dna, and in some cases rna, is the primary source of heritable information noneukaryotic genetic...

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Author: clare-anthony

Post on 18-Dec-2015




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  • Bacterial DNA Two types of DNA in bacteria. The main form of genetic material in bacteria is a single circular chromosome made of DNA. The chromosome replicates via binary fission. In binary fission, the chromosomes replicates and the cell divides into two cells, with each cell gets an identical copy of the chromosome. Bacteria also contain plasmids, small, circular DNA molecules outside the chromosome. Plasmids replicate independently of the chromosome. Plasmids are not always necessary to the survival of the bacteria but can be beneficial to the survival of the bacteria.
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  • Binary Fission
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  • Genetic Variation in Bacteria Conjugation is a process of DNA exchange between bacteria. Transduction occurs when DNA is introduced into the genome of a bacterium by a virus. Transformation occurs when bacteria absorb DNA from their surroundings and incorporate it into their genome, Mutation occurs when there is a random change in the DNA
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  • Conjugation
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  • Transduction
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  • Transformation
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  • Summary of Sources of Genetic Variation Mutations also results in genetic variation
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  • Regulation of Gene Expression Gene expression in bacteria is controlled by the operon model. An operon is the entire stretch of DNA that includes the operator, the promoter, and the genes that they control. Natural selection has favored bacteria that produce only the products needed by that cell. A bacteria cell can regulate the production of enzymes by feedback inhibition or gene regulation via an operon.
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  • Parts of an Operon promoter - region is a sequence of DNA to which the RNA polymerase attaches to begin transcription operator - region can block the action of the RNA polymerase if the region is occupied by a repressor protein structural genes - contain DNA sequences that code for several related enzymes that direct the production of some particular end product regulatory genes - produces proteins that either (1) bind to the operator and block transcription(repressor proteins) or (2) bind to the repressor which causes it to release the operator and allow transcription to take place (activator proteins).
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  • Repressible Operons always ON Repressible operons are always turned on - meaning they produce their protein product until they are turned off. The trp operon is an example. By default the trp operon is on and the genes for tryptophan synthesis are transcribed. When tryptophan is present, it binds to the trp repressor protein, which turns the operon off. The repressor is active only in the presence of its corepressor - tryptophan; thus the trp operon is turned off (repressed) if tryptophan levels are high. Repressible enzymes usually function anabolic pathways; their synthesis is repressed by high levels of the end product
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  • Inducible Operons always OFF Inducible operons are usually turned off - meaning they don't produce the protein until a molecule called an inducer inactivates the repressor and turns on transcription. The lac operon is an inducible operon and contains genes that code for enzymes used in the hydrolysis and metabolism of lactose. By itself, the lac repressor is active and switches the lac operon off. A molecule called an inducer inactivates the repressor to turn the lac operon on. When there is no lactose present - there is not need for the enzymes that break it down. Inducible enzymes usually function in catabolic pathways; like digestion; their syntesis is induced by a chemical signal (the item that is meant to be digested).
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  • Positive Gene Regulation Promoter DNA CAP-binding site lacZlac I RNA polymerase binds and transcribes Operator cAMP Active CAP Inactive CAP Allolactose Inactive lac repressor (a)Lactose present, glucose scarce (cAMP level high): abundant lac mRNA synthesized Promoter DNA CAP-binding site lacZlac I Operator RNA polymerase less likely to bind Inactive lac repressor Inactive CAP (b) Lactose present, glucose present (cAMP level low): little lac mRNA synthesized The compounds present determine which operons are turned on. For example: positive control of the lac operon by catabolite activator protein (CAP). RNA polymerase has high affinity for the lac promoter only when CAP is bound to a DNA site at the upstream end of the promoter. CAP attaches to its DNA site only when associated with cyclic AMP (cAMP), whose concentration in the cell rises when glucose concentration falls.
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  • Operon Assignment Due 1/20/15 Explain the concept of an operon and the function of the operator, repressor, and corepressor. Be sure to state the adaptive advantage of grouping bacterial genes into an operon. Discuss how repressible and inducible operons differ and how those differences reflect differences in the pathways they control.