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  • ArcGIS

    9Editing in ArcMap

  • Copyright 20002005 ESRIAll rights reserved.Printed in the United States of America.

    The information contained in this document is the exclusive property of ESRI. This work is protected under United States copyright law and otherinternational copyright treaties and conventions. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic ormechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, except as expressly permitted in writing by ESRI. Allrequests should be sent to Attention: Contracts Manager, ESRI, 380 New York Street, Redlands, CA 92373-8100, USA.

    The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.

    DATA CREDITSGraphical Editing Map: Wilson, North Carolina

    Universal Data Editor Map, Editing in data view and layout view map: Greeley, ColoradoContext menus and shortcut keys map: P.F.R.A., Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada

    CONTRIBUTING WRITERSRhonda Pfaff, Bob Booth, Jeff Shaner, Scott Crosier, Phil Sanchez, Andy MacDonald

    U.S. GOVERNMENT RESTRICTED/LIMITED RIGHTSAny software, documentation, and/or data delivered hereunder is subject to the terms of the License Agreement. In no event shall the U.S. Government acquiregreater than RESTRICTED/LIMITED RIGHTS. At a minimum, use, duplication, or disclosure by the U.S. Government is subject to restrictions as set forth inFAR 52.227-14 Alternates I, II, and III (JUN 1987); FAR 52.227-19 (JUN 1987) and/or FAR 12.211/12.212 (Commercial Technical Data/ComputerSoftware); and DFARS 252.227-7015 (NOV 1995) (Technical Data) and/or DFARS 227.7202 (Computer Software), as applicable. Contractor/Manufactureris ESRI, 380 New York Street, Redlands, CA 92373-8100, USA.

    ESRI, ArcView, the ESRI globe logo, ArcMap, ArcInfo, ArcSDE, ArcEditor, ArcGIS, ArcCatalog, GIS by ESRI, the ArcGIS logo, ArcToolbox, ArcReader,

    ArcObjects, and www.esri.com are trademarks, registered trademarks, or service marks of ESRI in the United States, the European Community, or certain

    other jurisdictions.

    Other companies and products mentioned herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective trademark owners.

    Attribution.pmd 2/23/2004, 11:34 AM1

  • iii

    Contents 1 Introduction 1Rich suite of graphical editing tools 2ArcGIS data editor 3Editing in data view and layout view 4Tools for editing and managing topologies 5Tools for editing and managing networks in a geodatabase 6Context menus and shortcut keys for increased productivity 7Tools for rubber sheeting, adjusting, and edgematching feature data 8Multiuser editing with version management and conflict detection 9Remote editing of data checked out from your versioned geodatabase 10Editing in projected space 11Tips on learning how to edit in ArcMap 12

    2 Editing basics 13An overview of the editing process 14The Editor toolbar 16Exploring the Editor toolbar 17Editing keyboard shortcuts 23The Advanced Editing toolbar 25Adding editing toolbars 26Upgrading a geodatabase 27Adding the data you want to edit 28Starting and stopping an edit session 29Managing the map cache 31Changing the options of the Task menu 33Selecting features 34Moving features 38Copying and pasting features 42Deleting features 43Setting the number of decimal places used for reporting measurements 44

    Contents.pmd 2/23/2004, 11:47 AM3

  • iv EDITING IN ARCMAP

    3 Creating new features 45How to create a new feature 46Creating point features and vertices 52Creating lines and polygons 63Creating segments using directions and lengths 69Creating segments using angles from existing segments 72Creating segments that are circular arc curves 76Creating segments by tracing features 81Duplicating features with the Copy Features tool 82Creating a fillet curve between two lines 83Extending a line 84Trimming a line 85Proportionally dividing a line 86Getting a COGO description of a feature with the Inverse tool 88Creating edit sketch geometry with the Traverse tool 89Creating two-point line features to populate COGO attributes 94Obtaining a closure report 96Techniques for adjusting a traverse 97Saving a traverse 99Loading a traverse 100Exploding a multipart feature 101Generalizing a feature 102Smoothing a feature 103The Snapping Environment window 104Types of snapping properties 105Using the snapping environment 106The Snap to Feature command 109Setting the direction measuring system and units for editing tools 110Setting the direction type and angular units 112Setting the ground to grid conversion 114Using a ground to grid correction 115Setting the distance units for tools 117

    Contents.pmd 2/23/2004, 11:47 AM4

  • CONTENTS v

    4 Editing topology 119What is topology? 120Topology basics for data editors 121Topology rules 124Topology errors and exceptions 132Geometric elements of a topology 133Editing features in a topology 135Correcting topology errors 138Making new features with topology tools 139Adding the Topology toolbar 141Map topology concepts 142Creating a map topology 143Editing shared geometry 145Rebuilding the topology cache 154Clearing selected topology elements 155Finding out which features share topology elements 156Using the edit sketch to make topology edits 160Stretching features when editing topology elements 166Snapping to topology nodes 168Changing the symbology for selected error features 169Changing the symbology for topology elements 170Changing the symbology for topology layers 171Validating edits to a topology 173Summarizing topology errors 174Correcting errors 176Creating new polygons from lines 180Creating new features from the geometry of existing features 181

    Contents.pmd 2/23/2004, 11:47 AM5

  • vi EDITING IN ARCMAP

    5 Using a digitizer 185Setting up your digitizing tablet and preparing your paper map 186Registering your paper map 188Creating features using a digitizer 192Digitizing features in point mode 193Digitizing features in stream mode 195

    6 Creating features from other features 199Copying a line at a specific interval 200Creating a buffer around a feature 202Creating a mirror image of a feature 204Merging features from the same layer into one feature 206Combining features from different layers into one feature 208Creating a feature from features with common areas 210

    7 Editing existing features 213Splitting a line or polygon 214Trimming a line 218Extending a line 221Flipping a line 223Placing points along a line 224Reshaping a line or polygon 226Adding and deleting sketch vertices 228Moving a vertex in a sketch 230Changing the properties of a sketch 235Scaling features 239Clipping features 241Stretching geometry proportionately 242Stretching a features geometry proportionately 243

    Contents.pmd 2/23/2004, 11:47 AM6

  • CONTENTS vii

    8 Spatial adjustment 245About spatial adjustments 246The Spatial Adjustment toolbar 250An overview of the spatial adjustment process 251Adding the Spatial Adjustment toolbar 253Choosing the input data for adjustment 254Choosing a transformation method 255Choosing a rubber sheet method 256

    Choosing an edge snap method 257Setting the edge snap properties 258Creating displacement links 259Creating multiple displacement links 260Creating identity links 262Using the Limited Adjustment Area tools 263Using the Edge Match tool 264Modifying the link and limited adjustment area symbols 265Selecting links 266Modifying displacement links 268Deleting displacement links 270Viewing the Link Table 272Opening a link file 273Saving a link file 274Opening a Control Point file 275Creating displacement links from control points 276Previewing the adjustment 278Performing the adjustment 279Attribute Transfer Mapping 280Using the Attribute Transfer tool 282

    Contents.pmd 2/23/2004, 11:47 AM7

  • viii EDITING IN ARCMAP

    9 Editing attributes 283Viewing attributes 284Adding and modifying attributes 286Copying and pasting attributes 288

    10 Editing geodatabase attributes 291Editing a geodatabase with ArcMap 292Editing features with subtypes and default values 293Editing attribute domains 297Validating features 298

    11 Editing relationships and related objects 301Understanding relationships and related objects 302Editing relationships and related objects 307

    12 Editing geometric networks 327Editing network features 328Creating network edges 333Subsuming network junctions 340Enabled and disabled network features 344The Network Editing toolbar 345Validating network features 350

