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    A Study On Training Program At Park Plaza



    Purpose of literature review is to gain in-depth background knowledge of the stated

    research problem. It includes consulting academic professionals, referring journals, goingthrough different books for gaining knowledge about the topic.

    Reviewing on the topic of training under human resource management attributed to the

    inability of the employment market to absorb the growing pool of graduates from institutions of

    higher learning about different practices on training and development of human resource


    Going through different references insight knowledge of training can be added from

    these books:

    Hiring and Keeping the Best People: Harvard Business School Press, 2002

    Harvard Business Essentials are comprehensive, solution-oriented paperbacks for

    business readers of all levels of experience. In today's ever-changing business environment,hiring an all-star work force and keeping it in place is a challenge for any organization. With an

    overview on topics such as recruiting the right people, cultivating the right culture, avoiding

    employee burnout, and calculating employee turnover, Hiring and Keeping the Best People

    offers managers a clear understanding of how to hire more effectively and increase retention.

    Packed with hands-on tips and tools, this helpful guide provides actionable and practical advice

    for managers and human resources professionals alike.

    Evaluating Training Programs: The Four Levels:

    Donald L. Kirkpatrick, James D. Kirkpatrick

    'Evaluating a Human Relations Training Program for Supervisors.'' At the Management Institute

    of the University of Wisconsin, he taught managers at all levels the principles and techniques of

    many subjects, including Coaching, Communication, Managing Time, Managing Change, Team

    Building, and Leadership.....
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    Offers an in-depth, how-to guide to evaluating training programs. The book distinguishes itself

    by employing a four-level approach to evaluation. The levels are:

    reaction of participants (customer satisfaction) learning (extent to which participants change attitudes, improve knowledge, and/or

    increase skill)

    behaviour (extent to which change in behaviour has occurred) Results (outcomes that occurred as a consequence of program attendance).

    The book includes detailed case studies, exhibits, research results, techniques and formulas for

    measuring success. The majority of chapters target specific types of programs, such as:

    training for non-exempt employees, developing supervisory skills, desktop application course, leadership training, leadership development

    and many more.The study of this project is completely dealt with the topic training. The term training refers to a

    application of knowledge that gives people an awareness of the rules and procedure to guide

    their behaviour. It helps to improve their performance on the current job or prepare them for

    intended job.

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    Human resources may be defined as the total knowledge, skills, creative

    abilities, talents and aptitudes of an organization's workforce, as well as the

    values, attitudes, approaches and beliefs of the individuals involved in the

    affairs of the organization. It is the sum total or aggregate of inherent

    abilities, acquired knowledge and skills represented by the talents and

    aptitudes of the persons employed in the organization.

    The human resources are multidimensional in nature. From the national

    point of view, human resources may be defined as the knowledge, skills,

    creative abilities, talents and aptitudes obtained in the population; whereas

    from the viewpoint of the individual enterprise, they represent the total of

    the inherent abilities, acquired knowledge and skills as exemplified in the

    talents and aptitudes of its employees.

    2.1 Defined

    Human Resource Management has come to be recognized as an inherentpart of management, which is concerned with the human resources of an

    organization. Its objective is the maintenance of better human relations in

    the organization by the development, application and evaluation of policies,

    procedures and programmers relating to human resources to optimize their

    contribution towards the realization of organizational objectives.

    In other words, HRM is concerned with getting better results with the

    collaboration of people. It is an integral but distinctive part of management,

    concerned with people at work and their relationships within the enterprise.

    HRM helps in attaining maximum individual development, desirable

    working relationship between employees and employers, effective modeling

    of human resources as contrasted with physical resources. It is the

    recruitment, selection, development, utilization, compensation and

    motivation of human resources by the organization

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    2.2 Human Resource Management: Evolution

    The early part of the century saw a concern for improved efficiency through

    careful design of work. During the middle part of the century emphasis

    shifted to the employee's productivity. Recent decades have focused on

    increased concern for the quality of working life, total quality management

    and worker's participation in management. These three phases may be

    termed as welfare, development and empowerment.

    2.3 Human Resource Management: Scope

    The scope of HRM is very wide:

    Personnel aspect - This is concerned with manpower planning, recruitment,selection, placement, transfer, promotion, training and development, layoff

    and retrenchment, remuneration, incentives, productivity etc.

    Welfare aspect - It deals with working conditions and amenities such ascanteens, crches, rest and lunch rooms, housing, transport, medical

    assistance, education, health and safety, recreation facilities, etc.

    Industrial relations aspect - This covers union-management relations, jointconsultation, collective bargaining, grievance and disciplinary procedures,

    settlement of disputes, etc.

    2.4 HRM: Objective

    To help the organization reach its goals. To ensure effective utilization and maximum development of human


    To ensure respect for human beings. To identify and satisfy the needs ofindividuals.

    To ensure reconciliation of individual goals with those of the organization. To achieve and maintain high morale among employees. To provide the organization with well-trained and well-motivated


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    To increase to the fullest the employee's job satisfaction and self-actualization.

    To develop and maintain a quality of work life. To be ethically and socially responsive to the needs of society. To develop overall personality of each employee in its multidimensional


    To enhance employee's capabilities to perform the present job. To equip the employees with precision and clarity in transaction of business. To inculcate the sense of team spirit, team work and inter-team


    2.5 HRM: Functions

    In order to achieve the above objectives, Human Resource

    Management undertakes the following activities:

    Human resource or manpower planning. Recruitment, selection and placement of personnel. Training and development of employees. Appraisal of performance of employees. Taking corrective steps such as transfer from one job to another. Remuneration of employees. Social security and welfare of employees. Setting general and specific management policy for organizational


    Collective bargaining, contract negotiation and grievance handling.

    Staffing the organization. Aiding in the self-development of employees at all levels. Developing and maintaining motivation for workers by providing


    Reviewing and auditing manpower management in the organization Potential Appraisal. Feedback Counseling. Role Analysis for job occupants. Job Rotation.

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    Quality Circle, Organization development and Quality of Working Life.

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    2.6 TRAININGIntroduction

    Training is an important human resource development activity,

    which reinforces human resource management in an organisation. Apart

    from the need for internals staffing, training enhances job related skills and

    also facilitated acquiring of for new skills required averting skills

    obsolescence in an organization.

    Every organisation needs the services of trained persons for

    performing the activities in a systematic way. The fast changing

    technological development makes the knowledge of employees obsolete.

    They require constant training to cope with the needs of jobs. After selecting

    the employees, the next task of management is to give them proper training.

    Some employees may have some previous knowledge of jobs while others

    may entirely be new. Both types of workers will need some kind of training

    to acquaint themselves with the jobs though it is more necessary for the

    latest category of employees. Large organisations may employee a large

    number of persons every year. It may not be possible to recruit already

    trained persons. Such enterprises require separate training departments to

    prepare workers for undertaking the jobs. Every concern has to arrange some

    kind of training for preparing workers for jobs and also keeping them

    acquainted with latest technological advancements.

    Training, education and development are three terms frequently

    used. On the fact of it, there might not appear any difference between them,

    but when a deep thought is given, there appear some differences between

    them. In all training there is some education and in all educations there is

    some training and the two processes cannot be separated from development.

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    2.6.1 Three terms:

    Training Development Education

    Training is a process of learning a sequence of program behaviour. It is

    application of knowledge. It gives people an awareness of the rules and

    procedures to guide their behaviour. It attempts to improve their

    performance on the current job or prepare them for an intended job.

