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Center for Diesel Research Diesel engines: Emission control and biofuels David Kittelson Center for Diesel Research Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Minnesota Tenth Annual Freight and Logistics Symposium Four Points Sheraton, Minneapolis December 1, 2006

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  • Center for Diesel Research

    Diesel engines: Emission control and biofuels

    David Kittelson Center for Diesel Research

    Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Minnesota

    Tenth Annual

    Freight and Logistics Symposium Four Points Sheraton, Minneapolis

    December 1, 2006

  • Center for Diesel Research

    Nanoparticle formation– In the engine– In the atmosphere

    Fundamental studies– Kinetics of soot oxidation– Role of metals in Diesel

    nanoparticle formation• C / Ce cluster

    Engine, Fuel and Nanoparticle Research Center for Diesel Research

    David B. Kittelson, Professor of Mechanical EngineeringDirector, Center for Diesel Research

    Renewable fuels, biodiesel, ethanol, to reduce CO2 and ultrafine particles

    Sensors for real time control of ultrafine particles and NOx

  • Center for Diesel Research

    Outline

    •  Introduction •  Biodiesel •  Future fuels – DME?

  • Center for Diesel Research

    Emissions standards are becoming much tighter worldwide making exhaust aftertreatment essential

    Plot courtesy Tim Johnson, Corning

    • US 2010 levels correspond to about 99% reduction in PM and 98% reduction in NOx • 2007 prototypes are better than the PM standard by factors of 5 to 20

  • Center for Diesel Research

    Diesel Emission Control Pathways

    Courtesy: Tim Johnson, Corning

    European light duty US heavy duty 2007 2010? European light duty US heavy duty 2007 2010?

    • Catalysts used in advanced aftertreatment require ultra low sulfur fuel • As of October 1, 2006 nearly all on-road fuel must be below 15 ppm S - down from 500 ppm

  • Center for Diesel Research

    Typical exhaust filters – Johnson-Matthey CRT® and CCRT®

    •  Most PM filtration systems being considered for 2007 are the wall flow type shown on the left. Without regeneration to oxidize soot these devices quickly plug.

    •  Catalyzed filtration systems like the J-M CRT® shown on the right reduce regeneration temperature by producing NO2 from exhaust NO in an oxidizing catalyst upstream of filter

    •  The J-M CCRT® has a catalyzed washcoat on the filter as well to further reduce regeneration temperature

    •  In most applications active regeneration is also required •  NO2 in the exhaust is an issue

    Figures courtesy Corning and Johnson-MattheyFigures courtesy Corning and Johnson-Matthey

  • Center for Diesel Research

    Renewable Fuels for Engines

    •  Diesel engine fuels –  Biodiesel – derived from vegetable oils, animal fats, recycled fats/oils,

    oil producing algae –  Fischer-Tropsch liquids – biomass gasification –  Dimethyl Ether (DME) – biomass gasification –  Ethanol – from corn, wheat, sugar by fermentation, cellulose digestion,

    biomass gasification –  Butanol – sugar?

    •  Gasoline engine fuels –  Ethanol – from corn, wheat, sugar by fermentation, cellulose digestion,

    biomass gasification –  Biogas – anaerobic digestion of plant and animal waste –  Fischer-Tropsch liquids – biomass gasification –  Methanol – biomass gasification –  Butanol – sugar?

  • Center for Diesel Research

    Soy Methyl Ester (SME) Biodiesel Production

    100 lbs. of soybean oil +

    10 lbs. methanol =

    100 lbs. soy biodiesel (B100)

    + 10 lbs. of glycerin

  • Center for Diesel Research

    Biodiesel Feedstocks

    •  Soybean Oil, SME (USA) •  Rapeseed Oil, RME (EU) •  Other vegetable oils (palm, sunflower,

    corn) •  Beef Tallow, pork lard •  Recycled restaurant grease (yellow

    grease), FAME

  • Center for Diesel Research

    Biodiesel Blends

    0 50 100

    B2

    B5

    B10

    B20

    B100

    Biodiesel Petroleum diesel

    B100B100 = 100% b iod ie se lB20B20 = 20% b iod ie se l + 80% pe trole um d ie se lB10B10 = 10% b iod ie se l + 90% pe trole um d ie se l