    13 Editing annotation 353Working with annotation in the geodatabase 354Updating annotation created in ArcGIS 8 356Converting labels to annotation 357Creating new annotation features 361The Annotation toolbar 362Editing the size and position of annotation features 371Editing the appearance of annotation features 376Working with feature-linked annotation 387

    Contents.pmd 2/23/2004, 11:47 AM8

  • CONTENTS ix

    14 Editing dimension features 391Editing dimension features 392Adding the Dimensioning toolbar 398Creating dimension features 399Modifying dimension features 423

    15 Working with a versioned geodatabase 427Integrating versioning with your organizations work flow 428Registering data as versioned 430Creating and administering versions in ArcCatalog 431Working with versions in ArcMap 438Editing and conflict resolution 441Editing a version 446Versioning scenarios 450

    Glossary 453

    Index 479

    Contents.pmd 2/23/2004, 11:47 AM9

  • Contents.pmd 2/23/2004, 11:47 AM10

  • IN THIS CHAPTER

    1

    Introduction

    Rich suite of graphical editingtools

    ArcGIS data editor

    Editing in data view and layoutview

    Tools for editing and managingtopologies

    Tools for editing and managingnetworks in a geodatabase

    Context menus and shortcut keysfor increased productivity

    Tools for rubber sheeting, adjust-ing, and edgematching feature data

    Multiuser editing with versionmanagement and conflict detection

    Remote editing of data checkedout from your versionedgeodatabase

    Editing in projected space

    Tips on learning how to edit inArcMap

    1In addition to mapmaking and map-based analysis, ESRI ArcGIS

    ArcMap is the application for creating and editing geographic data andtabular data. With ArcMap, you can edit features in shapefiles andgeodatabases with one common user interface. ArcMap containssophisticated, computer-aided design (CAD)-like editing tools that help youconstruct features quickly and easily while maintaining the spatial integrity ofyour geographic information system (GIS) database. ArcView seats ofArcMap can be used to edit simple features in shapefiles and geodatabases.ArcView seats also let you create a temporary map topology that can beused to edit simple features that share geometry. ArcEditor and ArcInfo

    seats of ArcMap can be used to edit geometric networks and geodatabasetopologies as well as simple features.

    Whether you use ArcView or ArcInfo, you use the same editing tools inArcMap to work on your geographic data. In cases where your organizationhas multiple users simultaneously editing on a shared geodatabase, ArcMap,in concert with ArcSDE, provides the tools necessary to manage longediting transactions as well as to manage versions and resolve potentialconflicts. ArcEditor and ArcInfo seats of ArcMap can check out featuresfrom a master geodatabase to a checkout geodatabase for disconnectedediting.

    Whether you use ArcView, ArcEditor, or ArcInfo, the goal of this book is tohelp you learn and use the editing capabilities in ArcMap for any level ofgeographic database maintenance. The next few pages highlight some of thefeatures you will find invaluable while editing in ArcMap.

  • 2 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    Rich suite of graphical editing toolsArcMap helps you create and edit geographic features quickly and easily by including many of the graphic editing functions popularwith the latest CAD editing packages.

    Sketch construction tools in ArcMap will allow you to quickly and accurately edit street rights-of-way.

  • INTRODUCTION 3

    ArcGIS data editorArcMap lets you edit shapefiles and geodatabases. Also, you can edit an entire folder of data at once. ArcEditor and ArcInfo seats cantake advantage of a geodatabases coded value and range domains and validation to make editing attributes quicker and maintain highdata quality.

    Pick the geodatabase or folder of data that you want to edit when you start editing in ArcMap.

  • 4 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    Maximize the display of geographic information when editingusing data view.

    Editing in data view and layout viewArcMap provides two different ways to view a map: data view and layout view. Each view lets you look at and interact with the map in adifferent way. Data view hides all of the map elements on the layout such as titles, North arrows, and scalebars. In layout view, youllsee a virtual page upon which you can place and arrange map elements. You can edit your geographic data in either data view or layoutview.

    When you are preparing a map, you can edit features directly using layoutview.

  • INTRODUCTION 5

    Tools for editing and managing topologiesArcMap provides tools to edit features that have topological relationships defined in a geodatabase or in a map topology. ArcViewseats are limited to editing map topology, a simpler, temporary form of topology that allows shared parts of features to besimultaneously edited.

  • 6 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    Tools for editing and managing networks in a geodatabaseArcMap provides tools to edit geometric networks stored in a geodatabase.

  • INTRODUCTION 7

    Context menus and shortcut keys for increased productivityArcMap contains numerous context menus and shortcut keys to help you create and edit features quickly.

    Use the Sketch tool context menu and shortcut keys to access advanced feature creation tools.

  • 8 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    Tools for rubber sheeting, adjusting, and edgematching feature dataArcMap provides tools to transform, adjust, rubber sheet, and edgematch feature data from different sources.

  • INTRODUCTION 9

    Multiuser editing with version management and conflict detectionIf you have several users who need to edit the same data at the same time, ArcMap can help you manage versions of your ArcSDEgeodatabase.

    Sophisticated version management tools in ArcMap will help you maintain a multiuser editing environment.

  • 10 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    Remote editing of data checked out from your versioned geodatabaseIf you have people who need to work with part of your geodatabase away from your network, ArcEditor and ArcInfo seats allow you tocheck out features to a personal geodatabase, edit them in the field, and check them back into the master geodatabase upon their return.

  • INTRODUCTION 11

    Editing in projected spaceIf youve collected data from a variety of sources, chances are that not all layers contain the same coordinate system information. UsingArcMap, you can set the coordinate system for a data frame. As you add layers to your map, they are automatically transformed to thatprojection. That means that you can edit the shapes and attributes of a layer regardless of the coordinate system it was stored in.

    ArcMap has project on-the-fly capabilities that let you edit layers in the coordinate system that are most important toyou without having to transform your data.

  • 12 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    Tips on learning how to edit in ArcMap

    If youre new to GIS, remember that you dont have to learneverything about editing in ArcMap to get immediate results. Tolearn how to edit your GIS data, see the Geodatabase Workbook.ArcMap comes with the data used in the tutorial, so you canfollow along step by step at your computer. You can also read thetutorial without using your computer.

    Finding answers to your questions

    Like most people, your goal is to complete your tasks whileinvesting a minimum amount of time and effort in learning how touse the software. You want intuitive, easy-to-use software thatgives you immediate results, without having to read pages ofdocumentation. However, when you do have a question, youwant the answer quickly so you can complete your task. Thatswhat this book is all aboutgetting you the answers you need,when you need them.

    This book describes editing tasksfrom basic to advancedthatyoull perform with ArcMap. Although you can read this bookfrom start to finish, youll likely use it more as a reference. Whenyou want to know how to do a particular task, such as creating anew feature, just look it up in the table of contents or index. Whatyoull find is a concise, step-by-step description of how tocomplete the task. Some chapters also include detailedinformation that you can read if you want to learn more about theconcepts behind the tasks. You may also refer to the glossary inthis book if you come across any unfamiliar GIS terms or need torefresh your memory.

    About this book

    This book is designed to introduce editing in ArcMap and itscapabilities. If you have never used a GIS before or feel you needto refresh your knowledge, please take some time to read GettingStarted with ArcGIS, which you received in your ArcGISpackage. It is not necessary to do so to continue with this book,but you should use it as a reference if you encounter tasks withwhich you are unfamiliar.

    Getting help on your computer

    In addition to this book, use the ArcGIS Desktop Help system tolearn how to use ArcMap. To learn how to use the ArcGISDesktop Help system, see Using ArcMap.

