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These lecture slides were used in two lectures delivered on 25th June 2014 at a 3 day workshop organised under the TEQIP (Technical Education Quality Improvement Programme ) scheme by Equate India for the faculty participants from few NITs, Aligarh Muslim University, and Sardar Patel College of Engineering.


  • Developing and Publishing Academic Products Sanjay Goel, 2014 Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida Blog - Engineering & Computing Education: Reflections and Ideation at Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014
  • Academic Products Theses , Technical reports Papers Research papers (theoretical, empirical) Survey papers Experience reports, Pilot studies, Case studies Position papers Book chapters Patents Paper reviews, Book reviews Articles, Blogs Open Educational Resources Course design Lecture notes pdf, ppt Discussion cases Problem Sets Books, Book chapters Audio/video lectures Online courses Open Source Software Data, Test suites , Test benches Wiki, Q&A forums Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014
  • Engineering and Computing Education Some International Journals Journal of Engineering Education, ASEE, since 1910 European Journal of Engineering Education, Taylor and Francis, UK, since 1976 The International Journal of Engineering Education, Dublin Institute of Tech., since 1985 IEEE Transaction on Education, IEEE, since 1988 Journal of Computer Science Education, Taylor and Francis, UK, since 1990 International Journal of Technology and Design Education. Springer, since 1990 Australasian Journal of Engineering Education. Australasian Association of Engineering education, since 1991 The Journal of Computing Sciences in Colleges, Consortium for Computing Sciences in Colleges, Archived by ACM, since 1991 Engineering Science and Education Journal, IEE, since 1992 Global Journal of Engineering Education, UNESCO International Centre for Engineering Education, since 1997 Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Education, Auburn University, USA, since 2000 British Journal of Engineering Education, British Engineering Education Society, since 2000 Journal of Information Technology Education, Informing Science Institute,USA, since 2002 Journal of Information Systems Education, AITP, since 2003 Online Journal of Global Engineering Education, University of Rhode Island, since 2006 Advances in Engineering Education, ASEE, since 2007 Transactions on Computing Education, ACM, USA, since 2009 Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014
  • Engineering and Computing Education Some International Journals Journal of Learning Sciences, LEA since 1991 Innovative Higher Education, Springer Research in Science Education, Springer Education and Information Technologies, Springer Research in Higher Education, Springer Higher Education, Springer International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching & Learning , Georgia Southern University International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, International Society for Exploring Teaching and Learning Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014
  • Engineering and Computing Education Some international Conferences and other Publications Annual conference of ASEE, since 1894 Annual Conference of SIGCSE, ACM, since 1970. Frontiers in Education, ASEE & IEEE, since 1977. The Intl Conf. on Software Engg. (ICSE), since 1979 Annual Conferences of Consortium for Computing Sciences in Colleges, since 1985 IEEE Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training, since 1988 Annual Conference of Australasian Association of Engineering Education, since 1990 Annual Conference on Informing Science and Information Technology Education, Informing Science Institute, since 2001 Annual ASEE Global Colloquium on Engineering Education, since 2002 Annual Conference of SIGITE, ACM, since 2003 International Computing Education Research Workshop, ACM, since 2005 Education Track in IC3, since 2008. India Software Engineering Conference since 2008 The International Conference of the Learning Sciences (ICLS), ISLS since 1992. SIGCSE Bulletin, since 1969 National Teaching and Learning Forum, Newsletter, USA, since 1991 Prism, a magazine by ASEE, since 1998 Tomorrow's Professor Listserv, Stanford University, USA, since 2000 SIGITE Bulletin, since 2005 Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014
  • An Example of Review Parameters: IC3 2014 Originality - Are you reasonably confident about the originality of this paper? You are requested to check the EDAS reported similarity score and also the detailed similarity report. If the similarity score is more than 20, you are requested to be extra careful in making your assessment about originality Contributions - What are the major issues addressed in the paper? Do you consider them important? Comment on the novelty, creativity, impact, and technical depth in the paper Literature Survey (Comment on the importance, recency, and quality of referred sources) Problem, Research Method, Argument and Claim - Comment on the clarity, relevance, and consistence of the problem, research method, arguments, and claim(s) Assumptions and Validation - Comment on assumptions and validation in terms of a. Clarity, relevance, and validity of the background and contextual assumptions; b. Consideration of important parameters in selecting the criteria for assessment of results; c. Reasonable complexity of testing/operational conditions including data size and variety for empirical validation Scalability/Generality of proposed solution - Is the proposed approach reasonably scalable/ generic? Strengths -What are the major reasons, if any, to accept the paper? Weaknesses -What are the major reasons. if any, NOT to accept the paper? Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014