    B5B5 = 5% b iod ie se l + 95% pe trole um d ie se l

    B2B2 = 2% b iod ie se l + 98% pe trole um d ie se l

  • Center for Diesel Research

    Influence of Biodiesel on Diesel Emissions (Heavy-Duty)

    US EPA 2002

  • Center for Diesel Research

    Influence of Biodiesel on PM Emissions (Heavy-Duty)– range of results

    US EPA 2002

  • Center for Diesel Research

    Feedstock has an Impact on Emissions

    NOx Emissions PM Emissions

    US EPA 2002

  • Center for Diesel Research

    Biodiesel Also Leads to Significant Decreases in Air Toxics

    US EPA 2002

  • Center for Diesel Research

    Comparison between biodiesel and petroleum diesel •  Little fuel consumption penalty •  Considerable engine to engine variation in emissions

    –  Reduced emissions of HC, CO, and air toxics –  NOx emissions vary –  Sharply decreased soot emissions but increased volatile particle

    emissions –  Uncertain performance in advanced engines with aftertreatment

    •  Most manufacturers don’t recommend use of blends higher than B5 to B20 –  Solvency –  Cold flow –  Oxidative stability

    •  Quality control and filter plugging still issues

  • Center for Diesel Research

    ”Well-to-wheel” analysis (Volvo study) Energy efficiency and Greenhouse gases Courtesy - Anders Röj, Volvo Technology Corporation, Fuels and Lubricants

    Volvo Technology Corporation, Fuels and Lubricants

    Future Fuels for Commercial Vehicles

    ”Well-to-wheel” analysis (Volvo study)Energy efficiency and Greenhouse gases

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    Diese

    l (crud

    e oil)

    DME (

    natur

    al ga

    s)

    MeOH

    (natur

    al ga

    s)

    CNG

    (natur

    al ga

    s)

    Synth

    etic d

    iesel

    (natur

    al ga

    s)

    DME (

    wood

    , blac

    k liqu

    or)

    MeOH

    (woo

    d, bla

    ck liq

    uor)

    Bioga

    s (se

    wage

    )

    DME (

    wood

    )

    MeOH

    (woo

    d)

    Synth

    etic d

    iesel

    (woo

    d)

    RME (

    rape s

    eed)

    Ethan

    ol (w

    ood)

    Ethan

    ol (w

    heat)

    0

    250

    500

    750

    1000

    Energy efficiency, %GHG, g/kWh

    g/kWh

    Fossil Renewables

    These figure include production, transport, and end use. Ethanol figures are based on European practice from wood or wheat

  • Center for Diesel Research

    What is DME?

  • Center for Diesel Research

    DME properties

    •  Physical properties similar to propane – LP gas •  Nontoxic •  DME is a gas at ambient conditions and unlike MTBE is

    not a groundwater pollution threat •  Uses

    –  Aerosol propellant in the cosmetic industry to replace CFC propellants

    –  Diesel fuel •  High efficiency •  Soot free combustion •  Fuel system modifications required

    –  Fuel cell fuel –  Propane replacement

    •  May be produced from natural gas or biomass

  • Center for Diesel Research

    Black liquor to engine fuels - Ideal use of low grade biomass Courtesy - Anders Röj, Volvo Technology Corporation, Fuels and Lubricants

    Volvo Technology Corporation, Fuels and Lubricants

    Future Fuels for Commercial Vehicles

    Black liquor to engine fuels - Ideal use of low grade biomass

    Pulp Mill

    Green Liquor

    Methanol/DME

    Internal heat and powerBiomassfed power

    boiler

    BLGMF

    AdditionalRenewable Energy

    Pulp Wood

    Pulp

    Black Liquor

    *

    Production Efficiency = Methanol/ DMEAdditional Renewable Energy

    > 65%*(Source:Chemrec)

  • Center for Diesel Research

    DME/Methanol Production Potential

    •  From black liquor gasification using existing pulp mills –  Total use of black liquor in the mill

    •  Finland 50% transportation fuels •  Sweden 30% transportation fuels •  Minnesota 4 – 7% transportation fuels

    –  Adding a small booster plant to existing Minnesota mill •  7 million gallons per year DME – enough for about 700 urban buses

    (MSP metro fleet ~ 900) •  Or 7 million gallons per year methanol – enough to supply all the

    methanol needed by all Minnesota’s biodiesel plants (6.3 million gallons) with some left over

    •  Estimated cost $2.20-2.30 / gallon gasoline equivalent with no subsidies

    •  Chemrec are talking to mill owners in the MN / WI region about building such a plant. They are carrying out a conceptual study for one of them.