    Contacting ESRI

    If you need to contact ESRI for technical support, refer toContacting Technical Support in the Getting more help sectionof the ArcGIS Desktop Help system. You can also visit ESRI onthe Web at www.esri.com and support.esri.com for moreinformation on ArcMap and ArcGIS.

    ESRI education solutions

    ESRI provides educational opportunities related to geographicinformation science, GIS applications, and technology. You canchoose among instructor-led courses, Web-based courses, andself-study workbooks to find educational solutions that fit yourlearning style. For more information, go to www.esri.com/education.

  • IN THIS CHAPTER

    13

    Editing basics

    An overview of the editing process

    Exploring the editing toolbars andkeyboard shortcuts

    Adding editing toolbars

    Upgrading a geodatabase

    Adding the data you want to edit

    Starting and stopping an editsession

    Managing the map cache

    Changing the options of the taskmenu

    Selecting, moving, copying andpasting, and deleting features

    Setting the number of decimalplaces used for reportingmeasurements

    2In addition to mapmaking and map analysis, ArcMap is also the applicationfor creating and editing your spatial databases. ArcMap has tools to editshapefiles and geodatabase feature datasets.

    This chapter provides an introduction on how to edit in ArcMap anddescribes the basic tasks you need to know before you can start to createand edit spatial data. For instance, this chapter shows you how to performsuch tasks as adding the Editor toolbar; adding other editing toolbars, such asthe Map Cache, Advanced Editing, Spatial Adjustment, Topology, andNetwork Editing toolbars; starting and stopping an edit session; and selectingfeatures.

  • 14 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    An overview of the editing process

    The following is a general overview of how to use ArcMap andthe Editor toolbar to edit your data. Each of the following steps isoutlined in detail in this chapter or other chapters in this book.

    1. Start ArcMap.

    2. Create a new map or open an existing one.

    3. Add the data you want to edit to your map.

    If there are no existing layers for the feature classes you wantto edit, you can create them using ArcCatalog. For moreinformation on creating a feature layer, see Using ArcCatalog.

    4. Add the Editor toolbar to ArcMap.

    New Map File button

    Open button

    Add Data button

    Editor Toolbar button

    5. Click Start Editing from the Editor menu.

    6. Create or modify features and/or their attributes.

  • EDITING BASICS 15

    7. Click Stop Editing from the Editor menu and click Yes whenprompted to save your edits.

    There is no need to save the mapall edits made to thedatabase will automatically be reflected the next time youopen the map.

  • 16 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    The Editor toolbar

    Edit sessioncommands.

    Edit tool:Lets you selectfeatures andmodify them.

    Tool palette:Use thesetools to createa sketch.

    Current Taskdropdown list:The tasks in this listwork with a sketchdrawn with thesketch constructiontools on the toolpalette.

    Target layerdropdown list:Sets the layer towhich newfeatures willbelong.

    Attributes button:Opens theattributes dialogbox, which showsattributesfor all selectedfeatures.

    SketchProperties: Letsyou specify thex,y locations ofthe vertices in asketch.

    Split tool:Lets yousplit asegment ata specificlocation.

    Rotate tool:Lets yourotate asegment orsketch to adesiredorientation.

  • EDITING BASICS 17

    This section shows you how editing in ArcMap helps youcomplete the tasks that you need to do. Youll learn about thetypes of data you can edit as well as the basics of creating andmodifying features and their attributes.

    The structure of vector datasets

    ArcMap provides a common editing environment for featuresstored in geodatabase feature datasets and shapefiles.

    Comparing the structure of vector datasets

    Geodatabase Shapefile

    Collections A geodatabase is a collection A shapefile folder is a collectionof datasets of feature datasets. of shapefiles.

    Datasets A feature dataset is a collection A shapefile has one shapefile featureof feature classes. class.

    Collections A feature class is a collection A shapefile feature class is aof features of features of the same type. collection of shapefile features.

    Features Point, multipoint, polyline, Point, multipoint, line, andpolygon, annotation, dimension, polygon.and network.

    Topology Geodatabase datasets may Map topology may be usedcontain topologies or a to integrate and edit shapefile featuregeometric network. classes.

    Exploring the Editor toolbar

    When you edit data with ArcMap, you edit feature classes(collections of features) that the layers on your map represent.

    Editing the feature classes lets you edit the actual data source,not just the representation on the map.

    A feature class is a collection of the same type of features, forexample, a collection of points or a collection of polygons.

    A dataset is a collection of feature classes that share the samespatial reference. A dataset might be a collection of land base

  • 18 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    Building as sketch Building as feature

    feature classes or a collection of utility feature classes. Shapefilesare an exception; they do not hold a collection of feature classesbut only one shapefile feature class.

    A collection of feature datasets is stored in a geodatabase.Shapefiles are stored in a shapefile folder. Although you may addmultiple collections of datasets to your map, such asgeodatabases, ArcInfo workspaces, and shapefile folders, youcan only edit feature classes within one collection at a time.Coverage feature classes cant be edited with ArcMap.

    What is a sketch and how does it work with atask?

    A sketch is a shape you draw that performs various tasks whenediting, such as adding new features, modifying features, andreshaping features. Tasks are listed in the Current Task dropdownlist. You must create a sketch in order to complete a task.

    For instance, the Create New Feature task uses a sketch youcreate to make the new feature.

    Current Task dropdown list

  • EDITING BASICS 19

    Sketch showing where the polygon is to be cut.

    Polygon divided into two features where the sketch was drawn.

    Parcels intersected by the sketch are now selected.

    Sketch intersects parcels to be selected.

    The Select Features Using a Line task uses a sketch you create toselect features; the features the line intersects are selected.

    The Cut Polygon Features task uses a line sketch you draw to cuta polygon.

  • 20 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    Point feature

    Line feature

    Polygon feature

    Line sketch

    Polygon sketch

    Creating new features

    You can create three main types of features with the Editortoolbar: points, lines, and polygons.

    To create a line or polygon, you must first create a sketch. Asketchs shape is composed of all the vertices and segments ofthe feature. Vertices are the points at which the sketch changesdirection, such as corners, and segments are the lines thatconnect the vertices.

    Sketch toolArc tool

    Intersectiontool

    DistanceDistance tool

    Toolpalette

    Trace tool

    TangentCurve tool

    Midpoint tool

    Endpoint Arctool

    DirectionDistance tool

    Sketch tool context menu

  • EDITING BASICS 21

    You can create a sketch by creating the vertices and segmentsthat make up the features. Vertices are marked in green, with thelast vertex added marked in red.

    The Sketch tool is the tool you use most often to create a sketch.It has an accompanying context menu that helps you placevertices and segments more accurately. The Arc tool, theDistanceDistance tool, and the Intersection toollocated withthe Sketch tool on the tool palettealso help you create verticesand segments using other construction methods.

    When youre creating a new feature, the target layer determinesin which layer a new feature will belong. After copying a feature,the target layer is also the layer you will be pasting into. Whenyou're editing existing features, the target layer is the one you willbe modifying or reshaping.

    The Target layer dropdown list contains the names of all thelayers in the datasets with which youre working. Subtypes arealso listed, if applicable. For instance, if you set the target layer toBuildings: Commercial, any features you create will be part of theCommercial subtype of the Buildings layer.

    You must set the target layer whenever youre creating newfeatureswhether youre creating them with the Sketch tool, bycopying and pasting, or by buffering another feature.

    Modifying features

    For every feature on the map, there is an alternate form, a sketch.In the same way that you must create a sketch to create a feature,to modify a feature you must modify its sketch. Because thevertices are visible in a sketch, you can edit the feature in detail;you can move the vertices, delete them, or add new ones usingthe Sketch context menu.

