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  • LiteracyN

    avig

    ator

    TM

    Co

    mm

    on

    Co

    re

    Boston, Massachusetts

    Chandler, Arizona

    Glenview, Illinois

    Upper Saddle River, New Jersey

    FoundationsLeveL E

    Adaptations

    Online Resources

  • Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliate(s). All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. The publisher hereby grants permission to reproduce these pages, in part or in whole, for classroom use only, the number not to exceed the number of students in each class. Notice of copyright must appear on all copies. For information regarding permissions, write to Pearson Curriculum Group Rights & Permissions, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458.

    Americas Choice, the Americas Choice A logo, Literacy Navigator, Pearson, and the Pearson Always Learning logo are trademarks, in the U.S. and/or other countries, of Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s).

    ISBN: 978-0-66364-284-71 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 16 15 14 13 12

  • Table of Contents

    Lesson 3Filling in the Family Tree

    Lesson 4What I Learned about Coyotes

    Lesson 5Working with Pronouns, Part 1

    Working with Pronouns, Part 1 Answer Key

    Lesson 6Venn Diagram: Dogs/Wolves

    Venn Diagram: Dogs/Wolves Answers

    Dog/Wolf Comparison Answers

    Lesson 7Venn Diagram: Dogs/Wolves/Coyotes

    Dog/Wolf/Coyote Comparison

    Comparison of Wolf and Coyote

    Wolf/Coyote/Dog Matrix 1

    Wolf/Coyote/Dog Matrix 1 Answers

    Lesson 8Dog Adaptation Timeline

    Lesson 9Mans Best Friend Graphic Organizer

    Lesson 10Working with Pronouns, Part 2

    Working with Pronouns, Part 2 Answers

    Lesson 14Selecting the Right Dog

    Lesson 16Working Dog Matrix

    Working Dog Matrix Answers

    Lesson 18If/Then Answers

    Lesson 30Research Planning Sheet

    Note to Presenters

    Project Presentation Rubric

    Project Writing Rubric

    Credits

  • foundations adaPtationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    Lesson 3

    Filling in the Family Tree

    Kingdom ____________________________________

    Phylum ____________________________________

    Class ____________________________________

    Order ____________________________________

    Family____________________________________

    Genus ____________________________________

    Species ____________________________________

  • foundations adaptationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    Lesson 4

    What i Learned about Coyotes

    Coyote

    adaptations:

    food: Enemies:

    Relatives:

  • foundations adaPtationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    1 of 2

    Lesson 5

    Working with Pronouns, Part 1

    1 Have you seen a coyote lately? Have you heard one howling in the night or yip yapping in the day? Your chances of having one for a neighbor are better than they used to be.

    2 This small, gray cousin of the wolf is moving from the west to the east. This brother of the dog is moving closer to civilization.

    3 Once the coyote wandered mainly on our western prairie, but now it lopes up and down the east coast. It roams as far north as Alaska and it has gone south to Costa Rica. Despite human efforts to get rid of it, the coyote has increased its range. The coyote has learned to move where people are because people mean food.

  • foundations adaptationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    2 of 2

    16 Quick to learn where a new meal may come from, the coyote uses several tricks. It follows an elk to get a free lunch. The elk paws in the snow for grass. It accidentally flushes out a mouse and the coyote pounces on it. At other times two coyotes team up to catch a rabbit or duckone coyote distracts the prey while the other makes the kill. Or a coyote may hunt with a badger for prairie dogs. With its powerful claws, the badger digs prairie dogs out of their underground homes. Then the coyote swoops down with its great swiftness. Then the two animals share the feast.

    17 Are we in danger now that the coyote lives among us? Should we be afraid? There is no reason for fear. Coyotes dont attack human beings unless they are trapped or cornered. Dogs, on the other hand, bite one and a half million people a year. Only if a coyote has rabies might it bite a person. The coyote may be the cleverest of all wild animals. It has learned to survive and prosper in new lands. And it is living right in our midst.

    Working with Pronouns, Part 1 Lesson 5

    Excerpted from The Adaptable Coyote!

  • 1 Have you seen a coyote lately? Have you heard one howling in the night or yip yapping in the day? Your chances of having one for a neighbor are better than they used to be.

    2 This small, gray cousin of the wolf is moving from the west to the east. This brother of the dog is moving closer to civilization.

