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Drake DRAKE UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITE D’AUVERGNE Swaps

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• Slide 1
• Drake DRAKE UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Swaps
• Slide 2
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Introduction An agreement between two parties to exchange cash flows in the future. The agreement specifies the dates that the cash flows are to be paid and the way that they are to be calculated. A forward contract is an example of a simple swap. With a forward contract, the result is an exchange of cash flows at a single given date in the future. In the case of a swap the cash flows occur at several dates in the future. In other words, you can think of a swap as a portfolio of forward contracts.
• Slide 3
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Mechanics of Swaps The most commonly used swap agreement is an exchange of cash flows based upon a fixed and floating rate. Often referred to a plain vanilla swap, the agreement consists of one party paying a fixed interest rate on a notional principal amount in exchange for the other party paying a floating rate on the same notional principal amount for a set period of time. In this case the currency of the agreement is the same for both parties.
• Slide 4
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Notional Principal The term notional principal implies that the principal itself is not exchanged. If it was exchanged at the end of the swap, the exact same cash flows would result.
• Slide 5
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University An Example Company B agrees to pay A 5% per annum on a notional principal of \$100 million Company A Agrees to pay B the 6 month LIBOR rate prevailing 6 months prior to each payment date, on \$100 million. (generally the floating rate is set at the beginning of the period for which it is to be paid)
• Slide 6
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University The Fixed Side We assume that the exchange of cash flows should occur each six months (using a fixed rate of 5% compounded semi annually). Company B will pay: (\$100M)(.025) = \$2.5 Million to Firm A each 6 months.
• Slide 7
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Summary of Cash Flows for Firm B Cash Flow Cash Flow Net DateLIBOR Received Paid Cash Flow 3-1-984.2% 9-1-984.8%2.102.5 -0.4 3-1-995.3%2.402.5 -0.1 9-1-995.5%2.652.5 0.15 3-1-005.6%2.752.5 0.25 9-1-005.9%2.802.5 0.30 3-1-016.4%2.952.5 0.45
• Slide 8
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Swap Diagram LIBOR Company ACompany B 5%
• Slide 9
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Offsetting Spot Position Company A Borrows (pays)5.2% Pays LIBOR Receives5% Net LIBOR+.2% Company B Borrows (pays) LIBOR+.8% ReceivesLIBOR Pays5% Net5.8% Assume that A has a commitment to borrow at a fixed rate of 5.2% and that B has a commitment to borrow at a rate of LIBOR +.8%
• Slide 10
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Swap Diagram Company ACompany B The swap in effect transforms a fixed rate liability or asset to a floating rate liability or asset (and vice versa) for the firms respectively. 5.2% LIBOR+.8% LIBOR +.2% 5% LIBOR 5.8%
• Slide 11
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Role of Intermediary Usually a financial intermediary works to establish the swap by bring the two parties together. The intermediary then earns.03 to.04% per annum in exchange for arranging the swap. The financial institution is actually entering into two offsetting swap transactions, one with each company.
• Slide 12
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Swap Diagram Co A FI Co B A pays LIBOR+.215% B pays 5.815% The FI makes.03% 5.2%LIBOR+.8% 5.015% LIBOR 4.985% LIBOR
• Slide 13
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Day Count Conventions The above example ignored the day count conventions on the short term rates. For example the first floating payment was listed as 2.10. However since it is a money market rate the six month LIBOR should be quoted on an actual /360 basis. Assuming 184 days between payments the actual payment should be 100(0.042)(184/360) = 2.1467
• Slide 14
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Day Count Conventions II The fixed side must also be adjusted and as a result the payment may not actually be equal on each payment date. The fixed rate is often based off of a longer maturity instrument and may therefore uses a different day count convention than the LIBOR. If the fixed rate is based off of a treasury note for example, the note is based on a different day convention.
• Slide 15
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Role of the Intermediary It is unlikely that a financial intermediary will be contacted by parties on both side of a swap at the same time. The intermediary must enter into the swap without the counter party. The intermediary then hedges the interest rate risk using interest rate instruments while waiting for a counter party to emerge. This practice is referred to as warehousing swaps.