    Besides editing a feature by working with its sketch, you can alsouse another sketch you create to modify the feature for certaintasks. An example of this type of task is Cut Polygon Features,where a sketch you construct is used to divide one polygon intotwo.

    Target layer dropdown listWhen you edit a features sketch, you edit its vertices using the Sketchcontext menu.

  • 22 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    Simple modifications to features, such as moving, copying, ordeleting, can be made by selecting the feature and choosing theappropriate tool or command.

    Editing attributes

    Attributes can be created or edited in the Attributes dialog box.After selecting the features whose attributes you want to edit,click the Attributes button on the Editor toolbar to see the dialogbox.

    Attributes dialog box

    Attributes button

  • EDITING BASICS 23

    Editing keyboard shortcuts

    Keyboard shortcuts are associated with a number of the editingtools and commands. You can use keyboard shortcuts to makeediting quicker and more efficient. Shortcuts common to all Editortools can be used with any editing tool, while the shortcuts listedfor a specific tool are only used with that tool.

    Shortcuts common to all editing tools

    Z Zoom In

    X Zoom Out

    C Pan

    V Show vertices

    Esc Cancel

    Ctrl + Z Undo

    Ctrl + Y Redo

    Spacebar Suspend snapping

    Edit tool

    Shift Add to/Remove from selection

    Ctrl Move the selection anchor

    N Next selected feature

    Annotation-related shortcuts used with the Edit tool

    E Toggle between Sketch tool, Edit tool, and EditAnnotation tool

    Edit Annotation tool

    Shift Add to/Remove from selection

    Ctrl Move the selection anchor

    N Next selected feature

    R Toggle to/from rotate mode

    F Toggle to/from follow feature mode

    E Toggle between Sketch tool, Edit tool, and EditAnnotation tool

    L Flip selected annotation features 180 degrees when infollow feature mode

    O Open Follow Feature Options dialog box when in followfeature mode

    Tab Toggle annotation placement between left side and rightside when in follow feature mode

    P Toggle annotation placement angle between parallel andperpendicular when in follow feature mode

    Sketch tool

    Ctrl + A Direction

    Ctrl + F Deflection

    Ctrl + L Length

    F6 Absolute X,Y

    Ctrl + D Delta X,Y

    Ctrl + G Direction/Length

    Ctrl + P Parallel

    Ctrl + E Perpendicular

    F7 Segment deflection

    Ctrl + T Tangent curve

    F8 Streaming

    Ctrl + Delete Delete sketch

    F2 Finish sketch

    T Show tolerance

  • 24 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    Annotation-related shortcuts used with the Sketch tool

    E Toggle between Sketch tool, Edit tool, and EditAnnotation tool

    A Activate the Text box on the Annotation toolbar so youcan change the text for constructing new annotation

    S Activate the Symbol box on the Annotation toolbar soyou can toggle between defined annotation symbols

    Ctrl + W Find Text: Populate the Text box on the Annotationtoolbar with a text expression from a feature under thecursor position. If the target is a feature-linkedannotation feature class, text is derived only from afeature in the origin feature class. With a standardannotation feature class as the target, the text is basedon the label expression of the layer containing the firstvisible and selectable feature.

    O Open Follow Feature Options dialog box when creatingnew annotation in follow feature mode

    L Flip selected annotation features 180 degrees whencreating new annotation in follow feature mode

    P Toggle annotation placement angle between parallel andperpendicular when creating new annotation in followfeature mode

    Tab Toggle annotation placement between left side and rightside when creating new annotation in follow featuremode

    Topology Edit tool

    Shift Add to/Remove from selection

    Ctrl Move the selection anchor

    N Select nodes

    E Select edges

    S Split and move node

    Fix Topology Error tool

    Shift Add to/Remove from selection

    Scale and Rotate tools

    A Set rotate angle

    S Toggle secondary anchor

    Trace tool

    Tab Trace the other side of an edge

    O Open Trace Options dialog box

    Endpoint Arc tool

    R Radius

    DirectionDistance tool

    D or A Direction

    D or R Distance

    Tab Change location

    DistanceDistance tool

    D or R Distance

    Tab Change location

  • EDITING BASICS 25

    ArcInfo and ArcEditor

    The Advanced Editing toolbar

    Note: Some tools on the Advanced Editing toolbar are not available with ArcView.

    Copy Features tool:

    Creates a copy inthe Editor TargetLayer of selectedfeatures where youclick on the map.

    Fillet tool:

    Creates a filletcurve betweentwo line features.

    Extend tool:

    Extends a lineto touchanother line.

    Trim tool:

    Trims a linethat crosses aselected line.

    Proportion tool:

    Divides a line intoa number ofsegments ofspecified length,allocating any errorbetween the newsegments.

    Inverse tool:

    Adds COGOdescription of afeature to thefeature attributetable.

    Traverse tool:

    Adds to the editsketch usingCOGOdescriptions.

    Explode tool:

    Splits a multipartfeature into itscomponent features.

    Generalize tool:

    Simplifies theshape of aselected feature.

    Smooth tool:

    Smoothes the shape of aselected feature by convertingits segments into a series ofsmoothed line segments.

    Rectangle tool:

    Draws a newrectangle feature inthe Editor TargetLayer.

    Circle tool:

    Draws a new circlefeature in theEditor TargetLayer.

  • 26 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    Adding editingtoolbarsBefore editing geographicfeature data within ArcMap,you must first add the Editortoolbar.

    Adding the Editor toolbar

    1. Start ArcMap.

    2. Click the Editor Toolbarbutton to display the Editortoolbar.

    3. Click the toolbars title barand drag it to the top of theArcMap application window.

    Tip

    Adding the Editor toolbarusing the Customize dialogboxClick the Tools menu and clickCustomize. Click the Toolbars taband check Editor.

    Tip

    Adding the Editor toolbarfrom the View menuYou can also add the Editor toolbarby clicking the View menu, pointingto Toolbars, and checking Editor.

    Tip

    Adding the Editor toolbarfrom the Tools menuYou can also add the Editor toolbarfrom the Tools menu. Click Toolsand click the Editor Toolbar button.

    Adding other editingtoolbars

    1. Click Editor, point to MoreEditing Tools, and click thetoolbar you want to add.

    3

    2

    1

  • EDITING BASICS 27

    Upgrading ageodatabaseGeodatabases built usingprevious versions of ArcGIS donot support some of the newerfunctions of ArcGIS.

    If your geodatabase wasdeveloped using a previousversion of ArcGIS, you maywish to upgrade yourgeodatabase.

    1. Start ArcCatalog.

    2. Right-click the geodatabaseyou want to upgrade andclick Properties.

    3. Click the General tab.

    4. Click Upgrade PersonalGeodatabase.

    5. Click OK.

    2

    3

    4

    5

    Tip

    Creating a backup copy ofyour geodatabaseBear in mind that once ageodatabase is upgraded, previousversions of ArcGIS cannot view oredit the geodatabase. Forthis reason, you may wish to makea copy of the geodatabase andupgrade the copy, thus leaving youwith both an original and anupgraded geodatabase.

  • 28 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    Adding the datayou want to editBefore you can start editing,you must add the data youwant to edit to your map. InArcMap, you can edit featuredata in shapefiles orgeodatabases.

    1. Start ArcMap.

    2. Click the Add Data button.

    3. Navigate to the location ofyour data and click Add.

    The data is added to yourmap.

    Tip

    Stopping the drawing ofdataYou can stop the drawing processwithout clearing the map bypressing the Esc key.

    Data is added to the map.

