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DSLRs

Knowing Your Camera4Digital Cameras can be seem like a complex piece of equipment. Knowing some of the basics of your camera will help you choose the right camera and produce quality photos.What is a Digital Camera A camera that takes video or still photographs (or both) digitally by recording images on a light-sensitive sensor.Ultra Compact Digital CameraTypically a small and inexpensive camera.Can easily be carried in a pocket or purse. Usually have fewer features than the higher end cameras.8

Oh the Technology!D-SLR (single-lens reflex), Megapixels, Image Stabilization (IS & VR), Dust Reduction, Live View, Sensors, facial recognition..........

What does it all mean? (and why does it matter to me?)Introduction to Digital CamerasDSLR CameraTop of the line camera; primarily used by professionals.Include high quality lenses, and often interchangeable.Often accepts other accessories such as filters.Produce very high resolution photos.55Digital Photos OverviewDigital Photos are made up of pixels (picture elements).DPI vs PPIDPI - Dots Per Inch (How a printer prints the image)PPI Pixels Per Inch (How a monitor displays an image)The resolution of a digital photo is its pixel dimensions.Digital Cameras use megapixels to specify the pixel dimensions of its photos.

6Types of Digital CamerasUltra Compact Digital CamerasCompact Digital CamerasAdvanced Digital CamerasDigital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR) Cameras7

2006-06-01Point and Shoot digital Cameras (P&S)- Commonly referred to as consumer digital cameras.

- Represent probably 90% of all digital cameras on the market

- Typically small, compact and lightweight

- Targeted at broad majority

- Typically very User-Friendly

- Image Quality has improved drastically

Compact Digital CamerasThe typical digital camera used for taking most pictures by consumers. Includes most of the features the average person would need.

10

2006-06-01Prosumer Digital Cameras-Not technically its own specification

- Common term used to describe advanced models of P&S(now also used to describe many entry level DSLR's)- Similar in shape and appearance to Digital SLR's- Typically have extended zoom range (8-12X Optical Equiv)

- Typically combine user friendly P&S features with more advanced manual features.

Advanced Digital CameraDesigned for the more skilled or hobbyist photographer.Usually has higher quality lens and zoom.

12

2006-06-01Digital SLR (DSLR)SLR Stands for Single Lens Reflex

- Have larger sensors, resulting in greater image quality

- Tend to favor manual control, lacking many automatic settings found on P&S

- Much larger and heavier

- Ability to interchange system lenses

2006-06-01So What is the REAL difference between a digital SLR and a point and shoot camera?

2006-06-01The short answer is.....Image QualityBut Why?

How can a 6 megapixel DSLR take a better picture than a 24 megapixel point and shoot?

Because Size Matters!

2006-06-01How the digital sensor works- Each digital image is made from millions of tiny squares, known as pixels.

- Essentially, an image is recorded by tiny microlenses (pixels) which make up the cameras sensor

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2006-06-01All Pixels are not created equal!

-A digital sensor is essentially made up of millions of tiny micro-lenses (pixels)

- Pixels are analog devices which record light and color data

- Larger Sensors contain larger pixels, which are much better and collecting this data

Digital Sensors Compared

Full-Frame versus APS-C Sized Sensors

2006-06-01Digital Camera Features and Technologies Megapixels Determine the total size (Dimensions) of the image recorded by camera

- More MP does not always mean a better picture

- Digital Image dimensions do not equal print dimensions

- For example a full quality image from an 8 megapixel camera will produce a digital image measuring approximately 9X14 inches but printing standards say that you should not print to Photo Quality any larger than 8X10

Megapixels Vs. Print Size

MegapixelsMegapixelsPixel DimensionMax Quality Print Size2.01600 x 12004 x 63.02100 x 15005 x 74.02400 x 18008 x 105.02500 x 19009 x 12 6.03000 x 200011 x 148.04000 x 200012 x 1622The following guide will help you know what size of high-quality print you can expect from each megapixel rating.

Multiplying the pixel dimension will give you the exact megapixel rating. The rating stated by the manufacturer is usually rounded.

MegapixelsA higher megapixel rating does not always mean higher quality photos.A cameras megapixel rating will help you determine the largest size of prints you can expect to make without sacrificing the quality of the image.23Megapixels24

4 megapixel8 megapixel

2400 x 18004000 x 2000

8 x 10 printThe 8 megapixel will not produce a better quality 8 x 10 print than the 4 megapixel.

MegaPixel and Image Size

1,000 megapixels or 1 GigaPixel

Canon 1200d

Rs.24,560Nikon D3300

Rs 27,999Sony alpha 58

Rs.30,990

Make it cinematic

Anatomy of a Camera

Anatomy of a Camera

Anatomy of a Camera

Anatomy of a Camera

Accessories

Electronic ViewfinderAn electronic viewfinder, or EVF, is a viewfinder in which the image captured by the lens is projected electronically onto a miniature display. The viewfinder shows exactly what the lens sees.46

46Optical ViewfinderA window on the back of the camera you look through to position the shot.The primary drawback to the optical viewfinder is the parallax, displacement or difference in the apparent position of an object viewed along two different lines of sight.47

Viewfinder

Unlike with compact cameras, where you compose your shots by looking at the back of the camera (LCD screen), on the DSLR, youll usually look through the eyepiece of the viewfinder for composing, focusing, and viewing certain information provided by the camera. Some DSLRs will allow you to use their LCD monitors the same way you would with a compact camera, but you wont usually take photos this way.LCD Monitor

One of the biggest advantages of your DSLR is its ability to preview an image immediately after you take a picture. The LCD monitor is located on the back of the camera and may have a swivel capability so that you can orient the screen for easier view from different camera positions. As you take each shot, a preview of the image will appear for a short time on the LCD. This monitor also gives you access to image data and the cameras menu system.LCD/OSD

An on-screen display (OSD) is information about the cameras settings displayed on the LCD screen.