    Development is a related process. It covers not only those activities which

    improve job performance but also those which bring about growth ofpersonality, help individual in progress towards majority and actualisation of

    their potential capacities so that they become not only good employees but

    better men and women. In organisational terms, it is intended to equip

    persons to earn promotion and hold greater responsibility. Training and

    Development a persons for a bigger and higher job is development. And

    this may well include not only imparting specific skills and knowledge but

    also inculcating certain personality and mental attitudes. In this sense,

    development is not much different from education.

    Education is the understanding and interpretations of knowledge. It does

    not provide definitive answers, but rather develops a logical and rational

    mind that can determine relationship among pertinent variables and thereby

    understands phenomena. Education must impart qualities of mind and

    character, and understanding of basic principles and develop the capacities

    of analysis, synthesis and objectivity

    Training is distinct from management development or executive

    development. While the former refers to training given to employees in the

    areas of operations, technical and allied areas, the latter refers to developing

    an employee in the areas of principles and techniques of management,

    administration, organization and allied areas.

    2.6.2 Meaning of Training:

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    Training is a short term educational process and utilizing a systematic and

    organized procedure by which employees learn technical knowledge and

    skills for a definite purpose.

    Training refers to the teaching and learning activities carried on for

    the primary purpose of helping members of an organization to acquire and

    apply the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes needed by a particular job

    and organization.

    After an employee is selected, placed and introduced in an

    organization he/she must be provided with training facilities in order to

    adjust the job. Training s a short term educational process and utilizing a

    systematic and organized procedure by which employees learn technical

    knowledge and skills for a definite purpose.

    2.6.3 Definitions:

    Dale S Beach defines the training as the organized procedure by

    which people learn knowledge and skills for definite purpose.

    In other words, training improves changes and moulds the

    employees knowledge, skill, behaviour and attitude towards the

    requirement of the organization. Training refers to the teaching and learning

    activities carried on for the primary purpose of helping members of an

    organization to acquire and apply the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitude

    needed by a particular job and organization.


    The specification of values forms a basic for evaluation. The basis of

    and evaluation and the mode of collection of information necessary for

    evaluation should be determined at the planning stage. The process of

    training evaluation has been defined as any attempt to obtain information

    on the effects of training performance and to assess the value of training in

    the light of that information. Evaluation leads to controlling and correcting

    the training program.

    2.7.1 Reactions:

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    Training program is evaluated on the basis of the trainees reactions to the

    usefulness of coverage of the matter depth of the course content, method of

    presentation, teaching methods etc.

    2.7.2 Learning:

    Training program, trainers ability and trainees ability are evaluated on the

    basis of quantity of content learned and time in which it is learned and the

    learners ability to use or apply the content he learned.

    2.7.3 Job Behaviour:

    This evaluation includes the manner and extent to which the trainee

    applied his learning to his job.

    2.7.4 Organization:

    This evaluation measures the use of training, learning and change in the

    job behaviour of the department/organization in the form of increased

    productivity, quality, morale, sales turnover and the skills.

    2.7.5 Ultimate Value:

    It is the measurement of the ultimate result of the contributions of the

    training program to the company goals like survival, growth, profitability

    etc. and to the individual goals like development of personality and social

    goals like maximizing social benefits.

    The various methods of training evaluation are:

    Immediate assessment of trainees reaction to the program.

    Trainees observation during the training program. Knowing trainees expectations before the training program and collection their views

    regarding the attainment of the expectations after training.

    Seeking opinion of the trainees superior regarding his/her job performance andbehaviour before and after training.

    Evaluation of trainees skill level before and after training program. Measurement of improvement in trainees on the job behaviour. Examination of the testing system before and after the training program. Measurement of trainees attitudes after the training program.

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    Cost-benefit analysis of the training program. Seeking opinion of trainees colleagues regarding his/her job performance and behaviour. Measurement of levels in absenteeism, turnover, wastage/scrap, accidents, breakage of

    machinery during pre and post period of the training program.

    Seeking opinions of trainees subordinates regarding his/her job performance and


    2.8 Importance of Training:

    The importance of human resource management to a large extent depends on

    human resources development and training is the most important technique.

    As stated earlier no organization can get a candidate who exactly matches

    with the job and the organizational requirements. Hence, training is

    important to develop the employee and make him suitable to the job.

    Training works towards value addition to the company through HRD.

    Job and organizational requirements are not static; they are changed in the

    awareness of the total quality and productivity management (TQPM).

    Training employees would be valuable assets to an organization.

    Organizational efficiency, productivity, progress and development to a great

    extent depend on training.

    2.9 Objectives of Training:

    The training objectives are laid down, keeping in view the companys goals

    and objectivities. But the general objectives of any training programme are

    as follows:

    1. The basic objective of training is to help develop capacities and capabilitiesof the employees- both new and old by upgrading their skills and knowledgeso the organisation could gainfully avail of their services better for higher

    grade professional, technical, sales or production position from within the


    2. To impart the new entrants the basic knowledge and skills they need for anintelligent performance of a definite job.

    3. The aim of training is not only providing new knowledge and job skills tothe employees, but creating in them self consciousness and greater

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    awareness to recognize their responsibilities and contribute their very best to

    the organisation they serve.

    4. The main objective of training is to bring about efficiency and effectivenessin an organisation, so that the organisation may remain competitive market

    situations and for the achievement of organizational goals.

    5. To assist employees to function more effectively in their present positionsby exposing them to the latest concepts, information and techniques and

    developing the skills they will need in their particular fields.

    6. To broaden the minds of senior managers by providing them withopportunities for an interchange of experience within and outside with a

    view to correcting the narrowness of outlook that may arise from over-


    7. To ensure economical output of required quality.8. To promote individual and collective morale, a sense of responsibility, co-

    operative attitudes and good relationships.

    9. To build up a second line of competent officers and prepare them to occupymore responsible positions.

    10.To ensure smooth and efficient working of a department.11.To prevent obsolescence.

    2.10 Benefits of Training:

    Leads to improved profitability and more attitudes towards profitorientation.

    Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization. Improves the morale of the workforce. Helps people identify with organizational goals. Helps create a better corporate image. Fosters authenticity, openness and trust. Improves the relationship between bosses and subordinates. Aids in organizational development. Learns from the trainee. Helps prepare guidelines or work.

    Benefits to the individual which in turn ultimately should benefit theorganization.

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    Helps individual in making better decision and effective problem solving. Through training and development, motivational variables of recognition,

    achievements, growth, responsibility and advancement are internalized and


    Aids in encouraging and achieving self-development and self-confidence. Helps a person handle stress, tension, frustration and conflict. Provides information for improving leadership knowledge, communication

    skills and attitudes.

    Increase job satisfaction and recognition. Moves a person towards personal goals while improving interactive skills. Satisfies personal needs of the trainer and trainee.


    The need for training arises due to the following reasons:

    2.11.1 To match the employee specification with the

    requirements and organizational needs:

    Management finds deviations between employees present

    specifications and the job requirements and organizational needs. Training is

    needed to fill these gaps by developing and moulding the employees skills,

    knowledge, attitude behaviour etc. to the tune of the job requirements and

    organizational needs.

    2.11.2 Organizational viability and the transformation


    If the organization does not adapt itself to the changing factors in the

    environment, it will lose its market share. If the organization desires to adapt

    these changes, first it has to train the employees to impart specific skills and

    knowledge in order to enable them to contribute to organizational efficiency

    and to cope with the changing environment.

    2.11.3 Technological advances:

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    Every organization in order to survive and to be effective should adopt

    the latest technology i.e. mechanization, computerization and automation.

    Adoption of latest technological means and methods will not be complete

    until they are manned by employees possessing skills to operate them. So,

    the organization should train the employees to enrich them in the areas of

    changing technical skills and knowledge from time to time.