  • Typical Reasons of Rejection 1. Not relevant to the scope of journal/conference 2. Does not make new contribution to the knowledge or its application/too local, too small 3. Lack focus, Overcrowded with ideas 4. Objective not clear, Need for research not established, Poor problem statement 5. Introduction, data, literature survey do not support conclusions 6. Insufficient/irrelevant/outdated literature survey 7. Poorly conducted study, inadequate research, methodological problems, research steps missing 8. Wrong assumptions, over generalization 9. Incomprehensible, lack of clarity, Inconsistency, Confusing usage of technical jargon, Structural deficiencies, Jerks in the flow, boring, exceeds size limits, poor language, poor/confusing presentation of data, Author guidelines not followed 10. Poor sampling/testing/statistics/interpretation/analysis, invalid and illogical arguments 11. Suspected reproducibility of experiments/calculations, wrong maths 12. Unsubstantiated claims, Future projections without a how 13. Redundancy 14. Poor response to reviewers comments 15. Unethical practices Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014
  • Research = Inquiry The important thing is not to stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existing. Einstein The scientist is not a person who gives the right answers, he's one who asks the right questions Claude Lvi-Strauss (anthropologist) The outcome of any serious research can only be to make two questions grow where only one grew before. Thorstein Veblen (economist) Kalama Sutta, The Buddha's Charter of Free Inquiry It is proper for you, to doubt, to be uncertain Do not go upon what has been acquired by repeated hearing; tradition; rumor; what is in a scripture; surmise; axiom; specious reasoning; bias towards a notion that has been pondered over; another's seeming ability; consideration, 'The monk is our teacher.' Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014
  • Critical Thinkers Dispositions and Habits Recognize and Avoid Simplistic worldview (Kurland 2000) See things in black and white, as either-or See questions as yes or no with no subtleties. Fail to see linkages, related elements, and complexities Egotistical worldview (Kurland 2000) Take their facts as the only relevant ones. Take their own perspective as the only sensible one. Take their goal as the only valid one. Socio-centric worldview Consider their own social group as superior to that of others. Inquisitiveness, Intellectual Humility & Autonomy Faith in Reason, Self Confidence and Intellectual Perseverance Intellectual Courage, Self Reflection & Correction Analyticity and patience in reasoning, inference, judgment, and synthesis Discipline, Systematicity and Intellectual Integrity Intellectual Empathy, Open-mindedness, and Fair-mindedness Maturity Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014
  • Engineering Innovation: Context and Benchmarking Engineering R&D will possibly reach $45 billion by 2020. India has the potential to capture a 40% share of global offshore revenues of engineering R&D services. - NASSCOM, 2010 Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014
  • Evolving Role and Concerns of Engineering Engineering serves the human needs at all levels of human needs Maslows model : physiological, safety, belonging, esteem, cognition, aesthetic, self actualization, and also transcendence. through transfer, transformation, and application of Matter, Energy, and Information Engineering: Conventional concerns utility, efficiency, robustness, safety, ergonomy, legal Modern concern- user experience, sustainability, globalization Innovation Is Most Important Factor For Growth Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014
  • Indias Ranks in Global Innovation Index, 2013 66 102 4287 11 65 95 9449 89 105 53 44 53 105 133 102 46 96 30 77 76 108 124 51 106 24 37 22 62 122 Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014
  • Changing India 4000 IT product companies In the last 5 years, 750+ tech start-ups in last 5 years in Bangalore & NCR. Last year, around 400 new tech start-upsSanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014
  • Patent Grants, WIPO, 2012 Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014
  • WIPO, 2012 Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014
  • Trends in Patent applications filed abroad for the top five origins and BRICS origins, WIPO, 2012 Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014
  • Education Vs Innovation Bruce L. Gary (1993), A New Timescale For Placing Human Events, Derivation Of Per Capita Rate Of Innovation, and a Speculation On The Timing of The Demise Of Humanity Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014
  • Engineering PhD Education in India: Is it really serving its purpose? academic-leaders-of-tomorrow/ Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014
  • PhD Education To prepare intellectual leaders who will do the groundwork to create new paradigms and products for tomorrow - NAS, NAE National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine (1995), Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014
  • PhD Education A Ph.D. is a long, in depth research exploration of one topic [1]. - CMU By long were typically talking about 6 years. By in depth we mean that at the end of the Ph.D. you will be the world expert or close to it in your particular area. You will know more than your advisor about your particular research area. You will know about your research than anyone at your school. By one we mean that by the last couple years of your Ph.D., you will typically be working on only one narrow problem. PhD is about creating intellectual capital Intellectual Capital = Knowledge x Effort x Talent x Morality (+/-) - Sandor Kopatsy,1999 1. Mor Harchol-Balter (2011), Applying to Ph.D. Programs in CS, CMU Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014