    Tip

    Loading data from ageodatabaseYou can import features from ageodatabase into a layer on yourmap using the Load Objectscommand. For more information,see Building a Geodatabase.

    3

    2

  • EDITING BASICS 29

    Starting an edit session

    1. Start ArcMap and add theEditor toolbar.

    2. Click Editor and click StartEditing.

    The Editor toolbar is nowactive.

    Starting andstopping an editsessionAll editing takes place within anedit session. To begin, clickStart Editing on the Editormenu. The edits you make areimmediately visible on your mapbut are not saved to thedatabase until you choose todo so.

    If youre working with largeamounts of data, you can speedup the editing and selection offeatures by creating a mapcache. To learn more, seeManaging the map cache inthis chapter.

    When youre finished editing,you can save any changesyouve made or quit editingwithout saving. You can alsosave the edits youve made atany time by clicking Save Editson the Editor menu.

    Tip

    Editing a map with morethan one collection ofdatasetsYou can only edit one collection ofdatasets at a time. These can begeodatabases or folders containinga collection of shapefiles. If yourmap contains more than onecollection, when you choose StartEditing you will be prompted tochoose which one you want to edit.

    The Editor toolbar is now active.

    2

  • 30 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    Saving your edits in themiddle of an edit session

    1. Click Editor.

    2. Click Save Edits.

    Any edits you have made aresaved to the database.

    2

    1

    Stopping an edit session

    1. Click Editor and click StopEditing.

    2. To save changes, click Yes. Toquit without saving, click No.

    Tip

    Editing in layout viewYou can also edit data in a map thatyoure preparing. Click the Viewmenu and click Layout View. Formore information about working inlayout view, see Using ArcMap.

    Tip

    Editing a map with morethan one data frameIf your map contains more thanone data frame, you will be editingthe data frame that is active whenyou choose Start Editing. To edit adifferent data frame, you mustchoose Stop Editing, then chooseStart Editing with the desired dataframe active.

    For a discussion of data frames,see Using ArcMap.

    2

    1

  • EDITING BASICS 31

    Adding the Map Cachetoolbar

    1. Click View and point toToolbars.

    2. Click Map Cache.

    The Map Cache toolbarappears.

    Managing themap cacheIf youre working with datastored in a personal or ArcSDEgeodatabase, building a mapcache can often speed upediting as well as selecting,labeling, and drawing features.The map cache improves theperformance of your editsession and also reduces theload on the server itself in amultiuser environment.

    In general, when editing data ina geodatabase, especiallynetwork data, you should usethe map cache. The map cacheplaces features in the currentdisplay extent into memory onyour local machine. Thefeatures can be accessed muchfaster from memory than fromthe server.

    The auto-cache can be useful ifyou are going to be working ina series of different geographicareas and you dont want torebuild the cache for each area.It is also convenient when youdont know the exact bounds ofthe area you want to cache.Since auto-caching may hinderperformance, you should set anauto-cache minimum scale.

    1

    2

    Builds themap cache

    Turns on theauto-cache

    Sets the minimum scalefor the auto-cache

    Clears the auto-cache scale

    Shows the extentof the map cache

    Zooms to the extentof the map cache

    Empties the map cache

  • 32 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    Building a map cache

    1. Add data stored in ageodatabase to your map.

    2. Pan or zoom to the area onthe map that you want towork with.

    3. Click the Build Map Cachebutton on the Map Cachetoolbar.

    The features in the currentextent are held in memorylocally.

    Tip

    Working with read-onlyfeaturesIn an ArcSDE geodatabase, thefeatures that you do not have writeprivileges to are not cached, norare features in feature classes thatare not registered as versioned.

    Tip

    Using the map cacheYou dont need to be editing to buildor use the map cache. To learnmore, see Using ArcMap.

    Tip

    Using the Map CachetoolbarClick the Show Map Cache buttonon the Map Cache toolbar todisplay the extent of the currentmap cache. If the button turns red,it means you are partially outsidethe map caches extent and are nolonger using the map cache.

    Click the Zoom To Map Cachebutton on the Map Cache toolbar tozoom to the extent of the currentmap cache.

    The Show Map Cache and theZoom To Map Cache commandsare enabled only when you havebuilt a map cache.

    Auto-cache builds a new map cachefor the current extent each time youpan or zoom.

    The Empty Map Cache buttonclears the map cache.

    Setting the auto-cacheminimum scale

    1. Zoom out just beyond thescale at which youll beworking.

    2. Click the Set Auto-CacheScale button on the MapCache toolbar.

    2

    3

    1

    2

    You can click the Auto-Cachebutton to turn auto-cachingon or off.

  • EDITING BASICS 33

    Changing theoptions of theTask menuMany times your project maycall for specific editing tasks tobe used more than others. Taskoptions can be added to orremoved from the Taskdropdown menu. This willsimplify your editing interfaceand facilitate your selectionprocess.

    Modifying the Taskdropdown menu

    1. Click Editor and clickOptions.

    2. Click the Edit Tasks tab.

    3. To remove tasks, select thetask to be removed and clickRemove.

    4. To add tasks, click Add.

    5. On the Add Tasks dialog box,select the tasks to add andclick OK.

    The Task dropdown menuwill be modified according tothe changes made.

    5

    12

    34

  • 34 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    SelectingfeaturesSelecting features identifies thefeatures on which you want toperform certain operations. Forexample, before you move,delete, or copy a feature, youmust select it. You must alsoselect features before you canview their attributes.

    You can select features inseveral different ways, either byclicking them with the Edit toolor by creating a line or apolygon that intersects thefeatures you want to select. Thenumber of features selected isshown immediately after youmake the selection, in the lower-left corner of the ArcMapwindow. u

    Selecting features usingthe Edit tool

    1. Click the Edit tool.

    2. Move the pointer over afeature and click.

    The selected feature ishighlighted.

    2

    The selected building is highlighted.

    Tip

    Removing features fromthe selectionTo remove features from theselection set, hold down the Shiftkey while you click the features.

    Tip

    Selecting more than onefeatureTo select more than one feature,hold down the Shift key while youclick the features. You can also usethe Edit tool to draw a box arounda group of features.

    1

  • EDITING BASICS 35

    Selecting features usinga line

    1. Click the Task dropdownarrow and click SelectFeatures Using a Line.

    2. Click the tool palettedropdown arrow and clickthe Sketch tool or any of theother construction tools in thetool palette.

    3. Construct a line that inter-sects the features you wantto select.

    The features that the lineintersects are now selected.

    The small x located in thecenter of the selected featuresis the selection anchor. Theselection anchor is used whenrotating features, movingfeatures using snapping, andscaling features.

    You can choose which layersyou can select by choosing SetSelectable Layers from theSelection menu and using theSelectable Layers list.

    For example, suppose youwanted to select a large numberof buildings by drawing a boxaround them but selected aparcel by mistake as you drewthe selection box. To avoid this,you might uncheck the Parcelslayer in the Selectable Layerslist so that parcels cannot beselected.

    See Also

    For more information on creatinga line, see Chapter 3, Creatingnew features.

    Tip

    Adding options to the Taskdropdown menuTasks on the Task dropdown menucan be added or removed from theselection on the Edit Options dialogbox under the Edit Tasks tab. Forfurther details, see Modifying theTask dropdown menu in thischapter.

    2

    1

    3

    Features intersected by the line are now selected.

  • 36 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    Selecting features usinga polygon

    1. Click the Task dropdownarrow and click SelectFeatures Using an Area.

    2. Click the tool palettedropdown arrow and clickthe Sketch tool or any of theother construction tools in thetool palette.

    3. Construct a polygon thatintersects the features youwant to select.

    The features that intersectwith the polygon you createdare now selected.