Live ViewRefers to the ability to use the lcd screen on the camera the same way you would use the viewfinderShots can be composed even while holding the camera away from your faceOriginally only a feature in P&S, DSLRs now use Live View also

Facial RecognitionCamera detects faces in your frame based on color, contrast change, etc.Focus is automatically adjusted so detail in faces is highColor and contrast are automatically adjusted to create pleasing skin tones

Camera BagPurchasing a cool, sophisticated, cutting-edge camera is one thing. Getting a camera bag to support, hold and protect your camera is another. Welcome to Flipkart's mind-boggling array of camera bags that will not only satiate your requirements, but will also effectively give you the benefit of heading out with confidence on your outdoor ventures with the camera of your choice, securely by your side.Camera bags are the perfect accessories for photography enthusiasts and professionals who require one bag that carries all of their camera-based essentials. Before investing in a camera bag, ensure that the bag is able to accommodate your camera model and make sure that the bag is waterproof with plenty of internal pockets to store extra additions safely and securely. Additions such as batteries, backup lenses, charger units, SD cards, pocket tripods and many such accessories should be accommodated without a fuss.Camera bags are divided into multiple types such as holster, the belt pack, shoulder bag with one strap, backpacks, slings and so on. Choose a type or a model that is most convenient to you

Why Batteries?Batteries are the soul of photographic equipment

Types of Light Sunlight Moonlight Good Light Bad Light Soft Light Harsh Light Storm Light Flash Light Incandescent U.V. Light Black Light Fluorescent Indirect/Bounce Highlights

Movement CompensationRefers to the cameras ability to correct small movements by the user while taking a picture, in order to reduce the blur caused by camera shake.

Very Useful in low-light or telephoto situations

Movement Compensation

Represented differently by different companies:

Nikon VR Vibration ReductionCanon IS Image StabilizationSony SSS Super Steady-Shot

Dust ReductionDust is more of a problem in DSLR's due to changing lensesOnce dust gets on your sensor, it can be difficult to removeDust reduction is essentially a mechanism which shakes the cameras sensor to free any clinging dust particlesSpecial anti-static coatings or filters may also be used

File FormatRefers to the way the computer stores the dataMore common formats include:JPEGEXIFTIFFRAWJPEGStands for Joint Photography Experts GroupMost widely used formatBiggest advantage - can compress image dataDo not edit JPEG images in photo-editing programs to minimize data lossEXIFStands for Exchange Image File FormatUsed by many digicamsIs a variation of the JPEG formatStores extra data as metadata with the image fileMetadata stores shutter speed, aperture, and other capture settings72If the original file is opened and resaved inside a photo editing program, the metadata may be stripped from the file.Always work on a copy of the original image file.TIFFStands for Tagged Image File FormatIs the choice for bringing images into publishing programsDoes not compress as much as JPEGChoose when picture quality is more important than file size73Can be opened in both Mac and PC environmentsRAWSimply means rawUsed by high-resolution digicamsDoes not include any in-camera processing featuresProvides a truer version of the scene in front of the cameraLarge file sizeBack74File size is smaller than TIFF.Many photo editing programs can not open RAW files without plug-ins.Many programs can not import the RAW file format.Each manufacturers version of RAW is differentDSLR Camera Image File Formats

JPEG (.jpg, .jpeg)require little, if any, color and exposure correction.undergo less scrutiny.need to be delivered, printed, or distributed quickly (often straight from the camera or memory card).take up less media storage.

Raw (e.g. RAW, CR2, NEF)

Provide you with plenty of image detail and data to make reasonable adjustments without compromising image quality.Offer the maximum available image data, thus provide the potential for generating the highest quality images your sensor can record.Take up to several times the media storage than do JPEG files.Must go through a Raw file conversion process which adds an extra step before distributing, displaying, or printing images using the normal JPEG format.Do not have camera color balance, exposure, or other settings baked-in, so you are free to apply these adjustments (within the boundaries of the available data) after image capture.

Getting a Good shotWhile there are hundreds of factors which can make a photo good, it is still a relative term, and good to one person may not be good to someone else.

For our purposes we will refer to good in the sense of a correct exposure.

ExposureA correct or good exposure occurs when you maintain as much detail as possible in both the very bright parts (highlights) as well as the very dark parts (shadows) of an image. How much of a range in which you can capture detail from light to dark is referred to as the Dynamic Range. As you are about to see, there can be many correct or good exposures

There are three factors which influence the exposure of your image:

Shutter SpeedApertureISO

Exposure

Exposure

87CAMERA BASICSThese basicsare commonto ALLcameras:F-StopShutter SpeedFilm Speed

88CAMERA BASICSF-Stop (how much light is seen, how much the aperture is open)Shutter Speed (how long the light is seen in the aperture)FILM SPEED (how fast the film itself responds to this light)89F-STOPHOW MUCH LIGHT IS SEENSometimes known as apertureRanges from about 1.8 to 32A higher number (i.e. 32) means less light is seen.A lower number (i.e. 1.8) means more light is seen.90F-STOPHIGHER F-stop (i.e. 32)ADVANTAGESIncreased depth of field, i.e. image background is not blurryDISADVANTAGESNeeds more light, i.e. slower shutter speed.

91F-STOPLOWER F-STOP (i.e. F1.8)ADVANTAGESLets plenty of light in! Better to use in darker settings.Less blurry since faster shutter speed may be needed to compensate for more light.DISADVANTAGESNo depth of field, i.e. background of image likely out of focus.