  • Expertise: Effort Vs Talent ? Bloom (1985): International-level performers in maths, biochemistry, music, sculpture, swimming and tennis, had studied with master teachers, many even relocated to be close to a desired teacher or an excellent training environment and virtually all of them had sought out a teacher, who either him(her)self had reached the international level or had had prior students who had reached that level. Winston Churchill practiced his oratory style in front of a mirror. Sam Snead (the best natural Golf player ever) - when I was young, Id play and practice all day, then practice more at night by my cars headlights. My hands bled. Nobody worked harder at golf than I did. Benjamin Franklin - Days after hed enjoyed reading an article, he would try to reconstruct it from memory in his own words. Then he would compare it with the original, so he could discover and correct his faults. Mozarts musical tutelage started before he was four years old. Advanced chess players spend 4 hrs/day studying published games between international chess masters. Masters had acquired some 50,000 chunks /patterns. Most recent champions in chess were at one time tutored by chess masters. An expert musician (committed full time) spent a total of 56.75 hrs/week on music-related activities. In comparison amateur spent only 7.02 hrs. Simon and Chases (1973) Theory of expertise and 10 year rule: Individuals require 10+ years of preparation to attain international level performance. Development of genuine expertise requires struggle, sacrifice, and honest, often painful self assessment. In general, IQ tends to correlate with performance at very low skill levels, and is not significant for individuals reaching high levels of performance after extended deliberate practice. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014
  • Effort for Good PhD: Some Benchmarks In Spain less than 10% PhD candidates are finally granted the degree. In USA, around 50% candidates across disciplines do not complete the degree. A survey of around 200 PhD students at York University, Canada showed that 6 years was the average time to complete their degrees. Out of these students 66% never had part time status. A study of PhD students at Rutgers University showed that the mean time for completion of degree requirement for students who spend more than 52 hours per week for their PhD studies is 4.5 years. This was found to be 6.7 years for those who spent 44 hours per week. In a conversation, Prof. Sartaj Sahni, University of Florida indicated that for full-time students, it takes around 5 years of regular work to complete the PhD requirements. Demanding advisors normally expect and engage the PhD candidates to work for 60-70 hours per week. Prof. Rao Vemuri, University of California, Davis, told that his part time PhD scholars, took around 8 years for completing the required work. As per Prof. Bhattacharyya, his 30+ PhD scholars at IIT Delhi took 5-7 years to complete their degree and more than 80% joined industry after completing their PhD. As per Prof. B. C. Mal, IIT Kh, Full time scholars are usually taking between 3 - 5 years. After 2 - 3 years some of them join jobs and start working as a part time scholar. They are taking 6 - 8 years. Bologna Process - European universities 180 credits * 30 hrs. of work per credit = 5400 hrs. of work Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014
  • Effort for Good PhD: Some Benchmarks Elapsed and Registered Time-to-Doctorate (Median Years), 2007-09 Exit Cohorts Time-to-Doctorate at UC and Comparison Institutions , 2007-2009 Exit Cohorts, University of California Office of the President Nerad, M., & Cerny, J. (2000). From Rumors to Facts: Career outcomes of English PhDs. ADE bulletin, 43-55. PhD. Completion Rates (2007) USA 56% Australia 65% UK 72% Australia Average Time to completion = 5 years Jiranek, V. (2010). Potential predictors of timely completion among dissertation research students at an Australian faculty of sciences. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 5, 1-13. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014
  • Effort for Good PhD: Some Benchmarks Thurgood, Lori, Mary J. Golladay, and Susan T. Hill (2006), "US Doctorates in the 20th Century." Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. Total Time to Doctorate (TTD), the total elapsed calendar time between receipt of the baccalaureate and receipt of the doctorate, including time not enrolled in school; Registered Time to Doctorate (RTD), the time in attendance at all colleges and universities between receipt of the baccalaureate and receipt of the doctorate, including enrolment not related to the doctoral program; Post baccalaureate Time to Doctorate (PTD), total elapsed calendar years between the first post baccalaureate attendance at the institution that awarded the doctorate and receipt of the doctorate. It includes time spent in a masters degree program if these studies were at the same institution that granted the doctorate. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014
  • Ethical Issues in Academic Publishing 1. Data fabrication, falsification, manipulation, misappropriation, theft, unauthorized use 2. Tendentious interpretation 3. Plagiarism and self plagiarism 4. Gift and Pressured Authorship Authorship without the authors knowledge Inappropriate authorship on students paper Overly prolific authors Change in authorship 5. Ghost Authorship 6. Duplicate Submission 7. Salami/Sibling Publications 8. Overlapping publications 9. Undeclared conflict of interest/competing interest 10. Compromised editorial/reviewer independence Tandon, V. R., Mahajan, A., Sharma, S., & Gupta, S. K. (2006). Unethical publication practices. J Med Edu Res, 8, 123-4. Gollogly, L., & Momen, H. (2006). Ethical dilemmas in scientific publication: pitfalls and solutions for editors. Revista de Sade Pblica, 40(SPE), 24-29. Stoilescu, D., & McDougall, D. (2010). Starting to publish academic research as a doctoral student, 1997 onwards Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014
  • Morality: Plagiarism IC3: International Conference on Contemporary Computing 2014 2013 2012 Total papers received: 738 577 189 o Papers with similarity score >=20: 60% 33% 25% o Papers with similarity score >=30: 39% 18% 16% o Papers with similarity score >=50: 14% 5% 5% Acceptance rate --- 19% 33% IC3-2013 80% accepted papers had the similarity score of