    See Also

    For more information on creatinga polygon, see Chapter 3,Creating new features.

    See Also

    For more information on selectingfeatures in ArcMap, see UsingArcMap.

    Tip

    Pan and zoom while youselect featuresYou can pan and zoom whileselecting features without having tochange tools. Hold the Ctrl key andpress Z to zoom in, X to zoom out,or C to pan.

    Tip

    Use the Selection menu formore control over yourselectionThe Selection menu gives you moretools with which to make aselection, such as adding to thecurrent selection, selecting allfeatures onscreen, or creating aSQL statement.

    See Also

    For more information on theselection anchor, see Movingfeatures in this chapter andChapter 7, Editing existingfeatures.

    1

    2

    3

    Features that intersect with the area are now selected.

  • EDITING BASICS 37

    Making a layer selectable

    1. Click Selection and click SetSelectable Layers.

    2. Click the check boxes next tothe layer names you want tobe able to select. Uncheckthe boxes next to the namesyou dont want to be able toselect.

    Layers whose names areunchecked are still visible inyour map but cannot beselected.

    Tip

    Adding the Selection tab tothe ArcMap table ofcontentsYou can quickly change theselectable layers from the ArcMaptable of contents if you add theSelection tab. You can add theSelection tab to the table of contentsfrom the Table of Contents tab ofthe Tools > Options dialog box.

    1

    2

  • 38 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    Moving featuresYou can move features in threedifferent ways: by dragging; byspecifying delta x,y coordi-nates; or by rotating.

    Dragging is the easiest way tomove a feature. Use this methodwhen you have a general ideaof where you want to move thefeature.

    Specify delta x,y coordinateswhen you want to move afeature to a precise location.ArcMap uses the currentlocation of the selected featureor features as the origin (0,0)and moves them from thatlocation according to thecoordinates you specify. u

    Dragging a feature

    1. Click the Edit tool.

    2. Click the feature or featuresyou want to move.

    3. Click and drag the feature orfeatures to the desiredlocation.

    Tip

    Avoiding accidental movesThe sticky move tolerance allowsyou to set a minimum number ofpixels your pointer must move onthe screen before a selected featureis moved. This can be a useful wayto prevent features from beingaccidentally moved small distanceswhen they are clicked with the Edittool. You can set the sticky movetolerance on the General tab of theEditing Options dialog box.

    1

    2

    The selected building is dragged to a new location.

    3

  • EDITING BASICS 39

    Moving a feature relativeto its current location

    1. Click the Edit tool.

    2. Click the feature or featuresyou want to move.

    3. Click Editor and click Move. u

    The coordinates are measuredin map units. The graphic belowillustrates the change inlocation when delta x,y coordi-nates of 2,3 are specified for abuilding.

    In the example above, thebuilding is moved up and to theright, as positive coordinatevalues are specified. To movethe building left or down, youwould specify negative values.

    You can rotate features inArcMap using the Rotate tool.After selecting the features,drag the mouse pointer so thatthe features rotate to thedesired position. Featuresrotate around the selectionanchor, the small x located inthe center of selected features.

    If you want to move a feature toa precise location in relation toanother feature, you can usethe snapping environment. Forexample, you can move a u

    (0,0)

    (2,3)

    1

    3

    2

  • 40 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    4. Type the desired coordinatesand press Enter.

    The feature is movedaccording to the specifiedcoordinates.

    parcel and have one of itscorners jump, or snap, preciselyto a corner of another parcel.Simply move the parcelsselection anchor to its cornervertex after setting the appro-priate snapping properties.Then move the parcel toward itsnew location until the selectionanchor snaps to the cornervertex of the other parcel.Snapping is discussed inChapter 3, Creating newfeatures.

    Tip

    Moving the selectionanchorTo move the selection anchor, movethe pointer over it, press the Ctrlkey, and drag the selection anchorto the desired location.

    Tip

    Undoing a moveYou can undo any edit you make toa feature by clicking the Undobutton on the ArcMap Standardtoolbar.

    4

    The feature is moved 10.5 map units to the right.

  • EDITING BASICS 41

    Rotating a feature

    1. Click the Edit tool.

    2. Click the feature or featuresyou want to rotate.

    3. Click the Rotate tool.

    4. Click anywhere on the mapand drag the pointer to rotatethe feature to the desiredposition.

    The feature or features rotatearound the selection anchor.You can drag the selectionanchor to a new location tochange the center of rotation.

    Tip

    Rotating a pointssymbologyIf your data already has a field thatcontains the rotation angle for eachpoint symbol, you can use ArcMapto rotate the symbology.

    Right-click the point layer name inthe maps table of contents andclick Properties. Click the Symbol-ogy tab. Click the Advanced button,then click Rotation. From thedropdown list, choose the field thatcontains the rotation angle. Clickthe option that describes how youwant that angle calculated.

    Tip

    Rotating by degreeTo specify the exact amount ofrotation, click the Rotate tool, pressA, and type the number of degrees.A positive number rotates thefeature in the clockwise direction, anegative number in the counter-clockwise direction.

    Tip

    Rotating with snappingIf you want to rotate a feature untila point on it snaps to a featurespecified in the current snappingenvironment, add a secondaryselection anchor and drag it to thepart of the feature that you wantsnapped to another feature. Youcan add a secondary selectionanchor by pressing the S key whenusing the Rotate tool. The second-ary selection anchor also workswith the Scale tool.

    1

    3

    2

    The selected features are rotated.

  • 42 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    Copying andpasting featuresTo copy an existing feature, usethe tools on the ArcMapStandard toolbar. From theTarget layer dropdown list,choose the layer containing thetype of features you want thenew feature to befor example,a building.

    You can copy a feature andpaste it as part of another layer,but it must be the same type oflayerpoint, line, or polygonas the one from which youcopied. There is one exceptionto this ruleyou can copypolygons into a line layer.

    Attributes from the originalfeature are only copied to thenew feature if you are copyingand pasting within the samelayer.

    1. Click the Target layerdropdown arrow and click thelayer containing the type offeatures you want the newfeatures to be.

    2. Click the Edit tool.

    3. Click the feature or featuresyou want to copy.

    4. Click the Copy button.

    5. Click the Paste button.

    The feature is pasted on topof the original feature.

    See Also

    For more information onattributes, see Chapter 9, Editingattributes. You can also see UsingArcMap.

    The selected feature is pasted on top of the original feature.

    2

    3

    4 5

    1

  • EDITING BASICS 43

    1. Click the Edit tool.

    2. Click the feature or featuresyou want to delete.

    3. Click the Delete button.

    The selected features aredeleted.

    Deleting featuresTo delete a feature from the mapand from the database, use theDelete button on the ArcMapStandard toolbar.

    Tip

    Deleting features using theDelete keyYou can also press the Delete keyon the keyboard to remove selectedfeatures.

    The selected building is deleted.

    1

    2

    3

  • 44 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    Setting thenumber ofdecimal placesused forreportingmeasurementsWhen creating or editing afeature with the Sketch tool,you can use the Sketch toolcontext menu to view suchmeasurements as the distancebetween two vertices, the anglebetween two segments, or thecurrent coordinate location ofthe pointer.

    By default, ArcMap displaysthese measurements using threedecimal places. However, youcan easily change the numberof decimal places displayed.After you set the number ofdecimal places, ArcMap willreport all measurements usingthat number of decimal places.

