drama contents 1.what is drama? 2.elements of drama 3.kinds of drama 4.forms of drama

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DRAMA

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DRAMA

DRAMA

ContentsWhat is Drama?Elements of DramaKinds of DramaForms of Drama

DRAMADrama comes from Greek words dran meaning "to do" or "to act." It also referred to as play. It is a prose or verse composition, especially one telling a serious story that was intended for representation by actors impersonating the characters and performing the dialogue and action and a serious narrative work or program for television, radio, or the cinema.

ELEMENTS OF DRAMACharacterThemePlotPoint of ViewDialogueVisual ElementsStage

CHARACTER: A Character is one of the persons who appears in the play, one of the dramatis personae (literally, the persons of the play). In another sense of the term, the treatment of the character is the basic part of the playwright's work. Most plays contain major characters and minor characters. The distinction between heroes (or heroines) and villains, between good guys and bad guys, between virtue and vice is useful in dealing with certain types of plays, but in many modern plays (and some not so modern) it is difficult to make.

The protagonist is the main character in the story. The antagonist is an enemy to the main character.Protagonist - the main character in a drama or other literary work.Antagonist - principal rival in the conflict set forth in the play. represent a major threat or obstacle to the main character by their very existence, without necessarily deliberately targeting him or her.- apersonwhoisopposedto,strugglesagainst,orcompetes withanother;opponent;adversary.

ThemeThe plot has been called the body of a play and the theme has been called its soul. A writers message, or main point, is the theme of his or her literary work. Looking for a theme helps you look more deeply into the literature and makes for more enjoyable reading. You will need to infer what the theme is from the works title, key scenes, characters, symbols, and plot events.

Plotevents that make up a story, particularly as they relate to one another in a pattern, in a sequence, through cause and effect, or by coincidence.The plot is usually structured with acts and scenes.

Point of ViewA. Omniscient a story told by the author, using the third person; her/his knowledge, control, and prerogatives are unlimited; authorial subjectivity.

B. Limited Omniscient a story in which the author associates with a major or minor character; this character serves as the authors spokesperson or mouthpiece.

C. First Person the author identifies with or disappears in a major or minor character; the story is told using the first person I.

D. Objective or Dramatic the opposite of the omniscient; displays authorial objectivity; compared a roving sound camera. Very little of the past or the future is given; the story is set in the present

DialogueDialogue provides the substance of a play. Each word uttered by the character furthers the business of the play, contributes to its effect as a whole. Therefore, a sense of DECORUM must be established by the characters, ie., what is said is appropriate to the role and situation of a character.Visual ElementWhile the dialog and music constitute the audible aspect of drama, the visual element deals with the scenes, costumes and special effects used in it. The visual element of drama, also known as the spectacle, renders a visual appeal to it. The costumes worn by the artists must suit the characters they are playing. Besides, it is important for the scenes to be dramatic enough to hold the audiences to their seats. The special effects used in a play add to the visual appeal. Thus, the spectacle forms an essential component of drama.The use of symbols implies the use of indirect suggestions in a drama. Logically used symbols help in making a scene more effective. The use of contrast is about using stillness followed by activity or silence followed by noise. It can also mean the use of contrasting colors to add to the visual appeal. It can mean the clever use of contrasting scenes following each other that enhance the dramatic element of a play.StageIt is the most important element and without it the drama is never performed. It is the name of place where on the drama is acted.

Kinds of DramaComedyTragicTragicomedy

Comedyauniversalformof expression and a major dramatic genre that is intended to amuse. often associated with humorous behavior, wordplay, pleasurable feeling, release of tension, and laughter. Imbued with a playful spirit, comic entertainment frequently exposes incongruous, ridiculous, or grotesque aspects of human nature.It generally follows a fixed pattern of theatrical surprises that leads to a sense of exhilaration in the spectator. Of all dramatic genres, comedy is the most widely performed.

Tragicdramaticgenrethat presents the heroic or moral struggle of an individual, culminating in his or her ultimate defeat, tragic plays appear chiefly in societies that maintain a fixed hierarchy of political and religious beliefs. Only when spectators share with the playwright a particular social vision and system of class-based values can they empathize with the fall of the protagonist (central character) from an elevated position into bleak despair or annihilation.

Tragicomedydrama that contains elements of tragedy and comedy. One example of tragicomedies is English playwright William Shakespeare's so-called reconciliation plays, such as The Winter's Tale (1610), which reach a tragic climax but then lighten to a happy conclusion. A tragicomedy is the usual form for plays in the tradition of the theater of the absurd.

TYPES OF DRAMAComedyTragedyFarceMelodramaMusical

Comedyrefer to plays that are light in tone, and that typically have happy endings. The intent of a comedic play is to make the audience laugh. In modern theater, there are many different styles of comedy, ranging from realistic stories, where the humor is derived from real-life situations, to outrageous slapstick humor.

Tragedy- Tragedy is one of the oldest forms of drama;- Tragedy usually involves serious subject matter and the death of one or more main characters. These plays rarely have a happy ending.

FarceFarce is a sub-category of comedy, characterized by greatly exaggerated characters and situations. Characters tend to be one-dimensional and often follow stereotypical behavior. Farces typically involve mistaken identities, lots of physical comedy and outrageous plot twists.

MelodramaMelodrama is another type of exaggerated drama. As in farce, the characters tend to be simplified and one-dimensional. The formulaic storyline of the classic melodrama typically involves a villain a heroine, and a hero who must rescue the heroine from the villain.

MusicalIn musical theater, the story is told not only through dialogue and acting but through music and dance. Musicals are often comedic, although many do involve serious subject matter. Most involve a large cast and lavish sets and costumes.As a student of drama it is important to be able recognize these different types of drama. Be aware that in modern theater, the lines between these types of drama are often quite blurred, with elements of comedy, drama and tragedy residing in the same play.

Forms of DramaOperaPantomimeCreative DramaOperaOpera is a dramatic art form, which arose during theRenaissance.Drama in which the text is set to music and staged. The texts of operas are sung, with singing and stage action nearly always given instrumental accompaniment.

Pantomimeis an art of dramatic representation by means of facial expressions and body movements rather than words. Pantomime, or mime, has always played a part in theater.Pantomime, or dumb show, was essential to commedia dell'arte, an improvised comedy that arose in 16th-century Italy and spread throughout Europe.

Creative Dramaincludes dramatic activities and games used primarily in educational settings with children.