    3 Once the coyote wandered mainly on our western prairie, but now it lopes up and down the east coast. It roams as far north as Alaska and it has gone south to Costa Rica. Despite human efforts to get rid of it, the coyote has increased its range. The coyote has learned to move where people are because people mean food.

    foundations adaPtationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    1 of 2

    Lesson 5

    Working with Pronouns, Part 1 answer Key

  • foundations adaptationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    2 of 2

    16 Quick to learn where a new meal may come from, the coyote uses several tricks. It follows an elk to get a free lunch. The elk paws in the snow for grass. It accidentally flushes out a mouse and the coyote pounces on it. At other times two coyotes team up to catch a rabbit or duckone coyote distracts the prey while the other makes the kill. Or a coyote may hunt with a badger for prairie dogs. With its powerful claws, the badger digs prairie dogs out of their underground homes. Then the coyote swoops down with its great swiftness. Then the two animals share the feast.

    17 Are we in danger now that the coyote lives among us? Should we be afraid? There is no reason for fear. Coyotes dont attack human beings unless they are trapped or cornered. Dogs, on the other hand, bite one and a half million people a year. Only if a coyote has rabies might it bite a person. The coyote may be the cleverest of all wild animals. It has learned to survive and prosper in new lands. And it is living right in our midst.

    Working with Pronouns, Part 1 answer Key Lesson 5

    Excerpted from The Adaptable Coyote!

  • foundations adaPtationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    Lesson 6

    Venn diagram: dogs/Wolves

    dogs

    Both

    Wolves

  • foundations adaptationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    Venn diagram: dogs/Wolves answersLesson 6

    dogs

    Both

    Wolves

    Fed

    , worked

    , pam

    pered by hum

    ans

    W

    ant attention and

    affection from people

    Trained

    to meet

    human need

    s

    L

    ive outside,

    hunt for food,

    and live in a pack

    O

    nly want food

    from

    humans

    G

    orge food

    Tear things up

    if they were in a

    house

    N

    ot interested in

    pleasing humans

    Shy of people

    Purpose is

    survival

    appearance

  • foundations adaPtationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    Lesson 6

    dog/Wolf Comparison answers

    Dogs Wolves

    Fed, worked, pampered by humans

    Live outside, hunt for food, and live in a pack

    Want attention and affection from people

    Only want food from humans

    Gorge food Trained to meet human needs Not interested in pleasing

    humans Tear things up if they were in a

    house Shy of people Purpose is survival

    Dog/wolf puppies look alike Dog/wolf pups look alike

  • foundations adaPtationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    Lesson 7

    Venn diagram: dogs/Wolves/Coyotes

  • foundations adaPtationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    1 of 2

    Lesson 7

    dog/Wolf/Coyote Comparison

    Dogs Wolves Coyotes

    Fed, worked, pampered by humans

    Live outside, hunt for food, and live in a pack

    Want attention and affection from people

    Only want food from humans

    Avoid human interaction

    Gorge food Trained to meet human

    needs Not interested in

    pleasing humans Tear things up if they

    were in a house Shy of people Purpose is survival

    Dogs, wolves, coyotes look alike

    Dogs, wolves, coyotes look alike

    Dogs, wolves, coyotes look alike

    Most have more forward-placed eyes

    Eyes are more laterally placed

    Most have shorter snout compared to head size

    Longer snout Muzzle long and pointed

    Teeth generally smaller compared to head size

    Larger teeth in comparison to size of head and mouth

    Generally smaller head-to-body ratio, though ratio does tend to be greater in small breeds

    Larger head in proportion to body size

    Normally walks, stands, and trots with tail up

    Normally walks, stands, and trots with tail down

    Right and left feet move in separate lines parallel to each other

    Places feet in nearly single line when moving forward

    Curved to curled tail Nearly straight tail Tail pointed to the ground

  • foundations adaptationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    dog/Wolf/Coyote ComparisonLesson 7

    2 of 2

    Dogs Wolves Coyotes

    Also may have blue eyes

    Amber to brown eyes Eyes are yellow to green

    Normally larger ears compared to head size

    Smaller ears as compared to head size

    Forelimbs closer to same size as upper

    Longer forelimbs compared to upper leg bone in front legs

    Generally more stoutly built, with shorter legs in proportion to body mass; larger breeds tend to be heavier boned

    Leaner/longer look, especially with wild living animals

    Feet are smaller in comparison to body size; front feet same size or slightly larger than rear

    Large feet; front feet are larger than rear

  • foundations adaPtationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    Lesson 7

