Els noms en la vida quotidiana. Actes del XXIV Congrs Internacional d'ICOS sobre Cincies Onomstiques. Annex. Secci 8 1835

    Familiarity with Slovenian Exonyms in the Professional Community Drago Kladnik, Primo Pipan DOI: 10.2436/15.8040.01.189 Abstract As part of UNGEGN, experts on geographical names are continually striving to limit the use of exonyms, especially in international communication. However, this conflicts with the linguistic heritage of individual peoples as an important element of their cultural heritage. In order to obtain suitable points of departure to prepare the planned standardization of Slovenian exonyms, in the fall of 2010 we used an internet survey to conduct a study on their degree of familiarity among the Slovenian professional community, especially among geographers (teachers, researchers, and others) and linguists. The survey was kept brief for understandable reasons and contained four sets of questions. The first set applied to familiarity with the Slovenian exonyms for seventy European cities, the second to familiarity with the Slovenian exonyms for ten European islands and archipelagos, the third to familiarity with archaic Slovenian exonyms for ten European cities, and the fourth to the most frequently used forms for ten non-European cities with allonyms. We asked the participants to answer the questions off the top of their heads without relying on any kind of literature or browsing the web. We received 167 completed questionnaires and carefully analyzed them. Many of the participants had difficulty recognizing endonyms. A basic finding of the analysis was that the degree of familiarity with individual exonyms varies greatly.

    ***** 1. Introduction As part of the project Slovenian Exonyms: Methodology, Standardization, and GIS at the ZRC SAZU Anton Melik Geographical Institute, we determined the level of familiarity with names for foreign topographic items and features in Slovenian among the professional community. We hypothesize that the professional community, through its use of exonym variants of geographical names in school instruction and writing research articles, discussion articles, and amateur works, as well as in everyday conversations, has a significant influence on their familiarity and use among the general public in addition to the media, atlases, and various literature. A specific cycle is typical in the use of exonyms: creation used increasingly frequently used frequently and generally used increasingly less frequently (dying away) archaic forgotten. Not every exonym necessarily goes through each developmental stage, but each one is certainly in one of them. When exonyms are in living use, they comprise an inalienable part of a given language, but then many of them enter a phase of gradually dying out. For example, in modern English the exonym Leghorn is only rarely used for the Italian city of Livorno, and Salonika for the Greek city of Thessalonki (Woodman, 2003, 12), and in modern Czech, for example, Celovec Klagenfurt, Terbi Tarvisio, and Brunvik Braunschweig (Bernek et al., 2006), and among the Slovenians formerly established exonyms that have fallen into disuse include Kodanj Copenhagen, Kelmorajn Cologne, Monakovo Munich, Solnograd Salzburg, Inomost Innsbruck, Kraljevo Craiova, and Skoplje Skopje, and little better fate appears to await the Slovenian exonyms ikago Chicago, Filadelfija Philadelphia, Milan Milan, and Turin Turin. The last two names are still used by members of the Slovenian minority in neighboring parts of Italy.


    Els noms en la vida quotidiana. Actes del XXIV Congrs Internacional d'ICOS sobre Cincies Onomstiques. Annex. Secci 8 1836