• Slide 16
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Why enter into a swap? The Comparative Advantage Argument FixedFloating A10% 6 mo LIBOR+.3 B11.2% 6 mo LIBOR + 1.0% Difference between fixed rates = 1.2% Difference between floating rates = 0.7% B Has an advantage in the floating rate.
• Slide 17
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Swap Diagram Co A FI Co B A pays LIBOR+.065% instead of LIBOR+.3% B pays 10.965% instead of 11.2% The FI makes.03% 10%LIBOR+1% 9.965% LIBOR 9.935% LIBOR
• Slide 18
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Spread Differentials Why do spread differentials exist? Differences in business lines, credit history, asset and liabilities, etc
• Slide 19
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Valuation of Interest Rate Swaps After the swap is entered into it can be valued as either: A long position in one bond combined with a short position in another bond or A portfolio of forward rate agreements.
• Slide 20
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Relationship of Swaps to Bonds In the examples above the same relationship could have been written as Company B lent company A \$100 million at the six month LIBOR rate Company A lent company B \$100 million at a fixed 5% per annum
• Slide 21
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Bond Valuation Given the same floating rates as before the cash flow would be the same as in the swap example. The value of the swap would then be the difference between the value of the fixed rate bond and the floating rate bond.
• Slide 22
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Fixed portion The value of either bond can be found by discounting the cash flows from the bond (as always). The fixed rate value is straight forward it is given as: where Q is the notional principal and k is the fixed interest payment
• Slide 23
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Floating rate valuation The floating rate is based on the fact that it is a series of short term six months loans. Immediately after a payment date Bfl is equal to the notional principal Q. Allowing the time until the next payment to equal t 1 where k* is the known next payment
• Slide 24
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Swap Value If the financial institution is paying fixed and receiving floating the value of the swap is V swap = B fl -B fix The other party will have a value of V swap = B fix -B fl
• Slide 25
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Example Pay 6 mo LIBOR & receive 8% 3 mo 10% 9 mo 10.5% 15 mo 11% Bfix = 4e.-1(.25) +4e -.105(.75) +104e -.11(1.25) =98.24M Bfloat = 100e -.1(.25) + 5.1e -.1(.25) =-102.5M -4.27 M
• Slide 26
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University A better valuation Relationship of Swap value to Forward Rte Agreements Since the swap could be valued as a forward rate agreement (FRA) it is also possible to value the swap under the assumption that the forward rates are realized.
• Slide 27
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University To do this you would need to: Calculate the forward rates for each of the LIBOR rates that will determine swap cash flows Calculate swap cash flows using the forward rates for the floating portion on the assumption that the LIBOR rates will equal the forward rates Set the swap value equal to the present value of these cash flows.
• Slide 28
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Swap Rate This works after you know the fixed rate. When entering into the swap the value of the swap should be 0. This implies that the PV of each of the two series of cash flows is equal. Each party is then willing to exchange the cash flows since they have the same value. The rate that makes the PV equal when used for the fixed payments is the swap rate.
• Slide 29
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Example Assume that you are considering a swap where the party with the floating rate will pay the three month LIBOR on the \$50 Million in principal. The parties will swap quarterly payments each quarter for the next year. Both the fixed and floating rates are to be paid on an actual/360 day basis.