    Comparison of Wolf and Coyote

  • foundations adaPtationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    Lesson 7

    Wolf/Coyote/dog Matrix 1

    Wolf Coyote Dog

    Length

    Height

  • foundations adaPtationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    Lesson 7

    Wolf/Coyote/dog Matrix 1 answers

    Physical Wolf Coyote Dog

    Length 4.5 to 6.5 feet 3.5 to 4.4 feet 8 inches (Chihuahua) to 45 inches (Mastiff)

    Height 26 to 32 inches 16 to 20 inches 6 inches (Chihuahua) to 30 inches (Mastiff)

    Weight 60 to 115 lbs 20 to 50 lbs 1.5 lbs (Chihuahua) to 200 lbs (Mastiff)

    CoatTan with gray and black or black and

    white, never spotted

    All shades gray or reddish brown, rusty feet and ears, whitish

    throat and belly, never spotted

    May be spotted

    Muzzle Large and blocky Petite and pointed Shorter snout

    Track size 3.5 by 4.5 inches 1.5 by 2.5 inches

    Variable depending on breed; only a few

    dogs leave tracks that are longer than

    4 inches

    Tail

    Long and bushy, pointed straight out

    or hangs straight down, never curled

    Usually pointed downMay curl or point

    straight up

    EarsAlways alert, rounded,

    2 inches long, small compared to the head

    Pointed, relatively long, never hang

    down

    May hang down, normal size in relation

    to the head

    Eyes Amber to brown Yellow to green Brown, gold, amber, and blue

  • foundations adaPtationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    Lesson 8

    dog adaptation timeline

    Evidence of wolves

    2000 18001600140012001000800 600 400 200 1 AD 200 BC 400 BC

    14,000 years ago

    100,000 years ago

    400,000 years ago

    2 million years ago

    Wolf and man fossils found close to each other

    Dogs break away from wolves

    Dog and human fossils found together

    350 BCThree types of domesticated dogs in Greece used by the rich to chase and kill deer

    50 BCRoman warriors train large dogs for battle

    4761000 AD (Dark Ages)Dogs scavenged corpses of plague victims

    Dogs chase rabbits and deer for British royalties

    1600sIn England, dogs pull sleds, carts, plows, herd livestock, and work as turnspits, powering wheels that turn beef and venison roasts over open fires (working dogs not the object of care; most hanged or drowned when they got old). Development of King Charles II Spaniel (Toy dog)

    1873Kennel Clubs established in England

  • foundations adaptationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    Lesson 9

    Mans Best friend Graphic organizer

    Mastiffs

    Egyptians and Chaldeans used them to scare off predators

    and robbers.

    Celts used them in battle.

    Romans used them as entertainment

    in their arenas.

    Enormous Dogs

    during time of spanish armada,

    British used staffordshire Bull

    terriers to scare the enemy soldiers.

  • foundations adaPtationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    1 of 2

    Lesson 10

    Working with Pronouns, Part 2

    4 One theory is that female wolves, captured and held by early

    humans as a future source of food, might have given birth in

    captivity to the first puppies, which may have become playthings

    for Stone Age children. As the puppies matured, they may have

    begun to develop loyalty to their human companions and to use

    their keen senses to detect the approach of a predator and to

    sound an early alarm, often well before a dangerous animal could

    be seen or heard by humans.

  • foundations adaPtationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    2 of 2

    Lesson 10

    Working with Pronouns, Part 2

    5 Over time, dogs and humans developed a symbiotic relationship.

    Dogs would warn humans of approaching predators or strangers,

    defending the camp and eventually guarding the most vulnerable

    members of the tribewomen and childrenand other animals.

    Early humans would also bring their dogs along when hunting,

    and the dogs talented noses and ears became invaluable tools

    for avoiding ambushes and sniffing out prey. As a reward for

    their hard work, dogs could be guaranteed a share in the bounty

    from the hunt as well as a safe place to sleep on long, cold nights,

    protected by the warm campfires of early humans.

    Excerpted from From Big Bad Wolf to Mans Best Friend

  • foundations adaptationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    4 One theory is that female wolves, captured and held by early

    humans as a future source of food, might have given birth in

    captivity to the first puppies, which may have become playthings

    for Stone Age children. As the puppies matured, they may have

    begun to develop loyalty to their human companions and to use

    their keen senses to detect the approach of a predator and to

    sound an early alarm, often well before a dangerous animal could

    be seen or heard by humans.

