dyslexia 101 presented by kara bratton lutheran special education ministries
DYSLEXIA 101Presented by Kara Bratton
Lutheran Special Education Ministries
When you see: Pronounce as: q d or t z m p b b p ys er a, as in bat e, as in pet e, as in pet a, as in bat
Passage:We pegin our qrib eq a faziliar blace, a poqy like yours enq zine.Iq conqains a hunqraq qrillion calls qheq work qogaqhys py qasign.Enq wiqhin each one of qhese zany calls, each one qheq hes QNA,Qhe QNA coqe is axecqly qhe saze, a zess-broquceq rasuze.So qhe coqe in each call is iqanqical, a razarkaple puq veliq claiz.Qhis zeans qheq qhe calls are nearly alike, puq noq axecqly qhe saze.Qake, for insqence, qhe calls of qhe inqasqines; qheq qhey're viqal is cysqainly blain.Now qhink apouq qhe way you woulq qhink if qhose calls wyse qhe calls in your prain.
Here is the translation:We begin our trip at a familiar place, a body like yours and mine.It contains a hundred trillion cells that work together by design.And within each one of these many cells, each one that has DNA,The DNA code is exactly the same, a mass-produced resume.So the code in each cell is identical, a remarkable but valid claim.This means that the cells are nearly alike, but not exactly the same.Take, for instance, the cells of the intestines; that they're vital is certainly plain.Now think about the way you would think if those cells were the cells in your brain.
(Excerpt from "Journey into DNA" on the "Cracking the Code" Web site, NOVA Online.)
So how did you do? Assuming you found the exercise difficult (that was our intention), consider that we disguised only eight of the forty-four known phonemes in the English language. And imagine if this weren't a game.
“Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede the growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.”
(International Dyslexia Association, www.interdys.org)
Dyslexia: Just the Facts
Dyslexia IS: An unexpected
difficulty with reading, spelling, writing
A language-based learning disability affecting 15-20% of the population
A difficulty with phonological processing
A lifelong difficulty Hereditary
Dyslexia is NOT: A visual difficulty
(“seeing” letters backwards/differently)
Low intelligence Laziness Caused by parents
not reading to their child
Something to be “cured” or “outgrown”
Dyslexia: Sea of Strengths
Difficulty with phonological and phonemic awareness
Difficulty learning letters and their sounds Difficulty recognizing and remembering
common sight words and words previously seen in writing
Difficulty blending and/or segmenting sounds and words
Difficulty spelling Difficulty organizing written and spoken
language Difficulty with fluent, accurate reading
and oral reading
Difficulty memorizing number facts and other rote memory items
Pronunciation difficulties and difficulty with word retrieval
Difficulty remembering spoken directions or names of people and places
Difficulty with sense of direction Difficulty with sequences Inconsistent with reading and/or
Evaluation necessary by professional (educational psychologist, neuropsychologist, etc.)
Evaluation typically includes intellectual and academic tests, focusing on language skills and also a dyslexia screener is often used Listening skills, expressive language skills,
phonological skills, rapid naming skills, reading words in isolation and in context, etc.
Evaluation is important to understand the unique strengths and weaknesses of a student to develop a plan, not to create a “label”
Dyslexia: Classroom Accommodations
“Far and away the most critical accommodation for the dyslexic reader is the provision of extra time. Dyslexia robs a person of time; accommodations return it” (Sally Shaywitz, Overcoming Dyslexia).
“For the dyslexic reader, accommodations represent the bridge that connects him to his strengths, and, in the process, allows him to reach his potential. By themselves accommodations do not produce success; they are the catalyst for success” (Sally Shaywitz, Overcoming Dyslexia).
“Extra time is not an advantage, it is an attempt to level the playing field. Even with additional time, a slow reader will continue to feel at least the same or more time pressure compared to the ordinary reader” (Sally Shaywitz, Overcoming Dyslexia).
Dyslexia: Classroom Accommodations
Extended time Recorded texts (Learning Ally, Bookshare, iPad) Alternate test formats and tests read out loud
(VoxDox or Prismo app) Allow student to dictate longer writing assignments
and essays (Dragon Dictation app) Recording lectures (Notability and other apps) Class notes or study guides given by teacher Spelling list modification Allow student to practice reading passages before
reading out loud
Finger Tapping for Spelling
Sound Cards & Blending
Syllabification The Fantastic Syllable Division Word Book (orton-gillingham.com)
“Red” words/Non-phonetic words
Multisensory, explicit, systematic phonics instruction Orton Gillingham or any system based on Orton Gillingham
Wilson Reading, Barton System, Alphabetic Phonics, Project Read, Slingerland, Spalding, etc.
Lindamood-Bell Trained teacher in these systems is best Spelling: focus on patterns and spelling rules Class screenings: DIBELS, AIMSWeb Florida Center for Reading Research Student Center
Activities: http://www.fcrr.org/for-educators/sca.asp Children’s Dyslexia Centers (locations around country
for Orton Gillingham tutoring) childrensdyslexiacenters.org
http://www.interdys.org http://dyslexia.yale.edu http://www.ncld.org/learning-
http://dyslexiahelp.umich.edu http://www.bookshare.org http://www.learningally.org http://www.fcrr.org http://dyslexia.yale.edu/
Overcoming Dyslexia by Sally Shaywitz
“The Big Picture: Rethinking Dyslexia”- movie
Children’s Dyslexia Centers (locations around country for Orton Gillingham tutoring) http://childrensdyslexiacenters.org
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Kara Bratton, LSEM Resource Center [email protected] 260-385-4033