• Slide 30
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University First floating payment Assume that the current 3 month LIBOR rate is 3.80% and that there are 93 days in the first period. The first floating payment would then be
• Slide 31
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Second floating payment Assume that the three month futures price on the Eurodollar futures is 96.05 implying a forward rate of 100-96.05 = 3.95 Given that there are 91 days in the period. The second floating payment would then be
• Slide 32
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Example Floating side Period Day Count Futures Price Fwd Rate Floating Cash flow 913.80 19396.053.95490,833.3333 29195.554.45499,236.1111 39095.284.72556,250.0000 491596,555.5555
• Slide 33
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University PV of Floating cash flows The PV of the floating cash flows is then calculated using the same forward rates. The first cash flow will have a PV of:
• Slide 34
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University PV of Floating cash flows The PV of the floating cash flows is then calculated using the same forward rates. The second cash flow will have a PV of:
• Slide 35
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Example Floating side Period Day Count Fwd Rate Floating Cash flow PV of Floating CF 913.80 1933.95490,833.3333486,061.8263 2914.45499,236.1111489,495.4412 3904.72556,250.0000539,396.1423 491596,555.5555525,668.5915
• Slide 36
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University PV of floating The total PV of the floating cash flows is then the sum of the four PVs: \$2,040,622.0013
• Slide 37
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Swap rate The fixed rate is then the rate that using the same procedure will cause the PV of the fixed cash flows to have a PV equal to the same amount. The fixed cash flows are discounted by the same rates as the floating rates. Note: the fixed cash flows are not the same each time due to the changes in the number of days in each period. The resulting rate is 4.1294686
• Slide 38
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Example: Swap Cash Flows Period Day Count Fwd Rate Floating Cash flow Fixed CF 913.80 1933.95490,833.3333533,389.7003 2914.45499,236.1111521,918.9541 3904.72556,250.0000516,183.5810 491596,555.5555521,918.9541
• Slide 39
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Swap Spread The swap spread would then be the difference between the swap rate and the on the run treasury of the same maturity.
• Slide 40
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Swap valuation revisited The value of the swap will change over time. After the first payments are made, the futures prices and corresponding interest rates have likely changed. The actual second payment will be based upon the 3 month LIBOR at the end of the first period. Therefore the value of the swap is recalculated.
• Slide 41
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Currency Swaps The primary purpose of a currency swap is to transform a loan denominated in one currency into a loan denominated in another currency. In a currency swap, a principal must be specified in each currency and the principal amounts are exchanged at the beginning and end of the life of the swap. The principal amounts are approximately equal given the exchange rate at the beginning of the swap.
• Slide 42
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University A simple example Assume that company A pays a fixed rate of 11% in sterling and receives a fixed interest rate of 8% in dollars. Let interest payments be made once a year and the principal amounts be \$15 million and L10 Million Company A Dollar CashSterling CashFlow (millions) 2/1/1999-15.00+10.00 2/1/2000+1.20-1.10 2/1/2001+1.20-1.10 2/1/2002+1.20-1.10 2/1/2003+1.20-1.10 2/1/2004+16.20-11.10
• Slide 43
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Intuition Suppose A could issue bonds in the US for 8% interest, the swap allows it to use the 15 million to actually borrow 10million sterling at 11% (A can invest L 10M @ 11% but is afraid that \$ will strength it wants US denominated investment)
• Slide 44
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Comparative Advantage Again The argument for this is very similar to the comparative advantage argument presented earlier for interest rate swaps. It is likely that the domestic firm has an advantage in borrowing in its home country.
• Slide 45
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Example using comparative advantage DollarsAUD (Australian \$) Company A5%12.6% Company B7%13.0% 2% difference in \$US.4% difference in AUD
• Slide 46
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University The strategy Company A borrows dollars at 5% per annum Company B borrows AUD at 13% per annum They enter into a swap Result Since the spread between the two companies is different for each firm there is the ability of each firm to benefit from the swap. We would expect the gain to both parties to be 2 - 0.4 = 1.6% (the differences in the spreads).
• Slide 47
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Swap Diagram Co A FI Co B A pays 11.9% AUD instead of 12.6% AUD B pays 6.3% \$US instead of 7% \$US The FI makes.2% 5%AUD 13% 6.3% AUD 11.9% 5% AUD 13%
• Slide 48
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Valuation of Currency Swaps Using Bond Techniques Assuming there is no default risk the currency swap can be decomposed into a position in two bonds, just like an interest rate swap. In the example above the company is long a sterling bond and short a dollar bond. The value of the swap would then be the value of the two bonds adjusted for the spot exchange rate.