    1. Click Editor and clickOptions.

    2. Click the General tab.

    3. Type the number of decimalplaces you want to use.

    4. Click OK.

    1

    2 3

    4

  • IN THIS CHAPTER

    45

    Creating new features 3 Creating new point, line, and

    polygon features

    Creating segments using direc-tions and lengths or angles

    Creating segments that arecircular arc curves

    Copying, filleting, extending, andtrimming lines

    Proportionally dividing a line

    Creating features from a traverse

    Getting COGO attributes offeatures

    Exploding multipart features

    Generalizing and smoothingfeatures

    Using the snapping environment

    Setting direction type and units

    Its easy to create a wide array of new features using the editing sketchconstruction tools. To begin, simply specify the layer in which you want tocreate the new feature. Then, use the appropriate tool to digitize the verticesof the feature.

    With the editing tools, you can create new point, line, or polygon features formany practical purposes. Using the Sketch tool and its accompanyingcontext menu, you can add a water main perpendicular to an existing watermain in a subdivision. The DistanceDistance tool lets you create a landparcel that begins 55 meters from one corner of an existing lot and ends40 meters from another lot corner. Creating a cul-de-sac is simplified usingthe Arc tool to create a circular arc curve. With the Intersection tool, youcan add a parcel to a subdivision by establishing a corner vertex usingsegments of an adjoining parcel.

    Using the editing tools, you can create a variety of features by constructingsegments at specific angles and of specific lengths. You can create featuresthat are parallel or perpendicular to other features. You can also createmultipoint features, such as a system of oil wells, and multipart features,such as a group of islands that forms a country or state.

    These are just a few examples of how you can use ArcMap to easily andaccurately create new features for your database.

  • 46 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    This chapter focuses on using sketches to create new features.When the current task setting is Create New Feature, the shapeyou create becomes the new feature.

    A sketch is composed of verticesthe points at which the sketchchanges direction, such as cornersand segmentsthe linesthat connect the vertices. You create a sketch using the Sketchtool located on the tool palette.

    To create a new feature using ArcMap, you create an edit sketch.A sketch is a shape that you draw by digitizing vertices. You canuse a sketch to complete various tasks; these tasks are listed inthe Task dropdown list shown below.

    Tasks you can complete with a sketch include creating newfeatures, modifying features, extending or trimming features, andreshaping features.

    Building as sketch Building as feature

    How to create a new feature

    ToolpaletteSketch tool

    Target layer dropdown list

    Task dropdown list

  • CREATING NEW FEATURES 47

    The type of feature you create is determined by the setting of theTarget layer dropdown list. This list contains the names of all thelayers in the datasets with which youre working.

    Choose the layer to which you want to add new features beforeyou start to create them.

    To create point features, click once on the map. To create line orpolygon features (see the example below), use the Sketch tool toclick on the map to digitize the vertices that make up that feature.

    To create the last vertex and finish the sketch, double-click withthe mouse. After you finish the sketch, ArcMap adds the finalsegment of the sketch, and the sketch turns into a feature.

    Of course, you wont always be able to place vertices orsegments interactively. When youre using the Sketch tool, youcan see the Sketch tools context menu. You can access thismenu when you right-click the mouse away from the sketchyoure creating. The menu has choices to help you place the

    Sketch tool context menu

    3. Click hereto place thethird vertex.

    2. Click hereto place thesecondvertex.

    1. Click hereto place thefirst vertex.

    4. Double-clickhere to place

    the last vertexand finish the

    sketch.

  • 48 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    vertices and segments exactly where you want them. For example,you can set a segment to be a certain length or angle, or create avertex at a specific x,y coordinate location.

    All the tools on the tool palette help you create a sketch. Threetools use more specific construction methods to create eitherpoints or vertices: the DistanceDistance tool, DirectionDistance tool, and the Intersection tool.

    The DistanceDistance tool lets you create a point or vertex atthe intersection of two distances from two other points. You

    The DistanceDistance tool allows you to choose one of two intersectionpoints of two circles; the size of the circles is determined by the radius youset.

    might use this tool to place a new electrical primary based on fieldmeasurements. Suppose you know that the next point for theprimary is 50 feet from one building corner and 75 feet fromanother.

    The DistanceDistance tool creates two circles based on thesedistances and finds two possible intersection points where theprimary can be placed.

    The DirectionDistance tool, like the DistanceDistance tool,allows you to create a vertex using a distance from a known point,plus information from another point. Instead of using a distancefrom the second point, the DirectionDistance tool uses adirection from a known point to define a bearing line. You canchoose which of the intersection points will be the new vertex.

    You could use the DirectionDistance tool to place a tree locationpoint based on field notes stating that the tree is on a bearing of212 degrees from a fence corner and 112 feet from the northeastcorner of a building.

    1. Click once,Press A, andtype adirection toestablish thebearing line.

    2. Click here,Press D, andtype adistance.

    3. Clickhere tochoose

    theintersection

    for thenew

    vertex.

    Intersection tool

    DistanceDistance tool

    Sketch tool

    Arc tool

    Trace tool

    DirectionDistance tool

    Midpoint tool

    Endpoint Arc tool

    Tangent Curve tool

  • CREATING NEW FEATURES 49

    The Intersection tool creates a point or vertex at the place wheretwo segments would intersect if extended far enough.

    Suppose you want to create a parking lot adjoining an L-shapedbuilding. The outer corner of the lot should be located at thepoint where the two outermost walls of the building wouldintersect if they were extended. You could use the Intersectiontool to find this implied intersection point and create the cornervertex of the lot.

    The Midpoint tool lets you define the location of the next vertexby clicking two pointsthe new vertex is placed at the midpointof the line between these points.

    You might use the Midpoint tool to place the next vertex of astreet centerline midway between the parcels on either side of thestreet.

    The Intersection tool creates a vertex hereat the place where the two segments would intersect.

    1. Clickonce to

    establishthe first

    point.

    2. Clickhere to

    establishthe

    secondpoint.

    The newvertex isadded at themidpoint ofthe line youdefined bythe twopoints.

  • 50 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    The Arc tool helps you create a segment that is a circular arc.

    The Endpoint Arc tool, like the Arc tool, helps you create asegment that is a circular arc. The Endpoint Arc tool allows youto specify the start and endpoints of the curve, then define aradius for the curve.

    1. Clickonce toestablishthestartpoint.

    2. Click here to establishthe axis. This is theinvisible point throughwhich the curve passes.

    3. Clickhere to

    establishthe

    endpoint.

    1. Click onceto establish

    the startpoint.

    2. Click hereto establish

    the endpoint.

    3. Press Rand typea radiusfor thecurve.

    The Tangent Curve tool helps you create a segment that is acircular arc. This tool adds a segment that is tangential to thepreviously sketched segment. The Tangent Curve tool can onlybe used if you have already sketched a segment using one of theother sketch tools.

    The Trace tool helps you create segments that follow alongexisting segments. Suppose you want to add a new road casingfeature that is offset 15 feet from the front of a parcel subdivision.

    You could use the Trace tool to trace along the existing linefeatures instead of typing the angle and length of each segment.

    2. Press O toset the traceoptions.

    3. Click to starttracing.

    4. Followalong thefeature to

    trace.

    1. Select thefeature(s)

    you want totrace.

    Once a line segment has been sketched, the Tangent Curve tool willdraw a circular arc off of the previous line segment.

  • CREATING NEW FEATURES 51

    You can use any combination of the following methods forcreating vertices or segments to create a new line or polygonfeature:

    Sketch tool

    Sketch context menu

    DistanceDistance tool

    DirectionDistance tool

    Intersection tool

    Midpoint tool

    Arc tool

    Endpoint Arc tool

    Tangent Curve tool

    Trace tool

    ArcMap has another context menuthe Sketch context menuthat works more directly with the sketch as a whole. With thismenu, you can add, move, or delete vertices; switch the directionof the sketch; reduce its length; or display the properties of thesketch shape.