92F-STOP IMPACTLow F-stopHigh F-stop

93SHUTTER SPEEDMEASURES HOW LONG LIGHT IS LET INTO THE FILM/CAMERACommon values include sec, 1/8 second, 1/1000 second etcShorter time means less time for light to get into the cameraShorter time reduces blurriness94SHUTTER SPEEDFASTER SPEEDADVANTAGESReduces blurriness as image is seen only briefly great for sports events.DISADVANTAGESLess time for light to enter cameraRequires bright conditions

95SHUTTER SPEEDSLOWER SPEEDADVANTAGESGreat for darker conditions (more time for light to enter the camera)DISADVANTAGESIncreased chance of blurrinessOften requires a tripod be used for steadiness.96Shutter Speed=1/15 of a Second

97Shutter Speed=1/150 of a second

98FILM SPEEDTraditional cameras use film of different sensitivities. It is measured by its ISO number, i.e. 64, 100 400Slower speed (i.e. 64) is good for enlarging but requires bright light and/or slow shutter speed and/or lower F-stop.Faster Film (i.e. 400) is poor for enlarging but needs less light and thus good for indoor photography.Digital Cameras do not use film per se. They use a technology called CCD (Charge Coupled Device) which senses images.

The only difference between these two pictures is that one was shot with automatic exposure, and the other was shot using creative exposure.Which photo do you prefer? Probably the picture on the right! By choosing a creatively dark exposure, the rich colors in the sunset were allowed to shine through.However, technically, the photo on the left is correct, and the photo on the right is incorrect. The camera saw through the lens and tried to expose the bird so that it wouldnt become a shadow. To me, the photo was not about exposing the bird properly, but exposing the sunset properly. The bird was just a nice shape to include in the foreground. This is exactly why you must learn exposurebecause sometimes the scientifically correct exposure is not the best exposure to make the photo look how you want it to.Too much light creates an over-bright image with white spots: parts of the image are Over-ExposedToo little light creates an under-bright image with black spots: parts of the image are Under-ExposedGetting the best exposure can be difficult in scenes with contrasting light

Exposure is the total amount of light allowed to fall on the film/image sensorExposure can be controlled mainly through two camera settings:Aperture and Shutter Speed

Aperture, Shutter Speed & ISO Triangle

Shutter Speed and BlurYour cameras image sensor records any light projected onto it when you take a photo and the result is saved as a single still image. If there is no movement during exposure, the sensor only records stillness. However, if there is movement during exposure (either in the scene or from camera movement) it will may be recorded as overlapping areas of light in the frame. This produces blur, ghosting, light streaks, and other effects. Sometimes these effects are used creatively.

To help prevent blur due to camera movement, a tripod or monopod can be used. Image Stabilization (IS), Vibration Reduction (VR) and similar technologies are lens and camera features that can also assist in minimizing this type of blurring. While these will help minimize the effects of camera movement, they will not reduce blurring caused by movement in your scene -- but faster shutter speeds will.

The faster the shutter speed, the shorter the duration of exposure; the sensor will have less opportunity to see anything move or change in the scene. Many compact and DSLR cameras are capable of shutter speeds as fast as 1/8000 of a second. At high speeds, you can capture images with virtually no motion blur regardless of subject or camera movement.

Slower shutter speeds are useful, too. In low light conditions slower shutter speeds offer the ability to capture a scene when higher ISO and wider apertures are not practical. In other words, in low light a slower shutter speed can allow enough time for the image sensor to collect enough light for proper exposure. Again, the tradeoff is that a slower shutter speed increases the potential for blur due to movement of the camera and/or the subject.Aperture

Aperture is the size of the opening in the lens that allows light through the lens similar to an eyes pupilHigh f-stop =Low aperture =Small opening =Less light =Lower ExposureLow f-stop =High aperture =Large opening =More light =Higher Exposure

In our everyday lives, our eyes are constantly being drawn to areas of interest; the people and objects we look at receive our visual (and mental) focus. Our eyes dart around -- scanning, stopping, and focusing on the world around us. But our eyes arent really capable of focusing on more than one thing at a time, so while some areas of a given scene are in focus, other areas are not. The same can be said of our camera lenses. When we focus our cameras lens on a nearby subject, objects at a good distance from the subject are usually out of focus. The area that is in focus can be thought of as a plane parallel to the camera sensor plane. The depth of this plane of focus (how much of the area around the subject is in focus) is called the Depth of Field (DOF) and it is controlled by adjusting your lens aperture.

ApertureAn aperture is defined as a hole or opening through which light is admitted.Inside the camera lens is a system of blades which open and close to increase or decrease the opening through which light passes into the camera

ApertureOften referred to as an f-stop, aperture is usually represented by: f/1.8, or f/5.6A Smaller # means a wider opening and is referred to as a larger value (eg. A large aperture of 2.0, a small aperture of 22)The wider the lens is open(larger aperture value), the more light gets in (you can use faster shutter speeds)

Aperture

Narrow Aperture

Wide Aperture

Apertures

Aperture, measured in f stops, determines the size of the opening inyour lens, which controls how much light strikes your filming during an exposure. The smaller the number, the larger the opening.The larger the number, the smaller the opening. Aperture also determines depth of fieldsmaller the aperture, the greater the depth of field.

O o o o o o of2.8 f4 f5.6 f8 f11 f16 f22

Each f stop change lets in either 2 times or the amount of light,depending on whether you are opening up or stopping down.Open up means to make the opening larger (but a smallernumber). Stop down means selecting an aperture that is smaller in size (but bigger in number)Shutter SpeedRefers to how long the shutter is open, exposing the image sensor to light (how long the camera sees the picture)

Shutter speeds are read in fractions of a second.