• Slide 49
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Swap valuation Let S = the spot exchange rate at the beginning of the swap, B F is the present value of the foreign denominated bond and B D is the present value of the domestic bond. Then the value is given as Vswap = SB F B D The correct discount rate would then depend upon the term structure of interest rates in each country
• Slide 50
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Other swaps Swaps can be constructed from a large number of underlying assets. Instead of the above examples swaps for floating rates on both sides of the transaction. The principal can vary through out the life of the swap. They can also include options such as the ability to extend the swap or put (cancel the swap). The cash flows could even extend from another asset such as exchanging the dividends and capital gains realized on an equity index for a fixed or floating rate.
• Slide 51
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Beyond Plain Vanilla Swaps Amortizing Swap -- The notional principal is reduced over time. This decreases the fixed payment. Useful for managing mortgage portfolios and mortgage backed securities. Accreting Swap The notional principal increases over the life of the swap. Useful in construction finances. For example is the builder draws down an amount of financing each period for a number of periods.
• Slide 52
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Beyond Plain Vanilla You can combine amortizing and accreting swaps to allow the notional principal to both increase and decrease. Seasonal Swap -- Increase and decrease of notional principal based of f of designated plan Roller Coaster Swap -- notional principal first increases the amortizes to zero.
• Slide 53
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Off Market Swap The interest rate is set at a rate above market value. For example the fixed rate may pay 9% when the yield curve implies it should pay 8%. The PV of the extra payments is transferred as a one time fee at the beginning of the swap (thus keeping the initial value equal to zero)
• Slide 54
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Forward and Extension Swaps Forward swap the payments are agreed to begin at some point in time in the future If the rates are based on the current forward rate there should not be any exchange of principal when the payments begin. Other wise it is an off market swap and some form of compensation is needed Extension Swap an agreement to extend the current swap (a form of forward swap)
• Slide 55
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Basis Swaps Both parties pay floating rates based upon different indexes. For example one party may pay the three month LIBOR while the other pays the three month T- Bill. The impact is that while the rates generally move together the spread actually widens and narrows, Therefore the return on the swap is based upon the spread.
• Slide 56
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Yield Curve Swaps Both parties pay floating but based off of different maturities. Is similar to a basis swap since the effective result is based on the spread between the two rates. A steepening curve thus benefits the payer of the shorter maturity rate. This is utilized by firms with a mismatch of maturities in assets and liabilities (banks for example). It can hedge against changes in the yield curve via the swap.
• Slide 57
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Rate differential (diff) swap Payments tied to rate indexes in different currencies, but payments are made in only one currency.
• Slide 58
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Corridor Swap Payments obligation only occur in a given range of rates. For example if the LIBOR rate is between 5 and 7%. The swap is basically a tool based on the uncertainty of rates.
• Slide 59
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Flavored Currency Swaps The basic currency swap can be modified similar to many of the modifications just discussed. Swaps may also be combined to produce desired outcomes. CIRCUS Swap (Combined interest rate and currency swap). Combines two basic swaps
• Slide 60
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Circus Swap Diagram LIBOR Company ACompany B 5% US\$ 6% German Marks Company ACompany C LIBOR
• Slide 61
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Circus Swap Diagram Company B Company A 5% US\$ 6% German Marks Company C
• Slide 62
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Swapation An option on a swap that specifies the tenor, notional principal fixed rate and floating rate Price is usually set a a % of notional principal Receiver Swapation The holder has the right to enter into a swap as the fixed rate receiver Payer Swapation The holder has the right to enter into a particular swap as the fixed rate payer.
• Slide 63
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Swapation as call (or put) Options Receiver swapation similar to a call option on a bond. The owner receives a fixed payment (like a coupon payment) and pays a floating rate (the exercise price) Payer swapation if exercised the owner is paying a stream similar to the issue of a bond.
• Slide 64
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University In-the-Money Swapations A receiver swapation is in the money if interest rates fall. The owner is paying a lower fixed rate in exchange for the fixed rate specified in the contract. Similarly a payer swapation is generally in the money if interest rates increase since the owner will receive a higher floating rate.
• Slide 65
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University When to Exercise The owner of the receiver swapation should exercise if the fixed rate on the swap underlying the swapation is greater than the market fixed rate on a similar swap. In this case the swap is paying a higher rate than that which is available in the market.