    1 of 2

    Lesson 10

    Working with Pronouns, Part 2 answers

  • foundations adaptationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    5 Over time, dogs and humans developed a symbiotic relationship.

    Dogs would warn humans of approaching predators or strangers,

    defending the camp and eventually guarding the most vulnerable

    members of the tribewomen and childrenand other animals.

    Early humans would also bring their dogs along when hunting,

    and the dogs talented noses and ears became invaluable tools

    for avoiding ambushes and sniffing out prey. As a reward for

    their hard work, dogs could be guaranteed a share in the bounty

    from the hunt as well as a safe place to sleep on long, cold nights,

    protected by the warm campfires of early humans.

    2 of 2

    Lesson 10

    Working with Pronouns, Part 2 answers

    Excerpted from From Big Bad Wolf to Mans Best Friend

  • foundations adaPtationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    Lesson 14

    selecting the Right dog

    Carolyn is a librarian who lives in a small apartment in Chicago. She enjoys walking back and forth to work every day. She walks four blocks to work every morning at 9 am and is home in the evening by 5:30 pm. Carolyn is a healthy 60-year-old woman who likes to read books and listen to music. She has three teenage grandchildren who visit her sometimes on weekends and friends who occasionally come to dinner. But Carolyn is still lonely and would like a dog to share her home with. Carolyn has no allergies. Her salary is sufficient to afford a dog, its care, and feeding.

  • foundations adaPtationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    Lesson 16

    Working dog MatrixTi

    tle

    of A

    rtic

    leBr

    eed

    Bree

    d G

    roup

    Dog

    s Jo

    bBe

    havi

    ors

    Bene

    fits

    to H

    uman

    s

  • foundations adaptationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    Working dog Matrix answersLesson 16

    Titl

    e of

    Art

    icle

    Bree

    dBr

    eed

    Gro

    upD

    ogs

    Job

    Beha

    vior

    sBe

    nefit

    s to

    Hum

    ans

    Dog

    s of

    War

    Belg

    ian

    Mal

    inoi

    s an

    d G

    erm

    an

    Shep

    herd

    Her

    ding

    G

    roup

    (from

    Dog

    Br

    eeds

    cha

    rt,

    Less

    on 1

    4)N

    o ot

    her i

    nfo

    in th

    e ar

    ticle

    Det

    ect

    expl

    osiv

    esIn

    tens

    e,

    inte

    llige

    nt,

    hard

    w

    orki

    ng

    Expl

    osiv

    e de

    tect

    ion,

    at

    tack

    on

    com

    man

    d

    Gua

    rd D

    ogs

    New

    - fo

    undl

    and

    Wor

    king

    G

    roup

    (One

    of t

    he

    char

    acte

    ristic

    s of

    the

    Wor

    king

    G

    roup

    is to

    re

    scue

    .)

    To re

    scue

    hu

    man

    s fr

    om w

    ater

    Inte

    llige

    nt,

    gent

    le

    disp

    ositi

    on,

    resc

    uing

    pe

    ople

    from

    dr

    owni

    ng,

    good

    sw

    imm

    er

    Nat

    ural

    life

    guar

    d

    U.S

    . Bea

    gle

    Brig

    ade

    Is

    Firs

    t Def

    ense

    Ag

    ains

    t Alie

    n Sp

    ecie

    s

    Beag

    leH

    ound

    Gro

    up(A

    ccor

    ding

    to

    Sel

    ectiv

    e Br

    eedi

    ng,

    houn

    d do

    gs

    have

    a k

    een

    sens

    e of

    sm

    ell.)

    Sniff

    out

    frui

    ts,

    vege

    tabl

    es,

    and

    mea

    ts

    that

    are

    ba

    nned

    from

    cr

    ossi

    ng th

    e bo

    rder

    Goo

    d se

    nse

    of s

    mel

    l, go

    od w

    ith

    peop

    le a

    nd

    child

    ren,

    go

    od fo

    od

    driv

    e

    Prot

    ect t

    he

    agric

    ultu

    re in

    dust

    ry

    by k

    eepi

    ng o

    ut

    prod

    uce

    that

    cou

    ld

    dest

    roy

    the

    crop

    s gr

    own

    in th

    e U

    nite

    d St

    ates

  • foundations adaPtationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    1 of 2