Measured in Seconds, from 30 down to 1/8000

As youve already seen, your cameras image sensor must be exposed to light in a controlled way in order to properly record a picture. The mechanism that controls the duration of the exposure is called the shutter. The shutters job is to block the light coming in through your lens until you press the shutter release button to take a photo. When you press that button, the shutter slides open, exposing the image sensor to the light coming in through the lens (the projected image of the scene), then closes to block the sensor again, ending the exposure. Your DSLR is capable of a wide range of shutter speeds

Usually, the shutter remains open for only a fraction of a second, but the duration can be longer. We refer to the length of time the shutter remains open as the shutter speed. Shutter speed is either controlled by the photographer directly, or by the camera in some automatic modes.Shutter Speed PriorityFreeze the Moments vs. Show Movement

Shutter SpeedFast Shutter Speeds (600 and up) are used to stop motion and will freeze the subject.

Shutter SpeedSlow Shutter Speeds (1/60 or slower) can be used to portray movement or speed

Fast Shutter Speed

http://tiny.cc/GAQLd135 Action Sports

Slow Shutter Speed

Slow Shutter Speed: PanningShutter SpeedVery Slow Shutter Speeds (5 sec. or slower) can be used in very low light situations to obtain correct exposure, or achieve dramatic effects.

The longer a picture is being taken, the more chance there is that movement/unsteady camera will cause it to blur so a fast shutter speed is desirable for sharp photos (remember you will have to compensate the aperture to keep it in good exposure)Using flash creates enough light to allow a fast shutter speed very good for capturing movement, but short range and can lose backgroundISO affects the cameras sensitivity to light:Low ISO = less sensitive to light, slower shutter speed (likely to blur in low light, but little grain)High ISO = more sensitive to light, faster shutter speed (less likely to blur, but more grain)

No flash Flash

Low ISOHigh ISO

Shutter SpeedBeware! As your shutter speed decreases, your chances of getting a blurry image increase because you must hold the camera steady for a longer period.Shutter Speed Shutter speeds appear as whole numbers, but are really fractions: 1/60 sec., 1/125 sec., 1/250 sec., 1/500 sec. Therefore 1/60 is a slower shutter speed than 1/125, etc. When you change 1 stop in Shutter speed, you are letting in either 2 times or the amount of light-- Long shutter speeds spend more time letting light in, which can help in dark environments and create artistic blur effects with movement

So Shutter Speed is the length of time the cameras lens shutter is open in other words, how long the camera spends taking the picture

- Short shutter speeds spends less time letting light in, which allows for quicker pictures and the ability to freeze time in great detail

- To get a good exposure on manual mode, you have to make sure the aperture and shutter speed balance each-other out correctly for the sort of photo you want- Most SLRs on automatic mode will judge the aperture and shutter speed for you when taking a picture but you can still change an exposure compensation setting to alter what it thinks is correct if it gets it wrongOn most SLRs you can switch on: Aperture Priority (you pick the aperture, the camera picks the shutter speed), or -Shutter Priority (you pick the shutter speed, the camera picks the aperture compacts usually have this too) - depending on which is most convenient for what you wantRemember: Practice makes perfect!

Fast and Slow Shutter Speeds

What is a Reciprocal relationship betweenAperture and Shutter Speed?

If a correct exposure for a givenlighting condition is 1/60 @ 11, then1/125 @ f8 will let in the same amountof light. If 1/125 @f8 is correct, then1/250 @f5.6 will let in the same amountof light.

Reciprocal relationship betweenAperture and Shutter Speed?

3. ISO Refers to the light sensitivity of the sensor HIGH ISO value means the sensor will be MORE sensitive to light, meaning it will take LESS LIGHT to get the right exposureSimilar to Film Speeds in 35mm format

Typically ranges from 100-1600Newer Digital cameras have a higher range (up to 64000)Using High ISO values causes the sensor to produce much more heat, which creates digital noise in images.

Noise is similar to film grain and causes loss of fine detail in imagesIt is more visible in dark parts of an image and is generally more noticeable when displayed on screen than in print

Some cameras claim to have Digital Image StabilizationThis just means that the camera will automatically increase the ISO in order to allow a faster shutter speedFaster Shutter Speed will reduce the likelihood of camera shake, but high ISO will most likely result in a grainy image.

ISO and Image Quality

Exposure Compensation

Despite what your camera meter might determine as being the best aperture and shutter speed settings, you might find that youd prefer the subject and/or background to appear a little brighter. Without changing the actual lighting in the scene (with reflectors, additional light sources, moving your subject, or adding flash), youll have to adjust the exposure overall. You can leave your camera on its current shooting and metering mode and simply override the cameras exposure settings via the Exposure Compensation (EC) control. Doing this is as easy as dialing the appropriate control wheel to move the exposure level indicator up or down the meter scale. For example, if youd like the subject to appear a bit lighter in the picture, you might dial-in +1 stop in the exposure indicator.3 Elements

The fourth Element - White Balance White balance doesn't really affect your exposure, just the appearance of colors in the image

Different light sources cast their own colors, which cannot usually be noticed with the naked eye.White Balance is essentially the camera compensating for the color cast of the light in order to reproduce the correct colorsWhite BalanceThe color cast of light is referred to as its Color Temperature and is rated in degrees KelvinRanges from Cool to WarmMost Digital cameras have Automatic White Balance, but also specific options for different sources of light.