• Slide 66
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University A fixed income swapation example Consider a firm that has issued a corporate bond with a call option at a given date in the future. The firm has paid for the call option by being forced to pay a higher coupon on the bond than on a similar noncallable bond. Assume that the firm has determined that it does not want to call the bond at its first call date at some point in the future. The call option is worthless to the firm, but it should theoretically have value.
• Slide 67
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Capturing the value of the call The firm can sell a receiver swapation with terms that match the call feature of the bond. The firm would receive for this a premium that is equal to the value of the call option.
• Slide 68
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Example Assume the firm has previously issued a 9% coupon bond that makes semiannual payments and matures in 7 years with a face value of \$150 Million. The bond has a call option for one year from today.
• Slide 69
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Example continued The firm can sell a European Receiver Swapation with an expiration in one year. The Swapation terms are for semiannual payments at a fixed rate of 9% in exchange for floating payments at LIBOR. The firm receives a premium for the swapation equal to a fixed percentage of the \$150 Million notional value (equal to the value of the call option). The firm can keep the premium but has a potential obligation in one year if the counter party exercises the swap.
• Slide 70
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Example Continued In one year the fixed rate for this swap is 11% The option will expire worthless since the owner can earn a fixed 11% on a similar swap. The firm gets to keep the premium.
• Slide 71
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Example Continued If in one year the fixed rate of interest on a similar swap is 7% the owner will exercise the swap since it calls for a 9% fixed rate. The firm can call the bond since rates have decreased. It can finance the call by issuing a floating rate note at LIBOR for the term of the swap. The floating rate side of the swap pays for the note and the firm is still paying the original 9% fixed, but it has also received the premium on the swapation
• Slide 72
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Extendible and Cancelable swaps Similar to extension swaps except extension swaps represent a firm commitment to extend the swap. An extendible swap has the option to extend the agreement. Arranged via a plain vanilla swap an a swapation.
• Slide 73
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Extendible and Cancelable Extendible pay fixed swap = plain vanilla pay fixed plus payer swapation Extendible Receive-Fixed Swap = plain vanilla receive fixed swap + receiver swapation Cancelable Pay Fixed Swap = plain vanilla pay fixed swap + receiver swapation Cancelable Receive Fixed Swap =plain vanilla receive fixed swap + payable swapation
• Slide 74
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Creating synthetic securities using swaps The origins of the swap market are based in the debt market. Previously there had been restrictions on the flow of currency. A parallel loan market developed to get around restrictions on the flow of currency from one country to another, Especially restrictions imposed by the Bank of England.
• Slide 75
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University The Parallel Loan Market Consider two firms, one British and one American, each with subsidiaries in both countries. Assume that the free-market value of the pound is L 1=\$1.60 and the officially required exchange rate is L 1=\$1.44. Assume the British Firm wants to undertake a project in the US requiring an outlay of \$100,000,000.
• Slide 76
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Parallel Loan Market The cost of the project at the official exchange rate is 100,000,0000/1.44 = L 69,444,000 The cost of the project at the free market exchange rate is 100,000,0000/1.60 = L 62,500,000 The firm is paying an extra L 7,000,000
• Slide 77
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Parallel Loan Market The British firm lends L 62,500,000 pounds to the US subsidiary operating in England at a floating rate based on LIBOR and The US firm lends \$100,000,000 to the British firm at a fixed rate of 7% in the US the official exchange rate is avoided. The result is a basic fixed for floating currency swap. (In this case each loan is separate default on one loan does not constitute default on the other).
• Slide 78
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Synthetic Fixed Rate Debt A firm with an existing floating rate debt can easily transform it into a fixed rate debt via an interest rate swap. By receiving floating and paying fixed, the firm nets just a spread on the floating transaction creating a fixed rate debt (the rate paid on the swap plus the spread)
• Slide 79
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Synthetic Floating Rate Debt Combining a fixed rate debt with a pay floating / receive fixed rate swap easily transforms the fixed rate. Again the fixed rates cancel out (or result in a spread) leaving just a floating rate.
