data center for beginners

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  • DATA CENTER FOR

    By B.A. AYOMAYA

    BEGINNERS

    Server

    Rack

    Cable

    Management

    Battery

    Generator UPS

    Storage

    Switch

  • DATA CENTER FOR BEGINNERS by B.A. Ayomaya

    CONTENTS

    Welcome to This Guide ................................................................ 3

    INTRODUCTION............................................................................ 4

    DEFINITION ............................................................................... 4

    To Build or Not To Build ............................................................ 7

    Managed Hosting Platforms .................................................. 7

    Co-location Data Centers ....................................................... 8

    Enterprise Data Centers ......................................................... 8

    COMPONENTS IN THE DATA CENTER ........................................... 9

    IT Equipment .......................................................................... 10

    Facility Equipment .................................................................. 11

    Power ..................................................................................... 12

    Power Path Elements .............................................................. 13

    Utility Supply ....................................................................... 13

    Generators ........................................................................... 14

    Transfer Switches ................................................................ 14

    Distribution Panel ................................................................ 14

    UPS ...................................................................................... 14

    More About UPS ..................................................................... 16

    Offline UPS ........................................................................... 17

    Line Interactive .................................................................... 17

    Online Double conversion UPS ............................................ 18

    Online Delta conversion UPS ............................................... 19

  • DATA CENTER FOR BEGINNERS by B.A. Ayomaya

    Rotary UPS Systems ................................................................ 19

    Cooling .................................................................................... 21

    Room Cooling ...................................................................... 22

    Row Cooling ......................................................................... 22

    Rack Cooling ........................................................................ 22

    Heat Removal Techniques ...................................................... 23

    Humidity ................................................................................. 25

    Considerations for Energy Efficiency ....................................... 26

    Virtualization ....................................................................... 26

    Ventilation ........................................................................... 27

    Aisle Arrangement ............................................................... 27

    Sealed Rooms ...................................................................... 28

    Airflow Management ........................................................... 29

    Cable Management ............................................................. 29

    Aisle Containment ............................................................... 29

    ANCILLARY SYSTEMS .................................................................. 29

    DATA CENTER STANDARDS ........................................................ 30

    Standard Bodies ...................................................................... 30

    Uptime Institute ..................................................................... 31

    TIA 942.................................................................................... 32

    BICSI........................................................................................ 32

    NEXT STEPS ................................................................................ 33

    ABOUT THE AUTHOR ................................................................. 34

  • DATA CENTER FOR BEGINNERS by B.A. Ayomaya

    Welcome to This Guide

    If you are reading these words, it means you are interested in

    Data Centers. You may be an experienced Data Center

    professional, a novice just wondering what Data Centers are all

    about, or perhaps youve read a few things about Data Centers,

    and are wondering whether to pursue a career in this field.

    Either way, this guide will help provide some information.

    I have been in the Data Center industry for about a decade.

    Often times I have seen people succumb to the hype and delve

    into often expensive trainings and certifications, only to find out

    that they are not cut out for this path.

    The Data Center industry is a highly technical, highly practical,

    niche-based industry requiring costly investments across all

    verticals including training, designing, building and

    maintenance. As such, it is always beneficial to have a general

    overview of what the Data Center is all about, before committing

    to the path.

    This short guide attempts to give that general overview,

    providing a few tidbits and advices along the way.

    I hope it proves to be a valuable companion as you take your

    career to the next level.

    Sincerely yours

    Badrudeen A. Ayomaya Toptech Engineering Limited

  • DATA CENTER FOR BEGINNERS by B.A. Ayomaya

    INTRODUCTION

    The traditional data center is undergoing many changes, if not a

    revolution. Hybrid cloud infrastructures, hosted servers,

    virtualized servers and new methods to save energy and reduce

    costs in the data center create an ever-challenging array of

    decisions for todays data center managers.

    DEFINITION

    A number of definitions exist for the Data Center. TIA 942

    defines a Data Center as a building or portion of a building

    whose primary purpose is to house a computer room and its

    support areas.

    The Data Center is also defined as a facility used to house

    computer systems and associated components, such as

    telecommunications and storage systems. It generally includes

    redundant backup power supplies, redundant communications

    connections, environmental controls (e.g. air conditioning, fire

    suppression) and various security devices.

    Others define it as a centralized repository, either physical or

    virtual, for the storage, management and dissemination of data

    and information organized around a particular body of

    knowledge or pertaining to a particular Business.

    So, what is a Data center? I will leave the particular wordings to

    you as long as you understand the concepts. Now let me tell you

    a story.

    Imagine you came across an interesting idea that helps you make

    money. You set up a service you offer people. You

    enthusiastically run around offering this service. Eventually you

  • DATA CENTER FOR BEGINNERS by B.A. Ayomaya

    got tired of running around rendering this service manually, and

    sat down thinking of what to do.

    Your friend introduced you to this amazing machine. This

    machine has the ability to do anything and everything you ask it

    to do, at breathtaking speed. You marvel at this discovery and

    ponder about how to pass your message across to the machine.

    You set out to the land of magicians, a.k.a. IT guys. Eventually

    you get some magicians (programmers) to tell the computer all

    about your Business and how it works. Now the machine has the

    ability to render the service while you go riding your bicycle.

    However, you cant just leave this life saving machine on your

    desk! You take it to a cozy hut where it can rule in all its glory.

    You set up cooling for it, so it can keep crunching away without

    bothering about heat. Then you think: my clients need to reach

    the machine. Even when they reach the machine, I need to store

    all the information processed somewhere. You return to the land

    of magicians. The head magician tells you to calm down, and

    sends some of the magicians along with you. These other

    magicians (network and storage administrators) bring strange

    looking equipment to the hut, do some mumbo jumbo involving

    tying some sort of ropes and tell you outsiders can now connect

    to your machine. Also, your information can now be stored.

    You try to power on the machine, but it does not respond. You

    ask the magicians to help you, but they say it is none of their

    Business. They direct you to some guys called Facility

    Managers.

  • DATA CENTER FOR BEGINNERS by B.A. Ayomaya

    These people come and bring some groggy looking equipment to

    the hut. They place these equipment in other rooms and do

    another ropey mumbo jumbo except that these ropes are

    heavier and bulkier than the IT Guys. Eventually they complete

    their job. The computer powers on, your clients can reach it

    remotely and it happily renders the services. You are so elated,

    and you go ride your bicycle.

    Moral of the Story:

    The machine that does your services for you is ca

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