    2.11.4 Organizational complexity:With the emergence of increased mechanization and automation,

    manufacturing of multiple products or dealing in services of diversified

    lines, extension of operations to various regions of the countries,

    organization of most of the companies has become complex. This creates the

    complex problems of co-ordination and integration of activities adaptable

    for and adaptable to the expanding diversifying situations.

    2.11.5 Human relations:Management of most of the organizations has to maintain human

    relations besides maintaining sound industrial relations although hitherto the

    managers are not accustomed to deal with the workers accordingly. So,

    training in human relations necessary to deal with human problem.

    2.11.6 Change in the job assignment:Training is also necessary when the existing employee is promoted to

    the higher level in the organization and when there is some new job or

    occupation due to transfer. Training is also necessary to equip old employees

    with the advanced disciplines, techniques and technology.

    2.12 TRAINING NEEDS AND ANALYSIS:Training needs are identified on the basis of organizational analysis, job

    analysis and man analysis, training program, training methods and course

    content are to be planned on the basis if training needs.

    Training needs can be identified through identifying organizational needs

    based on:

    2.12.1 Organizational Analysis:

    This includes analysis of objectives, resource utilization, environmental

    scanning and organizational climate. Organizational strengths and

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    weaknesses in different areas like accidents, excessive labour turn-over,

    market share, quality and quantity of the output, raw materials, finance etc.

    2.12.2 Departmental Analysis:

    Departmental strength and weakness including special problems of the

    department or a common problem of a group of employees like acquiringskills and knowledge in operating computer by accounting personnel.

    2.12.2 Job/Role Analysis:This includes study of job /roles, design of jobs due to changes, job

    enlargement and job enrichment etc.

    2.12.3 Manpower Analysis:Individual strength and weakness in the areas of job knowledge, skills etc.


    The following methods are used to assess the training needs:

    Organizational requirements/weaknesses Departmental requirements/weaknesses Job specification Identifying specific problems Anticipating future problems Managements request Observation Interviews Group conferences Questionnaire surveys Check lists Performance appraisal


    Training needs are identified on the basis of organizational analysis, job

    analysis and manpower analysis.

    Training needs = job and organizational requirement-employees


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    2.14.1 Assessment Methods:

    The following methods are to assess training needs:

    Organizational requirements/weaknesses Departmental requirements/weaknesses Job specifications and employee specifications Identifying specific problems Anticipating future problems Managements request Observations Interviews Group conferences Questionnaire surveys Test or examinations Check lists Performance appraisal


    The training programs commonly used are classified as following:

    On-the-job training program. Off-the-job training program.

    2.15.1 On-The-Job Training Methods:

    This type of training is also known as job instruction training. It is the

    most commonly used method. Under this method, the individual is placed on

    a regular job and taught the skills necessary to perform that job. The trainee

    learns under the supervision and guidance of a qualified worker or

    instructor. On-the-job training has the advantage of giving firsthand

    knowledge and experience under the actual working conditions.

    The problem of transfer of trainee is also minimized as the person learns

    on-the-job. The emphasis is placed on rendering services in the most

    effective manner rather than learning how to perform the job. On-the-job

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    training methods include job rotation, coaching, job instruction or training

    through step-by-step and committee assignments.

    Job Rotation:This type of training involves the movement of the trainee from one

    job to another. The trainee receives job knowledge and gain experience from

    his supervisor in each of the different job assignments. Though this method

    of training is common in training managers for general management

    positions, trainees can also be rotated from job to job in workshop jobs. This

    method gives an opportunity to the trainee to understand the problems of

    employees on other jobs and respect them.

    Coaching:The trainee is placed under a particular supervisor who functions as a

    coach in training the individuals. The supervisor provides feedback to the

    trainee on his performance and offers him some suggestions for

    improvement. Often the trainee shares some of the duties and

    responsibilities of the coach and relives him of his burden. A limitation of

    this method of training is that the trainee may not have the freedom or

    opportunity to express his own idea.

    Job Instruction Training:This method is also known as training through step-by-step. Under this

    method, the trainer explains to the trainee the way of doing the job. The

    trainer appraises the performance of the trainee, provides feedback

    information and corrects the trainee.

    Committee Assignments:Here a group of trainees are given and asked to solve an actual

    organizational problem. The trainees solve the problem jointly. It develops

    team work.

    Training Through Step By Step:Many jobs consist of a logical sequence of steps and best taught

    step by step. Listing of each jobs basic tasks, along with key points in order

    to provide step by step training for employees.

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    2.15.2 OFF-The-Job Training Methods:

    Under this method of training, the trainee is separated from the job

    situation and his attention is focused upon learning the material related to the

    future job performance. Since the trainee is not distracted by job

    requirements, he can place his entire concentration on learning the job ratherthan spending his time in performing it. There is an opportunity for freedom

    of expression for the trainees. Off-the-job training methods are as follows:

    Vestibule Training:In this method, actual work conditions are simulated in a class room.

    Material, files and equipments which are used in actual job performance are

    also used in training. This type of training is commonly used for clerical and

    semi skilled jobs. The duration of this training ranges from days to a few

    weeks. Theory can be related to practice in this method.

    Role playing:It is defined as a method of human interaction that involves realistic

    behaviour in imaginary situations. This method of training involves action,

    doing and practice. The participants play the role of certain characters such

    as the production managers, mechanical engineers, superintendents,

    maintenance engineers, quality control inspectors, foremen, workers and the

    like. This method is mostly used for developing inter-personal interactions

    and relations.

    Lecture Method:The lecture is a traditional and direct method of instruction. The

    instructor organizes the material and gives it to a group of trainees in the

    form of a talk. To be effective, the lecture must motivate and create interest

    among the trainees. An advantage of the lecture method is that it is direct

    and can be used for a large group of trainees. Thus costs and time involved

    are reduced. The major limitation of the lecture method is that it does not

    provide for transfer of training effectively.

    Conference and Discussions:It is a method in training the clerical, professional and supervisory

    personnel. This method involves a group of people who pose ideas, examine

    and share facts, ideas and data, test assumptions and draw conclusions, all of

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    which contribute to the improvement of job performance. Discussion has

    distinct advantage over the lecture method. Discussion involves two way

    communications and hence feedback is provided. The participants feel free

    to speak in small groups. The success of this method depends on the

    leadership qualities of the person who leads the group.

    Programmed Instructions:In recent years, this method has become popular. The subject matter

    to be learnt is presented in a series of carefully planned sequential units.

    These units are arranged from simple to more complex levels of instruction.

    The trainee goes through these units by answering questions or filling the

    blanks. This method is expensive and time consuming.

    Sensitive training:The main objective of this is Development of awareness and sensitivity

    of behavioural pattern of oneself and others. It develops the managerial

    sensitivity and trust.

    The Case Study:Cases are prepared on the basis of actual business situations. The

    trainees are given cases for discussion and deciding upon the case. Then

    they are asked to identify the apparent and hidden problems for which they

    have to suggest solutions.

    In Basket Exercise:The trainees are first given background information about a simulated

    company, its products, key personnel and all data pertaining to the firm. The

    trainee has to understand all this, make notes, delegate tasks and prepare

    memos within a specified amount of time.

    Business Games:The trainees are divided into groups or different teams. Each team has to

    discuss and arrive at decisions. The teams co-operative decision promotes

    greater interaction among participants and gives them the experience in co-

    operative group processes.

    Internship Training:In this educational institutions and business firms have a joint

    programme of training. Selected candidates carry on regular studies for the

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    prescribed period. They also work in some factory or office to acquire

    practical knowledge.