• Slide 80
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Synthetic Callable Debt Consider a firm with an outstanding fixed rate debt without any call option. It can create a call option. If it had a call option in place it would retire the debt if called. Look at this as creating a new financing need (you need to finance the retirement of the debt.) You want the ability to call the bond but not the obligation to do so.
• Slide 81
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Synthetic Callable Debt Buying a receiver swapation allows the firm to receive a fixed rate, canceling out its current fixed rate obligation. It will pay a new floating rate as part of the swap (similar to financing the call with new floating rate debt).
• Slide 82
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Synthetic non callable Debt Basically the earlier example swapations.
• Slide 83
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Synthetic Dual Currency Debt Dual Currency bond principal payments are denominated in one currency and coupon payments denominated in another currency. Assume you own a bond that makes its payments in US dollars, but you would prefer the coupon payments to be in another currency with the principal repayment in dollars. A fixed for fixed currency swap would allow this to happen
• Slide 84
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Synthetic Dual Currency Debt Combine a receive fixed German marks and pay US dollars swap with the bond. The dollars received from the bond are used to pay the dollar commitment on the swap. You then just receive the German Marks.
• Slide 85
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University All in Cost The IRR for a given financing alternative, it includes all costs including administration, flotation, and actual cash flows. The cost is simply the rate that makes the PV of the cash flows equal to the current value of the borrowing.
• Slide 86
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Compare two alternative proposals A 10 year semiannual 7% coupon bond with a principal of \$40 million priced at par A loan of \$40 million for 10 years at a floating rate of LIBOR + 30 Bps reset every six months with the current LIBOR rate of 6.5%. Plus a swap transforming the loan to a fixed rate commitment. The swap will require the firm to pay 6.5% fixed and receive floating.
• Slide 87
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University All in cost The bond has a all in cost equal to its yield to maturity, 7% Assuming the firm must pay \$400,000 to enter into the swap so it only nest \$39,600,000. Today. The net interest rate it pays is 6.8% implying semiannual payments of (.068/2)(40,000,000) = \$1,360,000 plus a final payment of 40,000,000. This implies a rate of.034703 every six months or.069406 every year.
• Slide 88
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University BF Goodrich and Rabobank An early swap example* In the early 1980s BF Goodrich needed to raise new funds, but its credit rating had been downgraded to BBB-. The firm needed \$50,000,000 to fund continuing operations. They wanted long term debt in the range of 8 to 10 years and a fixed rate. Treasury rates were at 10.1 % and BF Goodrich anticipated paying approximately 12 to 12.5% * taken from Kolb - Futures Options and Swaps
• Slide 89
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Rabobank Rabobank was a large Dutch banking organization consisting of more than 1,000 small agricultural banks. The bank was interested in securing floating rate financing on approximately \$50,000,000 in the Eurobond market. With a AAA rating Rabobank could issue fixed rate in the Eurobond market for approximately 11% and for a floating rate of LIBOR plus.25%
• Slide 90
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University The Intermediary Salomon Brothers suggested a swap agreement to each party. This would require BF Goodrich to issue the first public debt tied to LIBOR in the United States. Salomon Brothers felt that there would be a market for the debt because of the increase in deposits paying a floating rate due to deregulation.
• Slide 91
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Problems Rabobank was interested in the deal,but fearful of credit risk. A direct swap would expose it to credit risk. Without an active swap market it was common for swaps to be arranged between the two counter parties. The two finally reached an agreement to use Morgan Guaranty as an intermediary.