Auto. With Auto WB, your camera estimates the best WB adjustment for the scene. Auto will not always give you the most accurate results, but it is a good choice if you dont want to deal with WB settings while shooting.Daylight, Shade, Cloudy, Flash. These settings help compensate for the bluish (cooler) colors associated with outdoor/daylight and flash lighting.Tungsten. This setting helps compensate for the orange (warmer) colors associated with incandescent lighting.Fluorescent. This setting helps compensate for the greenish colors associated with traditional fluorescent lighting.Kelvin. If youd like to dial-in a specific color temperature as your WB setting, use this. It can be great for fine-tuning the WB.Custom or White Card setting. After photographing a known white surface under the lighting conditions youll be shooting in, you can use that image to calibrate your WB setting. This is usually accomplished by having the camera prompt you for the image of the white surface. The camera then uses the color cast in the image to determine a good WB adjustment for subsequent photos. A neutral gray card can also be used. See more about this in Gray Cards and Color Reference Charts later in this section.

The Histogram

The Histogram

UnderexposedCorrectly exposedOverexposedhttp://tiny.cc/GAQLd186Introduction to Digital Photography

White Balance

http://tiny.cc/GAQLd187 What is white balance? Light sources Manual probing Kelvin Cold vs Warm

White Balance: Cold vs Warmhttp://tiny.cc/GAQLd188Its easy to get frustrated because you cant see the preview image clearly under bright light. Times might also arise where youre second-guessing what the preview is showing you because youre not sure if the brightness setting on the LCD is too high or low. The histogram is a quick way to view what your camera is recording about an images tonal values when other methods are not as precise. With the knowledge youll get from that data, you can make quick, informed adjustments to your exposure settings.Your cameras histogram displays a bar graph detailing the distribution of tones in an image from darkest to brightest with the darker tones to the left and brighter tones to the right. Each tiny bar represents one shade or tone in the image with the height of that bar representing the number of pixels the image contains of that tone. The histogram is somewhat reminiscent of mountain peaks and valleys. The valleys are tones that appear infrequently (or not at all) in the image and the peaks are the tones that appear most often. Note that although the bars in the histogram are clustered, this does not indicate that those tones are clustered in the actual image. Each bar simply indicates how often a particular tone appears throughout the image.

With that in mind, its easy to understand what the histogram says about a particular photo. If most of the image contains very bright areas, the histogram will show most of the higher bars to the right of the graph. If most of the image contains very dark areas, the histogram will show most of the higher bars to the left of the graph. A photo with plenty of middle tones will display a cluster of bars around the middle areas of the graph. Histograms with displayed zones, delimited by visible vertical lines on the graph, give you an idea of how the values fit into the dynamic range of the sensor. The middle zone is where the medium tones are, while the zones just to the left and right of the middle zone are -1 stop, or +1 stop, respectively. The two zones farthest to the left and right of the graph are -2 and +2 stops, respectively.How is the histogram useful for evaluating exposure? Having a graphical view of the distribution of all the tonal values can help you know whats going on with an image in ways that might not be obvious in the regular image preview. One thing to keep in mind is that the histogram is most useful when you have an idea of what it should look like based on the type of image youre capturing. There is no single correct histogram, because there is no single correct type of image.

The fifth element = Depth of FieldAperture also controls depth of field (DOF), which refers to how much of your image is in focus.

A wide aperture (small #) will give a shallow DOF and can be used to isolate a subject.Depth of Field

Depth of Field

Basic In-Camera SettingsExposure ModesThere are several modes available which offer a combination of automatic and manual control over the three elements of exposure.Auto, sometimes represented by an A, or simply a green square, is fully automatic functioning. True point and shoot where the camera decides all the settings for you

Basic In-Camera SettingsAv or Aperture Priority allows you to choose the aperture value while the camera chooses the shutter speed required to obtain a correct exposure

Tv or Shutter Priority allows you to choose the shutter speed while the camera chooses the aperture which would produce the correct exposure

M or Manual gives you complete manual control. You choose both shutter speed and aperture

Basic In-Camera SettingsScene ModesScene Modes are basically fully automatic modes designed specifically for a certain situation. They typically place emphasis on one or more settings based on the typical circumstances of the situation chosen.Most digital cameras have very similar scene modes available

Scene ModesBacklight - eliminates dark shadows when light is coming from behind a subject, or when the subject is in the shade. The built-in flash automatically fires to "fill in" the shadows.

Beach/Snow - photograph beach, snow and sunlit water scenes. Exposure and white balance are set to help prevent the scene from becoming washed out looking.ds. Use of tripod recommended.Scene ModesFireworks - shutter speed and exposure are set for shooting fireworks; pre-focusing & use of tripod recommended.

Landscape - take photos of wide scenes. Camera automatically focuses on a distant object.

Macro - take close-up shots of small objects, flowers and insects. Lens can be moved closer to the subject than in other modes. Hold the camera steady or use a tripod.Scene ModesNight Portrait - take photos of a subject against a night scene. The built-in flash and red-eye reduction are enabled; shutter-speeds are low. Use of tripod recommended.

Night Scene - photograph nightscapes. Preprogrammed to use slow shutter speeds. Use of tripod recommended.Scene ModesParty - take photos in a dim lit room; exposure and shutter speed are automatically adjusted for room brightness. Captures indoor background lighting or candlelight. Hold the camera very steady when using this mode.Scene ModesPortrait - main subject is clearly focused and the background is out of focus (has less depth of field). Best when taking shots outside during the day. Shoot using a mid to long telephoto lens, stand close to your subject within the recommended camera range and, when possible, select an uncomplicated background that is far from the subject.

Scene ModesSports (also called Kids & Pets)- take photos of a fast moving subject; fast shutter speeds "freeze" the action. Best when shots are taken in bright light; pre-focusing recommended.Sunset - take photos of sunsets and sunrises; helps keep the deep hues in the scene.