    The procedure discussed below is essentially an adoption of the job

    instruction training course, which has been proved to have a great value.

    The important steps in training procedure are discussed below:

    2.16.1 Preparing the Instructor:

    The instructor must know both the job to be taught and how to teach it.

    The job must be divided into logical parts so that each can be taught at a

    proper time without the trainee losing the plan. For each part one should

    have in mind the desired technique of instruction, that is, whether a

    particular point is best taught by illustrations, demonstrations or


    A serious and committed instructor must:

    o Know the job or subject.o Have the aptitude and ability to teach.o Have willingness towards the profession.o Have a pleasing personality and capacity for leadership.o Have the knowledge of teaching principles and methods.o Be a permanent student, in the sense that he should equip himself with the

    latest concepts and knowledge.

    2.16.2 Preparing the Trainee:

    As in interviewing, the first step in training is to attempt to place the

    trainee at ease. Most people are somewhat nervous when approaching an

    unfamiliar task. Though the instructor may have executed this training

    procedure, many times he or she never forgets its newness to the trainee.

    The quality of empathy is a mark of a good instructor.

    2.16.3 Getting Ready to Teach:

    This stage of the program involves the following activities:

    o Planning the program.o Preparing the instructors outline.o Do not try to cover too much material.o Keeps the session moving along logicallyo Discuss each item in depth.

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    o Repeat but in different words.o Take the material from standardized texts when it is available.o When the standardized text is not available, develop he program and course

    content best on group approach. The group consists of employer, skilled

    employees, supervisors, trade union leaders and others with job

    requirements. Group prepares teaching material.

    o Teach about the standard to the trainee like quality, quantity, waste or scrap,ability to work without supervision, knowledge or procedure, safety rules,

    human relations etc.

    o Remember your standards before you teach.

    2.16.4 Presenting the Operation:

    There are various alternative ways of presenting the operation, viz.,

    explanation, demonstration etc. An instructor mostly uses these methods of

    explanation. In addition, one may illustrate various points through the use of

    pictures, charts, diagrams and other training aids.

    2.16.5 Try out Trainees Performance:

    As the continuation of the presentation sequence given above, the

    trainee should be asked to start the job or operative procedure. Some

    instructors prefer that the trainee explains each step before doing it,

    particularly if the operation involves any danger. The trainee, through

    repetitive practice, will acquire more skill

    2.16.6 Follow-up

    The final step in most training procedure is that of follow-up. When

    people are involved in any problem or procedure, it is unwise to assume that

    things are always constant. Follow-up can be adapted to a variable

    reinforcement schedule as suggested in the discussion of learning principles.

    Every training program should have a follow-up; otherwise the training

    programs in the future cannot be improved.

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    job also. Good trainers should be developed both from inside and outside the


    2.17.8 Feedback:

    The trainers should be provided with feedback about their performance. If

    their performance is not up to the expected levels, they should be told to

    improve their work. When they get regular and constructive feedback, it will

    help them in improving their work.

    Skills that are practiced often are better learned and less easily forgotten.

    Therefore, trainees should be allowed continuously practice.

    2.17.9 Appropriate Techniques:

    The methods and processes of training should be related directly to the

    needs and objectives of the organization. It should be conducted as far as

    possible in the actual job environment so as to be meaningful.


    2.18.1 Increased Productivity:

    An increase in skill usually results in an increment in both quality and

    quantity of output. However, the increasingly technical nature of modern

    jobs demands systematic training to make possible even minimum levels of


    2.18.2 High morale:

    Possession of needed skills helps to meet such basic human needs as

    security and ego satisfaction. Collaborate personnel and human relations

    programme can make a contribution towards morale, but they are hollow

    shells if no solid core of meaningful works down with knowledge, skills and


    2.18.3 Reduced Supervision:

    The trained employee is one who can perform with limited supervision.

    Both employee and supervisor want less supervision greater independence is

    not possible unless the employee is adequately trained.

    2.18.4 Reduced Accidents:

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    More accidents are caused by deficiencies in people than by deficiencies in

    equipment and working conditions. Proper training in both job skills and

    safety attitudes should contribute towards a reduction in the accident rate.

    2.18.5 Increased Organizational Stability:

    The outcomes of training program help for organizationalstability by enhancing organizations human capacity. The ability

    of an organization to sustain its effectiveness despite the loss of

    key personnel can be developed only through creation of a

    reservoir of employees

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    Hospitality is all about offering warmth to someone who looks for helpat a strange or unfriendly place. It refers to the process of receiving and

    entertaining a guest with goodwill. Hospitality in the commercial context

    refers to the activity of hotels, restaurants, catering, inn, resorts or clubs who

    make a vocation of treating tourists.

    3.1 Origin of Hospitality:

    When ancient human first ventured beyond their tribal settlements there

    were, of course no hotels to accommodate them. Most likely, this early

    travellers were either warrior of tenders. Early travellers traded merchandise,

    such as ornaments, cloth and animals for lodging. Almost certainly inns

    keeping are of first service for which money was exchanged.

    The most famous lodging event is related in the King James Version of

    the Bible. Marry and Joseph was funned away by a Bethlehem innkeeper

    because there were no rooms at the inn.According Biblical scholars, theinnkeeper may have meant to give birth. The stable where Marry and Joseph

    sent the night was probably almost as comfortable as, and certainly more

    private than, the inn itself.

    In the 3rd century A.D. the Roman Empire developed an extensive

    system of brick-paved roads throughout Europe and Asia minors for the

    constructed along the major thoroughfares, extending from Spain and

    Turkey.It was not until the industrial revolution of the 1700s that the European

    Taverns began to combine food and beverages service with lodging. Even

    so, little attention was given to sanitation. Bed as well as rooms still had to

    be shared with other travellers and the rates were step. To accommodate

    wealthy travellers luxurious travellers structures were expected with

    private rooms, individual sanitation and all the comforts of a European


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    In colonial America, inns were modelled after European taverns, with

    sleeping quarters shared by two or more guests. In the novel Moby Dick

    by Heroman Melville, a way-faring seaman checks into a 19th century, New

    England inn and later wakes up to find himself sharing a bed with another

    guest. Although not every client found himself sleeping with a Melanesian

    warrior, sharing beds with strangers was common practice in early

    American and European inns.

    3.2 Origin of Hospitality in India:-

    The origin of food and accommodation facilities could be traced back to

    the Mohenjo-Daros and Harappa civilization colonies were established for

    the travellers only. Usually the housing colonies set up at a pattern given


    For example a category of houses were provided for chief traveller who

    may have come for business dealings, the second category of travellers who

    have come with his family. Third one was offered to their servants, sena this

    i.e. chariot riders who were accompanying the travellers.

    This between 1500 B.C. to 300 B.C. the country has visualized the

    commercialization of tourism. Several roads were constructed and the

    transportation network developed considerably during this the houses that

    began to provide food and accommodation was known as ASHRYA.

    Under the Mayuryan period ASHRYA offered different types of

    accommodation with luxury and comfort. All these service were offered on

    payments. Even exchanges of currency from then countries were also

    offered. Southern India also experienced this type of growth during the

    region of Pallavas, Chalukyas.

    With the arrival of the British, India has visualized that what could be

    termed a the foundation of the modern tourism set up. They also

    introduced the system of carrying official documents from one place to

    another place and set up dakghar (post office) at different contents which

    could be termed as the foundation at different destinations and centres

    grease up rapidly.

    Some of the earliest known commercial establishments were Paddy

    Green/ Paddy George, which still exist in Goa, through preserved by

    department of tourism, government of India. Pestonjee hotel is the first hotel

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    in India to offer credit facilities. The Ankukm hotel in Kolkata was renamed

    as the great eastern hotel in 1858. The Taj (Mumbai) was the first luxury

    hotel to be constructed in India.

