design futures through design fiction

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  • Design Futures through Design FictionProfessor Paul Coulton

    Chair of Speculative and Game Design, Lancaster University, UK

    @ProfTriviality

  • Research PracticeR r

    Research into Design Research through Design Research for Design

    Process Artifact

    New Knowledge

    research questions emerge from context and criteria

  • The What If?

  • Bel Geddes

    Futurama 1939

  • Vapour Fiction

  • VapourwareVaporware is a term

    commonly used to describe software and hardware

    thats is announced, and sometimes marketed, but never actually produced

    ATARII 2700

  • Radical Design

    Continuous Monument

    Superstudio

  • Radical Design

    Archigram

  • Future

    Present FutureTime

    Probable Plausible Possible

    Josepth Voros

    Impossible - based on current scientific knowledge

  • Possible

    Present FutureTime

    Probable - likely to happen

    Plausible - could happen

    Possible - might happen

    Future

  • Critical Design

    Present FutureTime

    Probable Plausible PossiblePreferable

  • Preferable to who?

  • PREFERABLE SHOULD BE A QUESTION WE ASK OURSELVES NOT SIMPLY THE AIM

  • Speculative Design

    Auger

    use fiction no commercial constraints

    prototype driven

  • Speculative Design

    use fiction no commercial constraints

    prototype driven irreverant

    Auger Coulton

  • Design Fictiondeliberate use of diegetic prototypes to

    suspend disbelief about change... It means youre thinking very seriously

    about potential objects and services and try to get people to concentrate on those rather than entire worlds or

    geopolitical strategies. Its not a kind of fiction. Its a kind of design. It tells

    worlds rather than stories

    Bruce Sterling

  • Design Fictiondeliberate use of diegetic prototypes to suspend disbelief about change... It means youre thinking very seriously

    about potential objects and services and try to get people to concentrate on those rather than entire worlds or

    geopolitical strategies. Its not a kind of fiction. Its a kind of design. It tells

    worlds rather than stories

    Bruce Sterling

  • Diegesis

    mimesis and diegesis describe ways of presenting a story. In mimesis, the story is acted out. In diegesis, the story is narrated. Mimesis is show. Diegesis is tell.

  • Diegetic Prototypes

    have a major rhetorical advantage even over true prototypes: in the fictional world what film scholars refer to as diegesis as these technologies exist as real objects that function properly and that people can actually use. Kirby 2009

  • Present

    adapted from James Auger

    Present

    Future

    Domestication

    EmergingTechnology

    Speculative FuturesDesign FictionsVapour Fiction

    Past

    Speculative FuturesDesign Fictions

    Vapourware

    Alternate Presentsor Lost Futures

  • Present

    Present

    History, Reality,and Fiction

    Past

    Future

    Gonzatto, R. F., van Amstel, F. M., Merkle, L. E., & Hartmann, T. (2013). The ideology of the future in design fictions. Digital creativity, 24(1), 36-45.

  • Past

    We look at the present through a rear-view mirror. We march backwards into the future

    Marshall Mcluhan

  • Multiple Realities

    PresentFuture

    Time

    Plausible

    Possible

    Past

    Plausible

    Possible

    Point of Focus

  • Design FictionSo a design fiction is

    (1) something that creates a fictional world, (2) has something being prototyped within that fictional world, (3) does so in

    order to create a discursive space. Although this definition appears straightforward, complexity

    arrives when we consider what something may be

    Lindley and Coulton

  • Near Future Domestication

  • World Building

    In response to the recent European Directive the UK government sanctioned the use of drones by commercial providers subject to pilots holding an approved Drone Pilot Proficiency Certificate (DPPC). As the government anticipated the main use has been in providing services to local authorities that aid in the enforcement of local by-laws. Whilst many commercial providers have followed the traditional path of employing dedicated enforcement officers to pilot the drones, in this paper we present on-going research that 'gamifies' the enforcment activities to allow members of the local community to act as enforcement officers. In particular we have worked with retired members of the police and armed services as drone pilots in relation to the enforcement of by-laws relating to parking offences and dog fouling in a small UK city. The initial results indicate that not only does this age group find the game-like activity enjoyable they feel that they are providing an important service to their community.

  • World Building

  • World Building

  • Voigt-Kampff A MACHINE FROM THE FUTURE

  • World Building

  • World Building

  • World Building

  • World Building

  • Suspend Disbelief

  • allowing players to consider alternate presents and plausible futures

    Games as Speculative Design

  • Critical Games

    thus far the focus of the critical games created has primarily

    been either: critiques of current events or practices; or critiques

    of games themselves

  • Critical Games

    Phone Story - Mollie Industria giant joystick - Mary Flanagan

  • Persuading through Games

    Persuasive TechnologyProcedural Rhetoric(Gamification) VS Persuasive Games

    liminal liminoid

  • Persuasive Technology

    B.J Fogg

    Captology - reduce a problem so that it can be addressed through the promotion of minor behavioural change for easily understood and uncontroversial goals.

  • Persuasive Technology

    HighAbility

    LowAbility

    HighMotivation

    LowMotivation

    TargetBehaviour

    Desir

    ed Tr

    ajecto

    ry of

    Users

    FACILITATOR

    SPARK

    SIGNAL

    SIGNALThe Facilitator is a trigger

    that also makes the desired behaviour easier

    to perform.

    The Signal is a trigger that identifies an appropriate time to perform a

    particular behaviour for those already motivated to perform that behaviour.

    The Spark is a trigger that provides the initial

    inspiration to change behaviour.

    B.J Fogg

  • Rhetoric

    Pathos(empathy)

    Ethos(credibility)

    Logos(logic)

    CONTEXT

    Aristottle

    Logos - would utilise facts, statistics, analogies, and

    logical reasoning.

    Ethos - would draw upon credibility, reliability, trustworthiness and

    fairness.

    Pathos - would appeal to our emotions and draw

    upon feelings of fairness, love, pity, or even greed,

    lust, or revenge.

  • Rhetoric of Design

    Rhetor Audience

    Speech

    Intent

    Expectations

    Rhetoric

  • Graphic Designer Audience

    Image

    Inte

    ntExpectations

    Visual Rhetoric

    Rhetoric of Design

  • Designer Users

    Product

    Inte

    ntExpectations

    Design as Rhetoric

    Rhetoric of Design

    Richard Buchanan

  • Game

    Game Designer Player

    Rule

    sInteraction

    Game Design as Rhetoric

    Rhetoric of Designthe basic representational mode of videogames is procedurality, enacted through rule- based representations and interactions and, when used to reveal processes or concepts of another system, present the player with a procedural rhetoric

    Ian Bogost

  • Interactive System

    Interaction Designer User

    Syst

    em L

    ogic Interaction

    Interactive Systems as Rhetoric

    Rhetoric of Design

    Coulton

  • Developing In-Game Rhetoric

    Mudlark

  • Climate Change

  • Weather

  • Flow

  • Storage

  • Scale

    Charles and Ray Eames Powers of 10

  • COLD SUN

  • Games as Speculative Design Should:

    Enable a Plurality of Futures

    Be Plausible

    Enable both Mimesis and Diegesis

    Be Iterative

    Not Resort to Reductionism

    Perpetual Beta

  • Questions

    Banksy