onogra$ o" theDanish ing Christian KII,

    The interior is s+arsely de'orated with

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    The interior is s+arsely de'orated withso$e st#''o wor) high on the walls in the'hoir,

    Otherwise there is no adorn$ent a+art"ro$ si2 'o$$e$orative ta&lets along theso#thern aisle wall,

    At the stee+le are two &ells o" E#ro+eanorigin* t none o" the$ is in #se any$ore,

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    r'hite't#ral drawing/y Lt. r!strongdated 180*

    The Catholic Church

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    5#ilt 1--6 the Ro$an Catholi' Ch#r'h is theoldest 'h#r'h in Sera$+ore, The ilding re+la'ed

    a 'ha+el dating "ro$ 1-6* whi'h had &e'o$e toos$all to serve the growing Catholi' 'o$$#nity,

    A#2iliary ildings were 'onstr#'ted on anadoining +ie'e o" land in 1-3! "or the

    a''o$$odation o" the +riest, The ildings were"#rther e2tended in 131 and a se'ond storyadded to it

    The Catholic Church

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    Sera$+ore College was "o#nded in1313 and soon a"ter the 'onstr#'tiono" a new ilding was initiated at a

    large site 'lose to the river* adoiningthe &otani'al garden and the +rintingho#se,

    ,erampore Colle&e

    The main building

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    The main building.

    Sit#ated within a+leasant and well )e+tgreen area* the $ainilding o" Sera$+ore

    College and the "or$erresiden'e o" Jillia$Carey as well as thean'illary ildings are

    $aor land$ar)s o"Sera$+ore today,

    5#ilt to a s%#are +lan in two

  • 8/9/2019 Danes Architecture


    5#ilt to a s%#are +lan in twostories* the $ain "aade towardsthe river is do$inated &y a giant

    +orti'o in the Ioni' Order with a+er"e't sy$$etry aro#nd a$iddle a2is,

    The rear side was originally.nished &y a se$i 'ir'#lar a+se

    whi'h was later destroyed in anearth%#a)e,

    The s+a'io#s do#&le highentran'e hall is "#rnished with a

    large do#&le stair'ase e2e'#tedin 'ast iron* #st as the $aingate o" the 'o$+o#nd* whi'ho+ens towards the river,

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    The 'e$etery o" the 5a+tist $ission issit#ated 'lose to the +resent Dey Street*whi'h at the ti$e o" esta&lish$ent was on theo#ts)irts o" Sera$+ore,

    (or the #se o" the land* the $ission so'iety+aid an ann#al rent to the Danish govern$ent

    The -ission Cemetery

    The Danish Cemetery

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    The Danish 'e$etery in Sera$+ore was

    reserved "or @rotestants and adoining to it*se+arated &y a low wall* was the rialgro#nd o" the Ro$an Catholi's, In the early+eriod the gro#nd was only "en'ed &y a

    living hedge* whi'h was re+la'ed &y a &ri')wall in the 1--!s

    The Danish Cemetery