    Helped with unique efforts by government and all other stakeholders,

    including hotel owners, resort managers, tour and travel operators and

    employees who work in the sector, Indian hospitality industry has gained a

    level of acceptance world over. It has yet to go miles for recognition as a

    world leader of hospitality. Many take Indian hospitality service not for its

    quality of service but India being a cheap destination for leisure tourism.

    With unlimited tourism and untapped business prospects, in the coming

    years Indian hospitality is seeing green pastures of growth. Availability of

    qualified human resources and untapped geographical resources give great

    prospects to the hospitality industry. The number of tourists coming to India

    is growing year after year. Likewise, internal tourism is another area with

    great potentials.

    In 2003-04 the hospitality industry contributed only 2% of the GDP.

    However, it is projected to grow at a rate of 8.8% between 2007-16, which

    would place India as the second-fastest growing tourism market in the

    world. This year the number of tourists visiting India is estimated to have

    touched the figure of 4.4 million. With this huge figure, India is becoming

    the hottest tourist destination.

    The arrival of foreign tourists has shown a compounded annual growth

    of 6 per cent over the past 10 years. Besides, travel and tourism is the

    second highest foreign exchange earner for India. Moreover, it is also

    estimated that the tourism sector will account for nearly 5.3 per cent of GDP

    and 5.4 per cent of total employment.


    The hotel industry that exists today can be traced back to 3000 B.C.

    where the earliest inns were homes with rooms provided for travellers.

    Conditions improved in 1700s England when the renaissance sparked the

    desire to travel. The United States saw its hotel industry created a century

    later. By this time they had revolutionized many firsts in the industry

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    including private rooms with locks and doors, free soap, a trained staff, and

    a pitcher of water in each room.

    Indoor plumbing and the creation of the lobby followed shortly

    thereafter. The business of providing strangers with hospitable means has

    come a long way. What once was a service to fellow man is now the

    foundation numerous economies throughout the world.

    The modern era of the hotel industry saw its beginnings in 1794 New

    York where the first ever hotel was built. Profit potential was recognized

    with the inception of the industrial revolution. Stock companies invested in

    hotels seeking profit from property value appreciation and room occupancy


    Surrounding communities were promised increase in sales by means of

    higher volume of people passing through., the industry creates a multitude

    of opportunities that now saturate the industry in the form of spin-offs of

    these top four hotel companies creating the most common chains we know

    of today.

    History has proven that the success of this industry has largely to do

    with two factors, location and innovative integration, the combination of

    these two has created a margin between the larger chains and those who

    operate on a smaller scale. Soap and locks on doors were the innovation for

    their day. Strategic placement and product differentiation once again guide

    the success of this industry.

    The word hotel is derived from the French hotel (coming from hate

    meaning host), which referred to a French version of a townhouse or any

    other building seeing frequent visitors, rather than a place offering

    accommodation. A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a

    short-term basis.

    The provision of basic accommodation, in times past, consisting only of

    a room with a bed, a cupboard, a small table and a washstand has largely

    been replaced by rooms with modern facilities, including en-suite bathrooms

    and air conditioning or climate control.

    Additional common features found in hotel rooms are a telephone, an

    alarm clock, a television, and Internet connectivity; snack foods and drinks

    may be supplied in a mini-bar, and facilities for making hot drinks.

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    Larger hotels may provide a number of additional guest facilities such as

    a restaurant, a swimming pool or childcare, and have conference and social

    function services. Some hotels offer meals as part of a room and board


    3.4 Background of Hotel Industry:The Hotel Industry comprises a major part of the Tourism industry.

    Historically viewed as an industry providing a luxury service valuable to the

    economy only as a foreign exchange earner, the industry today contributes

    directly to employment (directly employing around 0.15 million people),

    and indirectly facilitates tourism and commerce. Prior to the 1980s, the

    Indian hotel industry was a slow-growing industry, consisting primarily of

    relatively static, single-hotel companies.

    However, the Asiad, held in New Delhi in 1982, and the subsequent

    partial liberalization of the Indian economy generated tourism interest in

    India, with significant benefits accruing to the hotel and tourism sector, in

    terms of improved demand patterns. Growth in demand for hotels was

    particularly high during the early 1990s following the initiatives taken to

    liberalize the Indian economy in FY1991, as per the recommendations of the

    International Monetary Fund (IMF).

    The euphoria of the early 1990s prompted major chains, new entrants

    and international chains to chalk out ambitious capacity additions, especially

    in the metropolitan cities. However, most of these efforts were directed

    towards the business travellers and foreign clientele. In recent years, the

    hotels sector has grown at a faster rate than GDP. As a result, the share of

    hotels & restaurants in GDP at current prices has increased from 1.2per cent

    in FY2000 to 1.5per cent in FY2005.

    In constant (1999-2000) prices, the GDP from hotels and restaurants has

    increased from Rs. 222.65 billion in FY2000 to Rs. 335.49 billion in

    FY2005. As a result, the share of hotels and restaurants in total GDP at

    constant prices has increased from 1.24per cent in FY2000 to 1.40per cent in


    3.5 Structure of Hotel Industry:Hotels in India are broadly classified into 7 categories (five star deluxe,

    five-star, four star, three star, two star, and one-star and heritage hotels) by

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    3.5.2 Mid-Market SegmentThis segment comprises 3 and 4 star hotels, which cater to the average

    foreign and domestic leisure travellers. This segment also caters to the

    middle level business travellers since it offers most of the essential services

    of luxury hotels without the high costs since the tax component of this

    segment are lower compared with the premium segment.

    3.5.3 Budget SegmentThese comprise 1 and 2 star hotels referred to as Budget Hotels. These

    categories do not offer as many facilities as the other segments but provide

    inexpensive accommodation to the highly price-conscious segment of the

    domestic and foreign leisure travellers.

    3.5.4 Heritage HotelsIn the past four decades, certain architecturally distinctive properties

    such as palaces and Forts, built prior to 1950, have been converted into

    hotels. The Ministry of Tourism has classified these hotels as heritage


    3.5.5 OthersAt any point in time, applications for classification are usually pending

    with the Ministry of Tourism because of which such properties remain

    unclassified. The number of hotel rooms pending classification has declined

    from historical 15-20per cent to 5per cent of the total rooms available in the

    recent past.

    3.6 Features of Hotels Industry:

    The hospitality industry consists of companies within the food services,

    accommodations, recreation, and entertainment sectors. The hospitality

    industry is a several billion dollar industry that mostly depends on the

    availability of leisure time and disposable income. A hospitality unit such as

    a restaurant, hotel, or even an amusement park consists of multiple groups

    such as facility maintenance, direct operations (servers, housekeepers,

    porters, kitchen workers, bartenders, etc.), management, marketing, and

    human resources.

    Usage rate is an important variable for the hospitality industry. Just as a

    factory owner would wish to have his or her productive asset in use as much

    as possible (as opposed to having to pay fixed costs while the factory isn't
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    producing), so do restaurants, hotels, and theme parks seek to maximize the

    number of customers they "process".

    In viewing various industries, "barriers to entry" by newcomers and

    competitive advantages between current players are very important. Among

    other things, hospitality industry players find advantage in old classics

    (location), initial and ongoing investment support (reflected in the material

    upkeep of facilities and the luxuries located therein), and particular themes

    adopted by the marketing arm of the organization in question (such as a

    restaurant called the 51st fighter group that has a WW2 theme in music and

    other environmental aspects). Very important is also the characteristics of

    the personnel working in direct contact with the customers. The authenticity,

    professionalism, and actual concern for the happiness and well-being of the

    customers that is communicated by successful organizations is a clear

    competitive advantage

    This significant growth of the tourism industry is the direct result of

    changes in international consumer behaviors as well as economic prosperity

    and political stability within the region. Historically, the supply of lodging

    facilities within the region has proved to be both inadequate in terms of

    product quality as well as insufficient in quantity for meeting the increasing

    levels of demand.