DSLR Shooting Modes

Fully Automatic Mode

More than likely, your camera has an all-encompassing automatic mode. On Canon and Nikon cameras this full-auto mode is denoted by a green icon on the mode dial. On your camera it might be under a different icon, or simply under the word AUTO. You can think of full-auto as sort of a point-and-shoot mode. Few camera settings are set by you, and the actual decisions about exposure are made entirely by the camera. ISO, aperture, and shutter speed are determined based on what the cameras programming thinks is best for the scene. While this might seem like a great way to shoot, it provides you with very few creative choices and not always the intended results.To use this mode, just set your camera to AUTO or the green icon, and you can start shooting just as if you were using a point-and-shoot. The camera will make all of the important exposure decisions for you including whether or not to trigger the internal or pop-up flash if your camera has one.Again, just as with all of the automatic and easy shooting modes, youll have limited creative control over your exposure settings and the camera will not always make the best decisions on your behalf. Thats definitely a point you should be aware of. If you want more control, youll have to abandon these modes and move on to the ones that put more control in YOUR hands. Well discuss other modes as we progress.

Basic/Scene Modes

Now, besides full-auto, some cameras also have modes designed for very specific shooting scenarios like Portrait or Landscape shots, night shooting, action and other situations. Depending on the camera manufacturer, these might be called BASIC or SCENE shooting modes on your camera. These are more than likely found on consumer and some pro-sumer models than on high-end DSLRs. As you might expect, if you want the camera to attempt to make good exposure decisions for you, youd select the BASIC or SCENE mode that matches up to your shooting scenario. Ill stress this one last time: the cameras not always going to make the best choices, and your creative options might be very limited, but these modes could make shooting a little easier for beginners.Program or Program Shift (P) Mode

Program mode is another easy-to-use mode that gives the camera initial control over the aperture and shutter speed settings. The camera controls the balance between the aperture and shutter speed, but it allows you to shift the exposure mix in case youd like to see one of the other settings in a different place.For example, lets say your camera is showing an aperture at f/5.6 and shutter speed at 1/60 sec. If youd like to open up your aperture to f/4, you can turn a dial until you see that adjustment as your camera automatically makes the reciprocal adjustment to the shutter speed (in this case, to 1/125 sec.). This is usually done via one of the adjustment wheels on the camera. This type of exposure control shifting is a handy way to exert a little more control over the exposure settings than youd have with the full-auto mode.Besides allowing you to shift the exposure settings up or down, P mode also allows you to set the ISO and dial-in Exposure Compensation, which we'll cover later.

Shutter Priority (Tv or S) Mode

Controlling things like the aperture setting and shutter speed will become very important to you as seek to gain more control over the look of your images. When you want to deliberately control shutter speed, or the duration of your exposure, Shutter Priority mode, often denoted with the symbols Tv (time value) or S, allows you to select and adjust the shutter speed as you shoot, while the camera automatically adjusts the aperture to compensate for any change in exposure. If youre taking pictures at a sporting event for example, you might want to capture the images at shutter speeds no slower than 1/500 sec in order to freeze the action. As background and other lighting conditions change, your aperture will be adjusted automatically.Of course, the cameras ability to maintain good exposures through automatic aperture adjustments is limited by the aperture range of the lens used. In other words, if the camera would otherwise adjust the aperture to f/2.8 to compensate for a change youve made to the shutter speed, it cant if the lens maximum built-in aperture is f/4. In those cases, a simple manual adjustment to your ISO will put you back into a good exposure range.

Aperture Priority (Av or A) Mode

This can be thought of as the flip side to Shutter Priority mode and can be found on your shooting mode dial under Av or A. Youll use Aperture Priority when you want to have direct control of your aperture setting while allowing your camera to automatically adjust the shutter speed for you to maintain proper exposure. Although using this setting means youre less concerned about the exact shutter speeds being used, youll want to keep an eye on the shutter speeds your camera is selecting for you. Stopping your aperture down too far can lead to slower shutter speeds and blurry pictures.Manual (M) Mode

Manual mode (M on the shooting dial) gives you total control over all exposure settings: ISO, aperture, and shutter speed. This means you, and not the camera, are responsible for getting a proper exposure. The cameras metering system will still provide you with feedback to help you judge the potential for over/under exposure, but it wont take over to correct your exposure settings. Where lighting conditions are inconsistent, youll have to make frequent adjustments. Since you can freely adjust aperture and shutter speed independently of each other, youll find that you have a great amount of creative freedom with manual mode. But since youre doing all the thinking for the camera (as far as exposure goes), you might be spending more time dealing with the settings than youd like.Manual mode is very useful in situations where you can take your time composing and making creative adjustments to exposure. Its also great for studio lighting and portrait setups because in those situations the lighting conditions tend to remain constant throughout a series of shots; few if any exposure adjustments have to be made unless there are changes made to the lighting setup and/or the ambient lighting conditions.

Metering ModesThe metering system within a camera measures the amount of light in a frame and determines the best exposure. Many cameras have more than one metering mode and each evaluates a scene in a different way. Essentially, by changing the metering mode you are telling the camera to evaluate the scene in a different way.

Metering ModesCenter-weighted metering

Currently the most common digital camera metering system. Center-weighted is the metering system of choice on digicams that do not offer other metering modes.

Exposure metering is averaged over the entire frame with emphasis placed on the central area. Used for general and portrait photography.

Metering ModesMatrix (evaluative) metering

A complex metering system whereby a scene is split up into a series of zones. Overall exposure is based on evaluating each zone individually and taking an average of the total light readings.