• Slide 92
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University The agreement BF Goodrich issued a noncallable 8 year floating rate note with a principal value of \$50,000,000 paying the 3 month LIBOR rate plus.5% semiannually. The bond was underwritten by Salomon. Rabobank issued a \$50,000,000 non callable 8 year Eurobond with annual payments of 11% Both entered into a swap with Morgan Guaranty
• Slide 93
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University The swaps BF Goodrich promised to pay Morgan Guaranty 5,500,000 each year for eight years (matching the coupon on the Rabobanks debt). Morgan agreed to pay BF Goodrich a semi annual rate tied to the 3 month LIBOR equal to:.5(50,000,000)(3 mo LIBOR-x) x represents an undisclosed discount Rabobank received \$5,500,000 each year for 8 years and paid semi annul payments of LIBOR-x
• Slide 94
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University The intermediary role The two swap agreements were independent of each other eliminating the credit risk concerns of Rabobank. Morgan received a one time fee of \$125,000 paid by BF Goodrich plus an annual fee of 8 to 37 Bp (\$40,000 to \$185,000) also paid by BF Goodrich.
• Slide 95
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University BF Goodrich Assuming that the discount from LIBOR was 50 Bp and that the service fee was 22.5 BP (the midpoint of the range). BF Goodrich paid an all in cost of 11.9488 % annually compared to 12 to 12.5% if they had issued the debt on their own.
• Slide 96
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Rabobanks Position At the time of financing it would have paid LIBOR plus 25 to 50 Bp. Given that it paid no fees and the fixed rate canceled out it ended up paying LIBOR - x.
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Securing financing BF Goodrich was able to secure financing via its use of the swaps market, this is a common use of the market. The example provides a good illustration of the idea of the comparative advantage arguments we discussed earlier.
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University A Second Example of securing financing* It is possible for swaps to increases accessibility two the debt market Mexcobre (Mexicana de Corbre) is the copper exporting subsidiary of Grupo Mexico. In the late 1980s it would have had a difficult time borrowing in international credit markets due to concerns or default risk However it was able to borrow \$210 million for 38 months from a group of banks led by Paribas * from Managing Financial Risk by Smithson, Smith and Wilford
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University The original loan The banks lent the firm \$210 Million at a fixed rate of 11.48%. The debt replaced borrowing from the Mexican government which had cost the firm 23%. A Belgian company Sogem agreed to buy 4,000 tons of copper per month at the prevailing spot rate from Mexcobre making payments into an escrow account in New York that was used to service the debt with any extra funds returned to Mexcobre.
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University BanksEscrow MexcobreSOGEM 4,000 tons of copper per month Cash based on Spot Price Quarterly payments of 11.48% interest plus principal \$210 million loan Excess cash if it builds up
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Swaps Swaps were added between Paribas and the escrow account to hedge the price risk of copper and between Paribas and the banks to change the banks position to a floating rate
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• BanksEscrow MexcobreSOGEM 4,000 tons of copper per month Cash per ton based on Spot Price Quarterly payments of 11.48% interest plus principal \$210 million loan Excess cash if it builds up Paribas Spot Price per ton FloatingFixed\$2,000 per ton
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Duration of Interest Rate Swaps* A plain vanilla swap can be valued as a portfolio of two bonds, therefore the duration of the swap should equal the duration of the bond portfolio. The duration can be either positive or negative depending on the side of the swap * Kolb, Futures Options and Swaps
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Duration of Swaps Duration of Receive Fixed Swap = Duration of Underlying coupon bond - Duration of underlying floating Rate Bond >0 Duration of Pay Fixed Swap = Duration of underlying floating Rate Bond - Duration of Underlying coupon bond
• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University GAP Analysis Asset sensitive GAP (Positive GAP) RSA RSL > 0 If interest rates NII will If interest rates NII will Liability sensitive GAP (Negative GAP) RSA RSL < 0 If interest rates NII will If interest rates NII will Would you expect a commercial bank to be asset or liability sensitive for 6 mos? 5 years?
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Important things to note: Assuming book value accounting is used -- only the income statement is impacted, the book value on the balance sheet remains the same. The GAP varies based on the bucket or time frame calculated. It assumes that all rates move together.
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Steps in Calculating GAP Select time Interval Develop Interest Rate Forecast Group Assets and Liabilities by the time interval (according to first repricing) Forecast the change in net interest income.