    These elements of supply and demand have created a favourable

    investment climate for development within the region, resulting in a real

    estate boom in both tourism and residential development. The growth in

    residential real estate development has been primarily driven by foreign

    demand for vacation and retirement homes in both urban and resort

    destinations within the region. Investment and development has been further

    supported by the variety of financial incentives for investment in tourism

    projects offered by national governments as well as the availability of local

    capital for the financing of large projects.

    The first goal is to find ways to operate the hotel according to the idea of a

    triple bottom line, which embodies profitable operation combined with

    attention to the people who use and work in the hotel and a focus on careful

    stewardship of resources. While that goal is important, even more vital is to

    use the hotels position as an industry leader in the nations capital to

    demonstrate to the hotel industry, customers, and vendors that sustainable
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    operation is the best strategy to ensure successful hotel operation. The

    sustainability initiative goes beyond such well-known ideas as reusing guest

    linens, recycling waste materials, and changing to compact fluorescent


    3.7 Classificationof hotels:

    Classification is based on many criteria and

    classifying hotels into different types is not an easy task. The hotel industry

    is so vast that many hotels do not fit into single well defined category.

    Industry can be classified in various ways, based on location, size of

    property etc. The main hotel chains of India are: The Taj Group of Hotels,

    the Oberoi Group and ITC Welcome group.

    Some of the international chains are Hyatt, Marriott, and Le Meridian

    etc. these properties have also come up in India now.

    3.7.1 Based on location

    City centre: Generally located in the heart of city within a short distancefrom business centre, shopping arcade. Rates are normally high due to their

    location advantages. They have high traffic on weekdays and the occupancy

    is generally high.

    Example: Taj Mahal, Mumbai

    Motels: They are located primarily on highways, they provide lodging tohighway travellers and also provide ample parking space. The length of stay

    is usually overnight.

    Suburban hotels: They are located in suburban areas, it generally have hightraffic on weekend. It is ideal for budget travellers. In this type of hotel rates

    are moderately low.

    Airport hotels: These hotels are set up near by the airport. They have transitguest who stay over between flights.

    Resort hotels: They are also termed as health resort or beach hill resort andso depending on their position and location. They cater a person who wants

    to relax, enjoy themselves at hill station. Most resort work to full capacity

    during peak season. Sales and revenue fluctuate from season to season.

    Floating hotels: As name implies these hotels are established on luxuryliners or ship. It is located on river, sea or big lakes. In cruise ships, rooms

    are generally small and all furniture is fixed down. It has long stay guest.

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    Boatels: A house boat hotels is referred as boatels. The shikaras of Kashmirand kettuvallam of Kerala are houseboats in India which offers luxurious

    accommodation to travellers.

    Rootles: These novel variants are hotel on wheel. Our very own "palace onwheels" and "Deccan Odessey" are trains providing a luxurious hotel

    atmosphere. Their interior is done like hotel room. They are normally used

    by small group of travellers.

    3.7.2 Based on Size of Property

    The main yardstick for the categorization of hotel is by size the no of


    available in the hotel.

    Small hotel: hotel with 100 rooms and less may be termed as small hotels. Medium sized hotel: hotel which has 100-300 rooms is known as medium

    sized hotel.

    Large hotels: hotel which have more than 300 rooms are termed as largehotels.

    Mega hotels: are those hotels with more than 1000 rooms. Chain hotels: these are the groups that have hotels in much number of

    locations in India and international venues.

    3.7.3 Based on the Level of Service

    Hotels may be classified into economy, and luxury hotels on the basis of

    the level of service they offer.

    Economy/ Budget hotels: These hotels meet the basic need of the guest byproviding comfortable and clean room for a comfortable stay.

    Mid market hotels: It is suite hotel that offers small living room withappropriate furniture and small bed room with king sized bed.

    Luxury hotels: These offer world class service providing restaurant andlounges, concierge service, meeting rooms, dining facilities. Bath linen is

    provided to the guest and is replaced accordingly. These guest rooms

    contains furnishing, artwork etc. prime market for these hotels are

    celebrities, business executives and high ranking political figures. Example:

    Hyatt Regency, New Delhi.

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    3.7.4 Based on the Length of Stay

    Hotel can be classified into transient, residential and semi residential

    hotel depending on the stay of a guest.

    Transient Hotel: These are the hotel where guest stays for a day or evenless, they are usually five star hotels. The occupancy rate is usually veryhigh. These hotels are situated near airport.

    Residential hotels: These are the hotel where guest can stay for a minimumperiod of one month and up to a year. The rent can be paid on monthly or

    quarterly basis. They provide sitting room, bed room and kitchenette.

    Semi residential hotels: These hotels incorporate features of both transientand residential hotel.

    3.7.5. Based on ThemeDepending on theme hotel may be classified into Heritage hotels,

    Ecotels, Boutique hotels and Spas.

    Heritage hotel: In this hotel a guest is graciously welcomed, offered roomthat have their own history, serve traditional cuisine and are entertained by

    folk artist. These hotels put their best efforts to give the glimpse of their

    region. Example: Jai Mahal palace in Jaipur.

    Ecotels: These are environment friendly hotels these hotel use eco friendlyitems in the room. Example: Orchid Mumbai is Asia first and most popular

    five star Ecotels.

    Boutique hotels: This hotel provides exceptional accommodation, furniturein a themed and stylish manner and caters to corporate travellers. Example:

    In India the park Bangalore is a boutique hotel.

    Spas: is a resort which provide therapeutic bath and massage along withother features of luxury hotels in India Ananda spa in Himalaya are the most

    popular Spa.

    3.7.6. Based on Target Market

    Commercial hotel: They are situated in the heart of the city in busycommercial areas so as to get good and high business. They cater mostly


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    Convention hotels: These hotels have large convention complex and caterto people attending a convention, conference. Example: Le meridian,

    Cochin, is a hotel with largest convention centre in South India.

    Resort hotels: These leisure hotels are mainly for vacationers who want torelax and enjoy with their family. The occupancy varies as per season. The

    atmosphere is more relaxed. These are spread out in vast areas so many

    resorts have solar powered carts for the transport of guest.

    Suite hotels: These hotel offer rooms that may include compact kitchenette.They cater to people who are relocating act as like lawyers, executives who

    are away from home for a long business stay.

    Casino hotels: Hotel with predominantly gambling facilities comes underthis category, they have guest room and food and operation too. These hotels

    tend to cater leisure and vacation travellers. Gambling activities at some

    casino hotels operate 24 hours a day and 365 days

    3.8 Hotel Industry in India

    It has witnessed tremendous boom in recent years. Hotel Industry is

    inextricably linked to the tourism industry and the Growth in the Indian

    tourism industry has fuelled the growth of Indian Hotel industry. The

    thriving economy and increased business Opportunities in India have acted

    as a boon for Indian hotel industry.

    The Arrival of low cost airlines and the associated price wars have given

    domestic tourists a host of options. The 'Incredible India' destination

    campaign and the recently launched 'Atithi Devo Bhavah' (ADB)

    campaign have also helped in the growth of Domestic and international

    tourism and consequently the hotel industry. According to a report, Hotel

    Industry in India currently has supply of 110,000 rooms and there is a

    shortage of 150,000 rooms fuelling hotel room rates across India.

