Download - Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO's)
Name M Saeed TOPIC Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO’s) Presented To Dr.Tariq
Government College University,Faisalabad
GMO (Genetically Modified GMO (Genetically Modified Organism)Organism)
What is a GMO?What is a GMO?A genetically modified organism is one A genetically modified organism is one whose genetic material has been whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering.altered using genetic engineering.Genetically modified organisms, or Genetically modified organisms, or GMOs, are commonly used in foods GMOs, are commonly used in foods and medicines. This has led to concern and medicines. This has led to concern about the dangers they might cause to about the dangers they might cause to the environment and to human healththe environment and to human health
GMOs HistoryGMOs History
First GMO created in 1973First GMO created in 1973
After years of testing and After years of testing and research, GMOs were research, GMOs were introduced to farmersintroduced to farmers
In the 1990s, genetically In the 1990s, genetically modified foods became modified foods became available in storesavailable in stores
19781978 Genentech Genentech
Becomes the first to Becomes the first to synthesize insulin, later they synthesize insulin, later they create a human growth create a human growth hormone which was used to hormone which was used to enable dwarf children to grow enable dwarf children to grow to a normal size. to a normal size. Genentech’s Humulin is the Genentech’s Humulin is the first consumer product first consumer product developed through modern developed through modern bioengineering. bioengineering.
Introduced a bovine Introduced a bovine growth hormone used growth hormone used in cows to increase in cows to increase milk production.milk production.
They were among the They were among the first to genetically first to genetically modify a plant cell in modify a plant cell in 1983. 1983.
19921992 Calgene’s Favr Savr Calgene’s Favr Savr
Tomato is approved for Tomato is approved for commercial production by the commercial production by the US department of agriculture. US department of agriculture. This was genetically This was genetically engineered to remain firm for engineered to remain firm for a longer period of time. The a longer period of time. The FDA declares that genetically FDA declares that genetically engineered foods are not engineered foods are not dangerous and do not require dangerous and do not require special regulation (History of special regulation (History of genetic engineering, 2012genetic engineering, 2012).).
How The GMO’s are Produced ?
By eliminating,modifying or adding copies of specific genes often from other organisms through modern molecular biology techniques.
Recombinant DNA (rDNA)
The two most common types of GMO’s The two most common types of GMO’s areare
Foods – canola , soya bean , golden rice Foods – canola , soya bean , golden rice corn and aspartame corn and aspartame
Medicines - Insulin, hormones and Medicines - Insulin, hormones and vaccinevaccine
Food GMO’sFood GMO’s Crops are modified so when farmer kill Crops are modified so when farmer kill
weeds with herbicides the crops can with weeds with herbicides the crops can with stand the exposure to the herbicide – killing stand the exposure to the herbicide – killing the weeds and not the cropthe weeds and not the crop
Although it is not as common, some types of Although it is not as common, some types of GMOs are modified to increase their nutrient GMOs are modified to increase their nutrient content. Corn and soybeans are two content. Corn and soybeans are two examples of crops that have higher-nutrient examples of crops that have higher-nutrient GMO versions available.GMO versions available.
Medicine GMO’sMedicine GMO’s Genetically modified medicines can be Genetically modified medicines can be
produced cheaper and easier.produced cheaper and easier. Some GMO's are : insulin, thyroid Some GMO's are : insulin, thyroid
hormones and the hepatitis B vaccine hormones and the hepatitis B vaccine (insulin being the oldest)(insulin being the oldest)
Other Types of GMO’sOther Types of GMO’s
• Plants and CropsPlants and Crops• MicrobesMicrobes• MammalsMammals• InsectsInsects• Aquatic LifeAquatic Life
93% of soybeans 93% of soybeans planted in the U.S. planted in the U.S. are genetically are genetically modified. Soybeans modified. Soybeans are used in products are used in products such as animal feed, such as animal feed, prepackaged meals prepackaged meals and the oil is used in and the oil is used in many industrial many industrial applications.applications.
CornCorn86% of corn planted in the U.S 86% of corn planted in the U.S falls under the category of a falls under the category of a GMO. Maize is the most widely GMO. Maize is the most widely grown grain crop in the Americas, grown grain crop in the Americas, it is used to make sugar it is used to make sugar substitutes such as high fructose substitutes such as high fructose corn syrup, a large quantity of corn syrup, a large quantity of processed foods contain corn processed foods contain corn and is also used to make ethanol, and is also used to make ethanol, a biofuel that is mixed with a biofuel that is mixed with gasoline to decrease the amount gasoline to decrease the amount of pollutants emitted by motor of pollutants emitted by motor vehicles.vehicles.
TomorrowTomorrowStill in DevelopmentStill in Development
Various products Various products including vaccines, including vaccines, vitamin enrichments, vitamin enrichments, hormones that result in hormones that result in faster maturation and faster maturation and disease resistance. disease resistance.
Only time can tell if the Only time can tell if the risks involved in using risks involved in using GMOs will outweigh the GMOs will outweigh the benefits.benefits.
Golden rice Golden rice Advantage: It contains Vitamin-A, so children in developing
countries won’t become blind
Disadvantage: Poor countries becomedepentent on rich countrieswhich have the technics forengineering
Examples of the potential benefits and risks of GM
Sweet corn Sweet corn Advantages: - No longer use of insecticides - The farmer don’t need to deal
Disadvantages: - Insects can become resistant
to the poison - Endangered butterflies are in
Long- lasting tomatoes Long- lasting tomatoes Advantages: - GM tomatoes can remain fresh
longer - GM tomatoes can tolerate a
lengthier transport time
Disadvantage: - Tomatoes are resistant to
Genetic Modification of Conventional Genetic Modification of Conventional CropsCrops
61% of corn61% of corn 83% of cotton83% of cotton 80% of canola80% of canola 89% of soybeans89% of soybeans Other crops: rice, tomatoes, potatoes, Other crops: rice, tomatoes, potatoes,
Hawaiian papaya , chicory , crook neck Hawaiian papaya , chicory , crook neck squashsquash
Reduce use of pesticide and other Toxic chemicalsDesired characteristics of food are achieved and in
a shorter time Improves nutritional value.Many people rely on GM food for medicines.Gene technology is the best solution to the problem
of world hunger.
• It is economically efficient• It adds more nutritional value to crops• It is known to decrease food prices
Unacceptable to some groups to copy genes.
Interfiere in food chain
Genetically engineered animals may suffer more health problems
Allergic reactions Less immune to Defend “Genetic Pollution”
It causes unwanted residual effects It threatens crop diversity It can be dangerous to other insects that are
important to our ecosystem
What are people’s concernsWhat are people’s concerns
Is this food safe? Is this food safe? Should food be labeled?Should food be labeled? Are there adverse environmental Are there adverse environmental
effects?effects? Patenting of seedsPatenting of seeds
All of these concerns apply to food and agriculture in general
Testing for GMO Safety Using Bioluminescent Signals Looking at Genes and Their Function in In The Envirnoment