    2. Historical aspects of Slovenian exonym use The Slovenian practice of nativizing geographical names through newspapers has a long tradition. The citation of Slovenian exonyms strengthened with the development of journalism at the transition between the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The lack of normative rules at that time for the writing of proper nouns, and especially for names of foreign origin, means that the existence of variant written forms is not surprising; this is also manifested in the inconsistent use of capital letters. Slovenians gradually freed themselves from foreign-language influence and journalistic models, but variation nonetheless increased during the national awakenings in the mid-nineteenth century due to contacts with other Slavic languages and the diversity of written sources and writers (Orel, 2003, 35). In Slovenian newspapers in the first half of the nineteenth century, foreign geographical names were either translated or, for a few names of foreign places or regions that were familiar and significant to Slovenians, existing Slovenian equivalents were used. Examples of foreign geographical names that were nativized early include Beligrad Belgrade, Benedke/Mletci Venice, Blatograd Moosburg, Austria, Carigrad Istanbul, Dunej / Dunaj / Be Vienna, Jakin Ancona, Kina China, Koppenhagen Copenhagen, Lashko Italy, Lipiza Leipzig, Lvov Lviv, Moshkovia Moscow, Niskozemska the Netherlands, Rajna Rhine, Rim Rome, Sedmograko or Erdeljsko Transylvania, and Solnigrad Salzburg (Kladnik, 2007b, 434). For somewhat later journalism, phonetic adaptation to Slovenian was characteristic in both pronunciation and writing. Foreign names were completely or partially rewritten according to Slovenian pronunciation. Characteristic examples are Bolonja Bologna, Brisel Brussels, Diseldorf Dsseldorf, Frankobrod Frankfurt am Main, Inpruk Innsbruck, Kadix Cadiz, Kanterburi Canterbury, Korsika/Corsika Corsica, Lie Lige, Majnc Mainz, Savoja Savoy, Shvajz/vajza Switzerland, and Vienca Vicenza. One encounters different spellings even when the same geographical names are cited in one newspaper. Perhaps the most striking example is the Czech city of Olomouc, which was written as Olomovec, Golomovec, Olimz, Olomuc, Holomuc, and Oljmiz. Similar examples are Horvako / Hrovako / Horvatsko Croatia, Estrajh / Austriansko / Avstrija Austria, and Angleko / Engleko England, Great Britain (Kladnik, 2007b, 435). In the second half of the nineteenth century, Slovenian slowly and arduously made its way from being a colloquial language of uneducated people to a language used in administration, the judiciary, and education, and thus a language that also made scholarly creation possible. At that point the Slovenians also saw the publication of the first world atlas in Slovenian, which was issued in fascicles from 1869 to 1877. Altogether 18 maps were printed, portraying the entire world and parts of it. It was published by the Slovenian Society (Sln. Matica Slovenska), and it was edited by the lawyer and linguist Matej Cigale, who carried out pioneering work in nativizing geographical names. Cigale created a linguistic policy through geographical names and at the same time placed Slovenian alongside other European languages in countries with a developed cartographic tradition. Because of the lack of examples in the sparse and incomplete professional literature of the time, his nativized names are the result of intellectual coinage, and not at all the result of uncritical borrowing from related publications. All of the maps together contain 4,178 Slovenian exonyms (Kladnik 2007a, 33).


    Els noms en la vida quotidiana. Actes del XXIV Congrs Internacional d'ICOS sobre Cincies Onomstiques. Annex. Secci 8 1837

    Figure 1. Detail of a map of Spain and Portugal that was published in the sixth and final fascicle of Cigales Atlant (Atlas, 1877).

    The first Slovenian-language school atlas was also published around 1900. The editors of the geographical names were Simon Rutar and Fran Oroen (Rutar & Oroen, 1899). After this there were few atlases in Slovenian. One of the larger such atlases appeared in 1972, and the golden age of atlas publication began with the independence of Slovenia in 1991, when atlases literally started springing up like mushrooms after a rain. Because of the various editing concepts of the individual publications, neither the use of exonyms nor their spelling is consistent (figure 2).

    Figure 2. The spelling of Slovenian exonyms differs considerably from map to map, which is clear from a comparison of Greeces Chalkidiki Peninsula in Atlant (Atlas, 18691877), Veliki druinski atlas sveta (Great

    Family World Atlas, 1992), Druinski atlas sveta (Family World Atlas, 2001), and Veliki atlas sveta (Great World Atlas, 2005).


    Els noms en la vida quotidiana. Actes del XXIV Congrs Internacional d'ICOS sobre Cincies Onomstiques. Annex. Secci 8 1838

    3. Methodology As far as we know, related research on familiarity with and the dying away of exonyms has only been carried out in the Czech Republic (Boh, 2007). In both its scope as well as its depth of investigation, it was significantly more modest. It was carried out by mail with questionnaires sent to the authors professional colleagues. The number of questionnaires is not cited. Although Bohs article lacks scholarly rigor, the author did succeed in synthesizing certain findings, which we sum up in the following section. In order to determine the degree of familiarity with Slovenian exonyms, we decided to carry out a web-based survey. In the initial phase of its preparation we anticipated eight sets of questions in order to obtain the most precise information possible. However, experience showed that such a questionnaire is time-consuming, and so we sought to shorten it because otherwise it would be difficult to obtain a satisfactory number of responses. In the final phase, we prepared four sets of questions:


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