    Lesson 18

    if/then answers

    9. If you breed a Beagle or another hunting dog with drop earswho has a strong hunting instinct and needs to be trained not to run off

    with a __________________________

    who has:

    then you will most likely get a Beagle mix (crossbreed) who will have a strong hunting instinct need for training to stay and come

    10. If you breed a Terrier who has a wiry coat or beard with a __________________________

    who has:

    then you will most likely get a crossbreed who to some degree has tenacity, intelligence, a love for rats and digging, a wiry coat and/or beard

    11. If you breed a Border Collie or Corgi mix who has intelligence, agility, likes to keep everything safely in one place, and loves to herd

    with a __________________________

    who has:

    then you will most likely get a herding dog mix who is intelligent, agile, likes to keep everything safely in one place, loves to herd

  • foundations adaPtationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    2 of 2

    Lesson 18

    if/then answers

    12. If you breed a Pit Bull who is very affectionate with a __________________________

    who has:

    then you will most likely get a Pit Bull mix who is affectionate and needs tohave its affection returned

    13. If you breed a Shepherdwho is hard working, very intelligent, trainable with a __________________________

    who has:

    then you will most likely get a mixed breed who is or may be smaller than a shepherd or much larger than a shepherd but who will have a long, dark snout, erect ears, a black and tan coat, an athletic body, and is hard working, intelligent, very trainable

    14. If you breed a Labrador Retriever who has a wide head with a __________________________

    who has:

    then you will most likely get a lab mix with a more narrow head and a longer snout who is a natural born swimmer, needs much exercise

    14. If you breed a Labrador Retriever who has a glossy coat

    with a wire-haired Terrier

    who has:

    then you will most likely get a lab mix who has a wiry coat, has whiskers, and a full beard

  • foundations adaptationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    1 of 2

    Topic Question: Are dogs social parasites?

    Decision:

    Reasons for My DecisionWhat do I need to know in order to provide evidence

    for my reasons? How can I show that my reasons are valid?

    Reason #1

    Reason #2:

    Reason #3:

    Reason #4 or other notes:

    Research Notes and/or Sources

    Research Planning sheetLesson 30

  • foundations adaptationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    2 of 2

    Topic Question: Are dogs social parasites?

    Decision:

    Reasons for My DecisionWhere can I find the facts, statistics, or information? Are there organizations or agencies that might have

    websites on this topic?

    Reason #1

    Reason #2:

    Reason #3:

    Reason #4 or other notes:

    Research Notes and/or Sources

    Research Planning sheetLesson 30

  • foundations adaptationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    What I learned from your project was _______.

    Your most convincing evidence was _______.

    I agree/disagree with your argument because _______.

    note to PresentersLesson 30

  • foundations adaptationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    Project Presentation RubricLesson 30

    Topic Question: Are dogs social parasites?

    Claim:

    Presenters:

    Introduces the claim clearly and acknowledges opposing claims.

    Could be improved by introducing the claim more clearly or by acknowledging opposingclaims.

    Presents accurate information.

    Could be improved by presenting accurate information.

    Is well organized.

    Could be improved by being better organized.

    Is easy to read or understand.

    Could be improved by being easier to read or understand.

    Supports the claim with logical reasoning and evidence, using three to five sources.

    Could be improved by supporting the claim with logical reasoning and evidence or by using more sources.

    Is clearly presented.

    Could be improved by presenting information more clearly.

    Notes:

  • foundations adaptationsLEVEL E Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s). All rights reserved.

    Topic Question: Are dogs social parasites?

    Claim:

    Author:

    Introduces the claim clearly and acknowledges opposing claims.

    Could be improved by introducing the claim more clearly or by acknowledging opposingclaims.

    Organizes the reasons and evidence logically.

    Could be improved by organizing the reasons and evidence logically.

    Supports the claim with logical reasoning and evidence, using three to five sources.

    Could be improved by supporting the claim with logical reasoning and evidence or by using more sources.

    Uses words to create cohesion and clarify relationships.

    Could be improved by using words to create cohesion and clarify relationships.

    Establishes and maintains a formal style.

    Could be improved by establishing and maintaining a formal style.

    Provides a concluding statement that supports the argument presented.

    Could be improved by providing a concluding statement that supports the argument presented.

    Notes:

    Project Writing RubricLesson 30

  • Credits

    Pearson EducationAdaptable Coyote by Maggie E. Miller from Ride the Sunrise, Ginn And Company, Level 12, 5th Grade. Used by permission.