Metering ModesSpot metering

Spot metering covers just under 4 percent of the viewfinder area. It takes a precise exposure reading only at the very center of the frame and disregards the rest. A spot meter is used when a subject is backlit or has bright light upon it and the background is dark -- for example, when there are extremes in brightness in a scene.

Metering ModesPartial meteringPartial metering is similar to spot metering but covers a larger area of the viewfinder, about 13.5 percent. It is useful for taking portrait photos when the subject is back lit Underexposure is minimized by metering on the face.Both spot and partial metering are considered advanced settings. They give the skilled photographer more control over exposure than do matrix and center-weighted metering.

How to change metering mode

Taking Digital PhotosThe quality of the recording device (camera's optics & sensor). The size (in pixels) of the digital image. The digital format it is stored. The technical proficiency and the "eye" of the photographer.

228There are 4 primary points to consider that impact the quality of a digital photo:

- Vary between landscape and portrait- Try to keep the horizon/background objects lined up straight (unless you are throwing them off for artistic effect)- Try zooming/not zooming where it might not be expected- Rather than capturing the whole of something, try taking a strange angle and shooting just part of it (perhaps close up in macro mode)

CompositionLearn to seeRules of thirdsViewfinder awarenessSimplicityBackComposition = The Rule of Thirds Imagine the frame divided into three equal sections both horizontally and verticallyDivided into thirdsThe Concept is: Placing your subject or elements along any of these lines, and especially on or near the intersecting points, makes a photo more naturally attractive to the viewer.Framing the Scene- Digital screens/viewfinders tend to be more accurate in framing the pictures you take- Dont always (or never) shoot your subject in the centre of the shot laying the scene out according to thirds can be more interesting/satisfying- You can use Photoshop or other digital imagery software to crop unwanted bits out of your photos

Rule of ThirdsThe rule of thirds is a compositional rule of thumb in photography and other visual arts such as painting and design.

The rule states that an image can be divided into nine equal parts by two equally-spaced horizontal lines and two equally-spaced vertical lines. The four points formed by the intersections of these lines can be used to align features in the photograph. Proponents of this technique claim that aligning a photograph with these points creates more tension, energy and interest in the photo than simply centering the feature would. 240240Rule of ThirdsAgain, the concept is simple: Place subjects along the lines, or near intersecting pointsFor portraits, the eyes are often positioned along one of the horizontal lines preferably near one of the power points to make the photograph more pleasing to look at, and naturally draw attention to the eyes. For landscapes the horizon is aligned to any of the horizontal lines depending on how much land/water/sky you want to show.The Rule of Thirds

Rule of Thirds

Trade & Industrial Education243

Rule of Thirds Illustrated

Rule of Thirds Illustrated

Focusing on the SubjectFixed Focusfound on lower end cameras and phonesThe focus is fixed and cant be adjusted.Auto FocusMost consumer cameras are equipped with auto focus cameras.The auto focus kicks in as you start to press the shutter button.Manual FocusFound on most professional level camerasThe photographer focuses the camera on the lens.

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How to use Focus Points

Dont just rely on autofocus (AF), specify exactly where you want to focus. There are two main choices here: let the camera take control by searching the scene, or you can select an area manually.Single point AFThis mode is best used when shooting a portrait or any subject that stays relatively still. It enables you to select a focus point manually, which doesnt have to be in the centre of the frame.Dynamic area AFThis mode is perfect for shooting fast-moving or erratically moving subjects. Some D-SLRs now have up to 50 AF points, so you choose one, but if the subject briefly leaves that point, the camera will re-focus on a point near to the one youve chosen.

Focus point: The focus point used for autofocus is shown in the information display.

F-area mode:AF-area mode is displayed as shown below.

Single-point AFDynamic-area AFAuto-area AFcamera information display

Shutter Release Button

This is the button you press to take a photo. The shutter must be released in order to expose the image sensor to light from the scene. It is usually located on the top of the camera in a position accessible to the right-hand index finger. The default behavior of the shutter button on many DSLRs causes it to activate exposure metering and auto-focus as its partially depressed; releasing the shutter as its fully depressed.Creating a quality imageTechnology is only part of the equationa visual language and the eye needs to be educated to communicate

Rule of ThirdsSurpriseJuxtapositionMoodMomentLayeringGraphicPoint of EntryPerspectiveEmotionQuality of lightImpactSense of placeNegative Spacehttp://tiny.cc/GAQLd266Eyes are the most important too in photography.Photography is a visual language. Just like stories, there are reasons that some photos are successful and why others fall short.This largely falls down to composition the elements that make up a quality image one that is captivating, interesting, that takes you on a journey.PreparationSelect camera and accessoriesCheck batteriesClean the cameraAdjust controlsExtra memory cardsField storage

Back267Items to take include: camera(s), lenses, filters, flashes, tripod and lens cleaning supplies.Make sure batteries are fully charged.Take several memory cards to backup the one in the camera.Take a laptop computer or stand alone CD burner or portable hard drive to transfer images.Clean the camera to minimize problems.Preset the controls to match the objective of the shooting session.ShootingAutofocusWhite balanceSet other controlsReview imagesRemove unwanted images

BackBack268Adjust white balance based on shooting conditions and color preference.Select either single-shot or continuous mode depending on desired outcome.Adjust metering, exposure, image size, and custom controls based on shooting situation.Use the LCD to review images and look for improvements to get the correct exposure.When reviewing images, protect the images that are keepers and remove the undesired images.