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Alternative measures of GAP Cumulative GAP Totals the GAP over a range of of possible maturities (all maturities less than one year for example). Total GAP including all maturities
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Other useful measures using GAP Relative Interest sensitivity GAP (GAP ratio) GAP / Bank Size The higher the number the higher the risk that is present Interest Sensitivity Ratio
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University What is Rate Sensitive Any Asset or Liability that matures during the time frame Any principal payment on a loan is rate sensitive if it is to be recorded during the time period Assets or liabilities linked to an index Interest rates applied to outstanding principal changes during the interval
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Unequal changes in interest rates So far we have assumed that the change the level of interest rates will be the same for both assets and liabilities. If it isnt you need to calculate GAP using the respective change. Spread effect The spread between assets and liabilities may change as rates rise or decrease
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Strengths of GAP Easy to understand and calculate Allows you to identify specific balance sheet items that are responsible for risk Provides analysis based on different time frames.
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Weaknesses of Static GAP Market Value Effects Basic repricing model the changes in market value. The PV of the future cash flows should change as the level of interest rates change. (ignores TVM) Over aggregation Repricing may occur at different times within the bucket (assets may be early and liabilities late within the time frame) Many large banks look at daily buckets.
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Weaknesses of Static GAP Runoffs Periodic payment of principal and interest that can be reinvested and is itself rate sensitive. You can include runoff in your measure of rate sensitive assets and rate sensitive liabilities. Note: the amount of runoffs may be sensitive to rate changes also (prepayments on mortgages for example)
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Weaknesses of GAP Off Balance Sheet Activities Basic GAP ignores changes in off balance sheet activities that may also be sensitive to changes in the level of interest rates. Ignores changes in the level of demand deposits
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Basic Duration Gap Duration Gap
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Basic DGAP If the Basic DGAP is + If Rates in the value of assets > in value of liab Owners equity will decrease If Rate in the value of assets > in value of liab Owners equity will increase
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Basic DGAP If the Basic DGAP is (-) If Rates in the value of assets < in value of liab Owners equity will increase If Rate in the value of assets < in value of liab Owners equity will decrease
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Basic DGAP Does that imply that if DA = DL the financial institution has hedged its interest rate risk? No, because the \$ amount of assets > \$ amount of liabilities otherwise the institution would be insolvent.
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University DGAP Let MVL = market value of liabilities and MVA = market value of assets Then to immunize the balance sheet we can use the following identity:
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University DGAP calculation
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Hedging with DGAP The net cash flows represented on the balance sheet have the same properties as a long position in a bond with a duration of 2.396201. We can hedge using our equation from before and the duration of the interest rate swap.
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Hedging with DGAP Since the duration of our position is positive we want the duration of the hedge to be negative. This requires the pay fixed swap from before with a notional value equal to MV H below. MV i (D i )+MV H (D H ) = 0 \$155,467,725(2.396201)+(-5.151369)MV H =0 MV H =\$72,316,800
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University DGAP and owners equity Let MVE = MVA MVL We can find MVA & MVL using duration From our definition of duration:
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University DGAP Analysis If DGAP is (+) An in rates will cause MVE to An in rates will cause MVE to If DGAP is (-) An in rates will cause MVE to An in rates will cause MVE to The closer DGAP is to zero the smaller the potential change in the market value of equity.
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Weaknesses of DGAP It is difficult to calculate duration accurately (especially accounting for options) Each CF needs to be discounted at a distinct rate can use the forward rates from treasury spot curve Must continually monitor and adjust duration It is difficult to measure duration for non interest earning assets.
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University More General Problems Interest rate forecasts are often wrong To be effective management must beat the ability of the market to forecast rates Varying GAP and DGAP can come at the expense of yield Offer a range of products, customers may not prefer the ones that help GAP or DGAP Need to offer more attractive yields to entice this decreases profitability.
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Changing Duration You can also manipulate the duration of your cash flows. This allows you to lower your interest rate sensitivity instead of eliminating it. Let D G * be the desired duration gap, D G be the current duration gap, D S be the duration of the Swap, and MV H * be the notional value of required for the swap.
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• UNIVERSITE DAUVERGNE Drake Drake University Decreasing Duration GAP to One year The negative sign just indicate that we need a pay fixed swap (the duration would then be negative making the MV positive)