    According to estimates demand is going to exceed supply by at least

    100% over the next 2 years. The future scenario of Indian hotel industry

    looks extremely rosy. It is expected that the budget and mid-market hotel

    segment will witness huge growth and expansion while the luxury segment

    will continue to perform extremely well over the next few years.

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    The Indian hospitality industry is projected to grow at a rate of 8.8%

    between 2007-16, placing India as the second-fastest growing tourism

    market in the world. Initiatives like massive investment in hotel

    infrastructure and open sky policies made by the government are all aimed

    at propelling growth in the hospitality sector.

    3.9 Current Scenario of Hotel Industry:

    Over the last decade and half the mad rush to India for business

    opportunities has intensified and elevated room rates and occupancy levels

    in India. Even budget hotels are charging USD 250 per day. The successful

    growth story of 'Hotel Industry in India' seconds only to China in Asia


    'Hotels in India' have supply of 110,000 rooms. According to the tourism

    ministry, 4.4 million tourists visited India last year and at current trend,

    demand will soar to 10 million in 2010 to accommodate 350 million

    domestic travellers. 'Hotels in India' has a shortage of 150,000 rooms

    fuelling hotel room rates across India. With tremendous pull of opportunity,

    India is a destination for hotel chains looking for growth.The World Travel and Tourism Council, India, data says, India ranks

    18th in business travel and will be among the top 5 in this decade. Sources

    estimate, demand is going to exceed supply by at least 100% over the next 2

    years. Five-star hotels in metro cities allot same room, more than once a day

    to different guests, receiving almost 24-hour rates from both guests against

    6-8 hours usage. With demand-supply disparity, 'Hotel India' room rates are

    most likely to rise 25% annually and occupancy to rise by 80%, over the

    next two years.

    'Hotel Industry in India' is eroding its competitiveness as a cost effective

    destination. However, the rating on the 'Indian Hotels' is bullish. 'India Hotel

    Industry' is adding about 60,000 quality rooms, currently in different stages

    of planning and development and should be ready by 2012.

    MNC Hotel Industry giants are flocking India and forging Joint Ventures

    to earn their share of pie in the race. Government has approved 300 hotel

    projects, nearly half of which are in the luxury range. Sources said, the

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    manpower requirements of the hotel industry will increase from 7 million in

    2002 to 15 million by 2010.

    With the USD 23 billion software services sector pushing the Indian

    economy skywards, more and more IT professionals are flocking to Indian

    metro cities. 'Hotel Industry in India' is set to grow at 15% a year. This

    figure will skyrocket in 2010, when Delhi hosts the Commonwealth Games.

    Already, more than 50 international budget hotel chains are moving into

    India to stake their turf. Therefore, with opportunities galore the future

    'Scenario of Indian Hotel Industry' looks rosy. It is expected that the budget

    and mid-market hotel segment will witness huge growth and expansion

    while the luxury segment will continue to perform extremely well over the

    next few years.

    The roles of the multinational companies are significant with their

    increasing contribution to the Economy. Basically Services are intangible

    deeds, processes and performances that cannot be touched, seen or felt but

    can be experienced. The Service sector is characterized by its diversity.

    Global opportunities are growing due to accelerated growth of the service


    In the hospitality industry, Average room rate (ARR) and occupancy are

    the two most critical factors that determine the profitability, since most of

    the marginal revenue gets added to the bottom-line. ARR in turn depends

    upon location, brand image, star rating, quality of facilities, pricing of value

    added services, complementary services offered and the seasonal factor. The

    hotels to manage and invest their fund in India adopt many business

    strategies to establish their place of business and create innovative service

    packages to their custom. In a long-term perspective, these measures bring

    significant financial returns.

    The hotel industry in India has a latent potential for growth. This is

    because India is an ideal destination for tourists as it is the only country with

    the most diverse topography and relative political stability. At present India

    attracts approximately 2.5 Million tourists every year, which is just 0.4% of

    the world tourist arrivals.

    Normally the Multinational hotels operated In India can be owned,

    leased or acquired under management contract basis. Hotel operators want

    the leverage on their management expertise and brand equity without

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    making enormous capital investment. In management contract agreements a

    fee calculated as a percentage of revenue and/or operating profit is charged.

    Typically, the management fee is to the tune of 3% of the total revenue and

    7% of gross operating profits.

    Most players, with the exemption of IHCL and EIH, have entered into a

    marketing tie-up with major international hotel chains. Thus we have Hyatt

    Regency a renowned international hotel chain having tied up with AHL,

    Leela having tied up with Kempinski and ITCH having a franchisee

    agreement with ITT Sheraton to use the latter's brand name.

    For the Indian hotel owners and the international hotel chains the benefit

    is mutual, tie-up with an international hotel chain puts the hotel on the

    global map with access to chain's reservation network worldwide. For the

    international hotel chain they can ride on the boom of the industry without

    making enormous capital investments on infrastructure and facilities.

    Associations with international brand also play a major role in image

    building and attracting foreign tourists. However the value of the

    international brand gets diluted if a foreign entity enters an agreement with

    several Indian companies.

    Luxury hotels operate under single tariff structure whereby the foreign

    tourists are charged in dollar terms whereas the domestic guest is charged

    the equivalent amount in rupees. The luxury hotels earn about two-thirds of

    their revenue from foreign tourists. Leisure travelers constitute

    approximately 76.5% of the total tourist arrivals whereas business travelers

    constitute 21% of the total arrivals. The remainder is accounted by students.

    The hotel industry is the second largest foreign exchange earner and

    between 1991 and 1998 there has been a 100% growth in foreign tourists.

    Hotels benefit from rupee depreciation as over 60% of revenues in the

    luxury hotel segment are in foreign currencies. Thus any depreciation of the

    rupee goes directly to the bottom line (FOREX income is also fully tax

    exempt), as none of the costs are directly linked to the exchange rate. The

    hotel debt environment is also improving. While many countries are

    hampered by a still sluggish economy, those with a low interest rate

    environment with relatively stable-banking conditions will provide

    opportunities for hotel investors to raise capital. For hotel lenders, from a

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    risk/return basis, there has never been a better time to provide new capital to

    this industry in India



    From the hotel epitomizing the glamour of 1960s America, Carlson

    has grown its hotel portfolio to the 1,068 properties in 77 countries. It

    became with one hotel located in downtown Minneapolis, in the heart of

    the mid western U.S. , which set new standards for its era. Today,

    Carlsons hotel business has grown one of the most dynamic portfolios

    in the business. It is a portfolio that has expanded one by one, brand by

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    Accelerate the growth of Country Inns and Suites by Carlson in keymarkets

    Grow Park Inn by Radisson as a winning mid scale brand acrosstheatres in key countries

    Continue the push in key emergi8ng economies, with added emphasison mid- scale

    The strategy has five main themes:

    Establish clear, compelling positioning for each brand Operationalize the brand promise Accelerate development Win the revenue battle

    Build a global team and organization


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    A Study On Training Program At Park Plaza


    Fact & figures

    1,319 hotels

    209,000 rooms

    80,000 employees

    80 countries

    USD 7 billion system-wide revenues

    #9 largest hotel company in the world

    Park Plaza Bengaluru is strategically located in the heart of the business

    district, with convenient access to Bangalore's city centre and IT parks.

    Bangalore is also a gateway to nearby delights and escapes, and guests enjoy
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    close proximity to historic, religious and entertainment destinations like

    Mysore, Bangalore Fort and the Krishna Temple. Bangalore International

    Airport is a 45-minute drive from the hotel.