Lens

Lens

The lens is attached to the camera body via the lens mount on the front of the DSLR. The camera and lens must have compatible interfaces or some form of adapter in order to make a proper connection. The lens release button must be pressed in order to detach the lens from the camera. The lens may have a switch which allows you to choose manual or autofocus functionality. Lenses are available in a wide selection of focal lengths (e.g. wide angle, normal, telephoto) that are suitable for different types of photography. Zoom lenses offer the flexibility of changing focal lengths without changing the lens. Fixed focal length lenses (often called, prime lenses) dont allow you to zoom, but often have advantages over zoom lenses, including better optical quality. Photographers often regard their camera lenses as more crucial to the quality of their images than their camera bodies. Well-made and cared-for lenses tend to retain their value over the years.

ZoomOptical ZoomThe subject is magnified through the camera's optics, or lens.Produces a higher quality image.Image quality is maintained in optical zoom.Digital ZoomIs an artificial zoom. Digital zoom crops your image and magnifies the result of the cropping. Image quality is lost in digital zoom.271Most digital cameras are capable of some type of zoom. Many will have one or both types of zoom.

Types of Camera Lenses

Wide Angle: A lens with a range of 14-16mm or 14-24mm is good. There are also specialty lenses known as "fish eye" lenses that will give some very wide angle creative effects. Here is an awesome wide angle zoom: Canon EF-S 10-22mm f/3.5-4.5 USM SLR LensMidrangeTelephoto: This would generally be a lens with a focal range of 70-200mm. Canon has this one covered with four five lenses, all L-glass. You can see them here.Long Telephoto Lens: A 300mm lens is the minimum here. More appropriate is a 400mm or 500mm lens. Depending upon the aperture, these lenses can cost as much as a used car, but they are really valuable in terms of taking wildlife and sports events.Macro: No photographer's bag would be complete without a macro lens. These allow you to take those close ups of bugs, flowers, and the like. They are also useful for portraits. Generally a macro lens will be a prime, or single focal length, lens. Canon has its own head of the class in the Canon EF 100mm f/2.8 Macro. But there are some very good off brand macro lenses made by Tamron and Sigma. Be sure to check them out. Extension Tubes: This is an excellent way to get macro...cheap. These little tubes move the lens away from the sensor without any glass. The effect is to allow you to move your lens much closer to the object. You will definitely need a tripod when you use them. They are sold as a set of three different extentions. I use them all the time with my Canon 70-200mm lens because that is my sharpest lens. I can get really good results with the birds right outside my window. They come within a couple of feet of my position because of how I set up my feeder. The Canon 70-200mm lens does a really good job with the smallest extension. Here is a photo I took with the 70-200mm lens and a 12mm extension.

Before you go to camera store dont forget to consider is the image sensor in your camera. There are basically two different sensor sizes; Full frame sensors, which are the same size as one frame of 35mm film, like those in traditional film SLRs; these are generally in higher-end cameras. Another one is the smaller image sensors, like those found in most digital SLR cameras such as Nikon D5300 or Canon EOS D700. The full frame cameras such as: Nikon D800E and Canon EOS 5D Mark III or Sony Alpha 99 (SLT-A99V).

If you are serious about choosing lenses, you may need to have a telephoto lens for portrait photos to make the results more like an amazing 85 millimeters, to take portraits or to get closer shots of distant objects without moving the camera. This lens is also good to use when you want to photograph beautiful birds in the trees, or steal a photo when you see a beautiful girl in the distance, then you can make close to the face of the girl with a telephoto lens without being noticed by the girl.

If you are interested in photographing small flowers or insects that was perched on a flower, then you need a macro lens, but the lens of your camera kit is also quite good for this sort of picture-making. Would you like to vacation and see landscapes like forests or mountains in the distance and the beach? If you have enough money, then you need to have a wide angle lens. And you should apprehend that for a very wide, please go with an 18 millimeter lens. However For just a little wider than the 50 millimeter lens, use a 35 millimeter prime lens.

You may have very amazed with the photos of stars in the sky or other photos that you see on the Internet or at a photo exhibition. The world of photography is an art that is not limited and highly dependent on your imagination and creativity, and of course also depends on the equipment, the type of camera, lens types, and also related to camera accessories.

You can also take advantage of the atmosphere of the era of horse to buy lenses because until towards the end of February 2014 you can get a discount at the nearest camera shop or at a trusted online store.

With the passage of time, then you will know more about the lenses you need, then start saving money so you can buy your dream lens or camera. Perhaps you need to think to sell your stock photos online. Look for information by using a search engine today, so you can have an income from photography, you can even sell photography services to family or friends who will make the wedding party. If you are successful you will get a lot of references. You must also know a professional photographer can be a very good living from photography.

Final things to rememberThese are only guidelines every rule has an exception!Always remember your framing and exposure!Theres a lot more to learn and discover!PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT!

Practice,Practice,Practice,

Learn from your mistakes

Stop making comparisons with great photographers

Often, people compare themselves with great photographers. Works of people like Ansel Adams, Gary Winogrand, Henri Cartier-Bresson are published in hundreds of magazines the world over. They are a constant source of inspiration for many. On the flip side, however, they can become a benchmark for all the wrong reasons. People start to compare their own work with the work of these greats, thereby creating an unnecessary feeling of depression.When you compare your work with that of established photographers (not just the greats named above), someone who has years of experience practicing his skills, you compare yourself with the essence of that professionals hard work and dedication of many years.

Behind every great photo there are hours of preparation, hard work, failures and heartburns.Master photographers will almost never show you how they failed before making that great shot. You dont get to see the incorrect exposures, poor compositions, incorrect development (film photography) and crappy treatment of themes. Understand what they have done and why they have done that. When you have mastered the process, add your own touch to it. You will probably fail as many times, may be even more, but you will end up also creating stunning compositions as well.Thank You!

Now go out and take some pictures!!!