  • Center for Diesel Research

    DME/Methanol Production Potential

    •  Using not just pulp mills but all readily available biomass sources –  NREL estimates that Minnesota has available biomass streams

    the could produce the equivalent of 100-200% current gasoline use via gasification

    –  This would require a number of large gasification plants but could be a very long term sustainable solution

    –  It is likely that different states will have a different mix of long term renewable energy solutions. We will no longer have monolithic petroleum

    •  A likely path to DME introduction will be initial use as a propane replacement followed by gradual introduction of DME vehicles

    •  Production of “green methanol” for use in biodiesel production and for fuel cells may also play a role

  • Center for Diesel Research

    DME is an extremely clean Diesel fuel Second generation DME fueled truck from Volvo Courtesy - Anders Röj, Volvo Technology Corporation, Fuels and Lubricants

    20042004

  • Center for Diesel Research

    Technology roadmap - DME Courtesy - Anders Röj, Volvo Technology Corporation, Fuels and Lubricants

    Volvo Technology Corporation, Fuels and Lubricants

    Future Fuels for Commercial Vehicles

    Vehicle deliveryProduction proj.

    2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    External influences

    Fuel productiondevelopment

    Engine and vehicledevelopment

    Piteå (BLG)

    US02 EU4 US07 EU5Tier3EU4i US10

    AFFORHD (FM9 truck)

    Buss Demo Gen2

    Field Test (3 trucks)

    DME combustion res.

    Vehicle start

    RENEW (SP3)

    Vehicles start

    Vehicles start

    Combustion system for Large Field Test

    Bio DME project Fuel deliveryP

    P

    Large Field Test (circa 30 HD vehicles)

    Vehicle start

    Technology Roadmap - DME Issue: 2005

    DME NOx EATS research

    Växjö Värnamo Biomass Gasification Center

    - - - - -Planned

    Decided

  • Center for Diesel Research

    Renewable Fuels for Diesels

    •  Biodiesel is a near term solution –  No significant changes to engine –  Clean –  Cost effective –  High energy efficiency of production and modest greenhouse gas emissions –  Potential to replace up to 30% of petroleum diesel

    •  Ethanol may play a role if ignition problems can be solved •  DME is a strong candidate for a longer term future fuel.

    –  Requires substantial engine modification, mainly to fuel system –  Best well-to-wheel energy efficiency from bio source, 25% better than synthetic

    diesel (Fischer-Tropsch) –  Close to CO2 neutral if produced from biomass –  Highest efficiency, lowest GWP and cost of the biomass to liquid (BTL) fuels –  Very low exhaust emissions (soot-free combustion, Euro 5) –  Energy dense and liquid at low pressure –  Non-toxic, biodegradable and harmless to the atmosphere

  • Center for Diesel Research

    Hybrid vehicle concepts

    •  Parallel - engine and electric motor generator work in parallel. –  Usually large engine –  Relatively small electric motor –  Honda Insight, Civic

    •  Series – engine drive generator, electric motor drives wheels. –  Must have full performance electric drive. –  May have smaller engine. –  Most suited to plug in hybrid –  Close relative of electric vehicle

    •  Series-parallel – combination of above. –  Toyota Prius, Ford Escape

    •  Other hybrid types use hydraulic and flywheel energy storage –  Electric hybrid, high energy density, low power density

    •  Long range – with large battery may be plug in •  Limited power for acceleration, braking

    –  Hydraulic hybrid, high power density, low energy density •  Good for local start stop •  Effective regenerative braking

  • Center for Diesel Research

    Types of plug in hybrid vehicles Parallel

    From: http//www.hybridcenter.org

  • Center for Diesel Research

    Types of plug in hybrid vehicles Series

    From: http//www.hybridcenter.org

  • Center for Diesel Research

    Types of plug in hybrid vehicles Series-Parallel

    From: http//www.hybridcenter.org