    Name of the company: Park Plaza Address: 90/4, Outer Ring Rd, Marathahalli, Bangalore, Karnataka 560037 Phone:080 4909 4909

    4.4 History

    Established in 1989, Park Plaza Mandarin Eindhoven is the first hotel

    opened. The iconic Park Plaza Victoria Amsterdam built in 1980, becomes

    the company's second hotel. In 1995, Park Plaza Victoria Amsterdam joins

    the group and an agreement is signed with Park Plaza Worldwide. In 1997,

    the Park Plaza Astrid Antwerp (Belgium) opens. The group opens its first

    hotel in 1999 in the United Kingdom, the Shaw Park Plaza in central

    London (asset no longer a Park Plaza Hotel). In 2000, Park Plaza Hotels

    Europe acquires the master franchise for the brand from Park Plaza

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    Worldwide. The Park Plaza Victoria Amsterdam celebrates its 110-year


    In 2000 Carlson Hotels acquired the Park Plaza Hotels & Resorts brand

    from Park Plaza Worldwide. The company moves into the world of boutique

    hotels and expanded by opening of seven hotels in Germany and an art

    hotel in Budapest Hungary. The Park Plaza Victoria London and Park Plaza

    Sherlock Holmes, both in central London (The United Kingdom), open late

    2001. The second art hotel in Berlin, art hotel Berlin city centre west

    (Germany) opens as well, featuring 221 artworks from Andy Warhol and

    Christopher Makos.

    Further expansion occurs in the United Kingdom with the opening of

    Park Plaza Nottingham (The United Kingdom). Also, in 2002 strategic

    marketing and reservations alliance agreed with Carlson Hotels Worldwide.

    North America, India and EMEA unify to form one brand. The group

    launches its franchise offering with the opening of its first franchise hotel,

    Park Plaza Trier (Germany) in 2003. In 2004, Park Plaza Belfast (The

    United Kingdom) opened.

    In 2005 one of Londons largest hotels to open for more than 30 years,

    Park Plaza Riverbank London, opened. Park Plaza Cardiff (The United

    Kingdom) opened, as well as the companys first all-suite luxury hotel,

    Plaza on the RiverClub and Residence, London. In 2006, the company's

    second Amsterdam hotel, Park Plaza Vondelpark, Amsterdam (the

    Netherlands) opened. The opening of Park Plaza Tyrrelstown, Dublin

    (Ireland) and ParkPlaza Wallstreet, Berlin (Germany) and 2 new artotels in

    Germanyart hotel berlin kudamm and art hotel Potsdam are completed

    as well.

    In 2007, Park Plaza Hotels floats on the London AIM Stock Exchange

    and the new Park Plaza Hotels Ltd company is created. The company opens

    its 4th Park Plaza hotel in London, Park Plaza County Hall.

    In 2008 the site for the first art hotel in London is acquired in Hoxton in

    association with the Rueben Brothers. In 2010, the biggest London hotel so

    far opens, Park Plaza Westminster Bridge.

    Park Plaza in Asia Pacific

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    4.7 Hotel services at Park Plaza Bengaluru include:

    24-hour room service Beauty salon with express services, manicure, pedicure and hair treatment Bell desk/travel desk Boutique featuring India's designer fashion and jewellery Business Centre with secretarial services, computer station and walk-in

    meeting rooms

    Gym, open 24 hours Outdoor pool, sundeck and poolside bar on second floor Steam room, sauna and outdoor whirlpool Spa, offering a selection of Indian and Western treatments

    Business Centre

    4.7.1 Enjoy Business Centre amenities:

    24-hour secretarial services Walk-in meeting room reserved for in-house guests Wi-Fi enabled Desk stations

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    PC station4.7.2 Fitness & Recreation

    The Gym amenities include:

    Open 24 hours Complimentary amenities, including fresh fruits, water and towels Lifestyle equipment Cardio vascular section (cardio machines equipped with TV) Strengths section Weights Personal trainer Yoga class

    4.7.3 Luxurious spa:

    Fusion of western and Indian treatments Facials, full body massages, reflexology 24-hour availability on appointment Forest Essentials products Female and male therapists Four single treatment rooms and one double treatment room Outdoor swimming pool Whirlpool and steam rooms Beauty Salon

    4.8 Dining

    On-site Dining at our Bangalore Accommodations

    Guests of the Park Plaza Bengaluru enjoy a wide variety of culinary options

    within the comfort of our Bangalore accommodations. The refined and

    modern cuisine is certain to satisfy and delight palates of all types.


    Chef Amitabh Choudhury brings exceptional passion and dedication to

    every meal he creates. The chef maintains his own personal herb gardens for

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    3. Studio Rooms

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    4. Junior Rooms

    5. Presidential Suite

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    5 Organization structure

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    1. Technical Training: The technical training is skill specific. It can take place in a classroom if

    it has been decided to be classroom training. There are more technical sessions offered to the

    trainees. On-The-Job training is a one part of technical training which is aimed to enhance

    work performance.

    2. Quality Training: The quality training includes customer service training. The aim of qualitytraining is to improve processes and products. It is like a non-going effort that embeds

    continuous improvement within a process.

    3. Skills Training: The skills training is about presentations, communication skills, languages,

    selling, public speaking and negotiating skills. The soft skills trainings are famous as in house

    trainings to employees. The efforts are to create soft skills among employees like creative

    thinking skills, communication skills, and other skills required for long term and survival of


    4. Professional Training: The professional training require professionals from different

    departments. The professionals are sent to various institutes for this type of training. They send

    the employees to acquire expert qualifications.

    5. Functional Training: The functional training is also like On-The-Job training. This training

    is usually function and department oriented. The trainees are given diplomas and certificates on

    these trainings.

    6. Managerial Training: The last type of training and development program is managerial

    training. Some organizations encourage their employees to attend seminars of other companies.The aim is learn best practices in order to bring improvement in the current business work place.

    It also widens their network. Sometimes these trainings are given to help their management to

    widen their network with other organizations managers to bring in innovative managerial

    techniques of improvement.

    Out of these trainings, Park Plaza follows mainly two kinds of trainings.

    They are technical and skills training. Other than these induction training, communication skills

    building training, safety training, workplace wellness training, and supervisor skills training are

    also followed at this hotel.

    Some of the Training programs Conducted In different Department:

    Department Names:

    1. Front Office Room Move

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    5. F & B Service

    Buffet Orientation At Mlange Types Of Egg Presentation For Breakfast All Day Dining Menu- Salad All Day Dining MenuAppetizer Telephone Handling Reservation Tea( Service/Basic/Types) Mocktails Menu

    6. Security

    Generally Asked Questition Property Procetion Guest Service Loss Prevention Safety And Security Legal Liability

    7. Housekeeping

    Bed Making Folding Of Bath Linen Cleaning Of Minibar Price Of Guest Room Supplies Chemicals And Usages Pantry Cleaning Standard Placement Of Amenities

    8. Spa

    SOP On Treatment

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    The benefit of the study for the research is that it helped to gain

    knowledge and experience and also provide the opportunity to study and

    understand the prevalent training and development process

    The key point of the research is:

    1. To study the fact about the company2. To understand and analyze various HR factors including training and

    development process in the company

    3. To suggest any measure and recommendation for improvement

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    Graph showing the respondents view about participation in the

    training program.

    o Inference:We can infer that most of the employees have a positive attitude towards

    participating in the training program.






    Yes no No responce

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    Table showing the opinion of the respondents about the regularly of

    the training program conducted in the company.

    S. No. Opinion Respondent Percentage

    1 Yes 95 95%

    2 No 5 5%


    95% of the respondents are of the opinion that the company conducts

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