    Sketchcontext menu

    From the properties dialog box, you can remove parts from amultipart feature, remove many vertices in one operation, addpoints, and/or modify x,y values as well as m- and z-values. TheSketch context menu is available when you right-click while thepointer is positioned over any part of the sketch using any tool. Itdiffers from the Sketch tool context menu, which you can accessonly when working with the Sketch tool and when you right-clickaway from your sketch.

  • 52 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    Creating pointfeatures andverticesYou can think of vertices asbeing much the same as pointfeatures, except that vertices areconnected by segments and makeup line or polygon features.

    Point features and vertices arecreated using the same methods.The Target layer setting deter-mines whether youre creating apoint feature or a vertex that ispart of a line or polygon sketch.

    You can create point features orvertices of a sketch in severaldifferent ways:

    By digitizing freehand withthe Sketch tool (you can alsouse the snapping environmentto help)

    By using Absolute X, Y orDelta X, Y on the Sketch toolcontext menu u

    Creating a point or vertexby digitizing

    1. Click the Task dropdownarrow and click Create NewFeature.

    2. Click the Target layerdropdown arrow and click apoint layer.

    3. Click the tool palettedropdown arrow and click theSketch tool.

    4. Click on the map to create thepoint.

    The point is created on yourmap and marked as selected.

    Suppose you wantto create a point here.

    A new point featureis created.

    Tip

    The snapping environmentcan help you create pointsand verticesThe snapping environment canhelp you create points or vertices atmore exact locations relative toother features. For moreinformation, see Using the snap-ping environment in this chapter.

    1 2

    3

  • CREATING NEW FEATURES 53

    Creating a point or vertexusing the coordinatesystem of the map(Absolute X, Y)

    1. Click the tool palettedropdown arrow and clickthe Sketch tool.

    2. Right-click anywhere on themap and click Absolute X, Y.

    3. Type the coordinates andpress Enter.

    A vertex or point is created atthe specified coordinates.

    By using the DistanceDistance, DirectionDistance, Midpoint, orIntersection tools

    To create new features, youmust have an existing layer towhich you want to add them. Ifyou do not, you can create oneusing ArcCatalog. For moreinformation on creating afeature layer, see UsingArcCatalog.

    To digitize freehand, simplyclick the Sketch tool and clickon the map.

    Absolute X, Y on the Sketchtool context menu lets youcreate a point or vertex at aspecific location using themaps coordinate system. Youmight use Absolute X, Y tocreate a pole in a utility data-base if you have the x,ycoordinates of a pole fromusing a global positioningsystem (GPS) unit. u

    Tip

    Closing the Sketch toolcontext menuYou can close the Sketch tool con-text menu by pressing the Esc key.

    A point is createdat (2222264,394370).

    Tip

    Shortcut for Absolute X, YAfter clicking the Sketch tool, youcan press F6 to set the x,ycoordinates.

    1

    3

    2

  • 54 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    Creating a vertex relativeto the location of the lastvertex (Delta X,Y)

    1. Click the tool palettedropdown arrow and click theSketch tool after creating atleast one vertex.

    2. Right-click away from thevertex or sketch and clickDelta X, Y.

    3. Type the coordinates andpress Enter.

    A vertex is created at thespecified coordinates.

    Tip

    Shortcut for Delta X, YAfter clicking the Sketch tool, youcan press Ctrl + D to set the deltax,y coordinates.

    Delta X, Y on the Sketch toolcontext menu lets you create avertex using the last vertex in thesketch as the origin. You canthink of it as another way ofmeasuring angle and lengthfrom a point already on the map.

    For example, just as the redpoint in the diagram below canbe measured at a distance of20 feet from the last point at anangle of 53 degrees, it can alsobe measured in coordinatesmeasured from the last point. u

    (0,0)(270,40)

    A vertex iscreated at(270,40).

    Same point measured using deltax,y coordinates

    53

    Point measured using an angle andlength

    20 ft.

    16

    12

    (0, 0)

    (12, 16)

    1

    3

    2

  • CREATING NEW FEATURES 55

    Creating a point or vertexusing the DistanceDistance tool

    1. Click the tool palettedropdown arrow and clickthe DistanceDistance tool.

    2. Click once to establish thecenterpoint of the first circleand press the D key on thekeyboard.

    3. Type the radius length for thefirst circle and press Enter.

    A circle is created with thespecified radius. u

    The DistanceDistance tooloffers another way to create apoint or vertex at a specificlocation. Suppose you want tocreate a pole feature. If youdont have the exact coordinatelocation but know that it is atthe intersection of 50 map unitsfrom the corner of one buildingand 70 map units from thecorner of another, you can usethe DistanceDistance tool toplace the point. The DistanceDistance tool lets you create apoint or vertex at the intersec-tion of two distances from twoother points. u

    Tip

    Undoing and redoing avertexYou can undo any vertex you cre-ate by clicking the Undo button onthe ArcMap Standard toolbar.Click the Redo button if you wantto re-add the vertex.

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    A circle with a 50-mapunit radius is created.

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  • 56 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    Tip

    Choosing an intersectionpointPress Tab to alternate between thetwo points of intersection andpress Enter to create the point.

    A point is created at one oftwo places where the radii ofthe circles intersect.

    As shown in the example, youdcreate one circle with thecenterpoint on the corner of thefirst building and a radius of50 map units. Youd createanother circle with thecenterpoint on the corner of theother building and a radius of70 map units. The DistanceDistance tool calculates the twolocations where the radii of thecircles intersect. u

    4. Click once to establish thecenterpoint of the secondcircle and press the D key onthe keyboard.

    5. Type the radius length for thesecond circle and pressEnter.

    A second circle is createdwith the specified radius. Thetwo locations where the radiiof the circles intersect arehighlighted when you movethe pointer over them.

    6. Position the pointer over thelocation you want and click.

    A vertex or point is added toyour map.

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    A circle with a 70-map unitradius is created.

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  • CREATING NEW FEATURES 57

    Creating a point or vertexusing the Midpoint tool

    1. Click the tool palettedropdown arrow and clickthe Midpoint tool.

    2. Click once to establish thefirst of two points. The newvertex will be createdbetween this point and thenext point you click.

    3. Click the second point.

    A vertex or point is placed atthe midpoint of the linebetween the two points youclicked.

    Tip

    Pan and zoom while addingpointsHold down the Control key andpress Z to zoom out, X to zoom in,or C to pan the display when usingany sketch tool.

    The Midpoint tool is ideal forplacing a vertex directlybetween two known features.For example, you may want toplace the road center linedirectly between two parcels orplace an additional power poledirectly between two preexist-ing power poles. u

    A point is created at themidpoint along the linedefined by the two pointsyou clicked.

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  • 58 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    Creating a point or vertexusing the Intersectiontool

    1. Click the tool palettedropdown arrow and click theIntersection tool.

    The pointer turns intocrosshairs.

    2. Position the crosshairs overthe first segment and click.

    3. Position the crosshairs overthe second segment andclick.

    A vertex or point is added atthe implied intersection of thetwo segments.

    A vertex is added at the place wherethe two segments would intersect if extended.

    The Intersection tool creates apoint, or vertex, at the impliedintersection of two segments.Implied means that the seg-ments dont have to actuallyintersect on the map. In theexample, suppose you want tocreate a new parcel. One cornerof the parcel must be placed atthe implied intersection of twosegments of an adjoiningparcel. You can use the Inter-section tool to find this impliedintersection point and createthe corner vertex of the newparcel. u

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  • CREATING NEW FEATURES 59

    Creating a point or vertexusing the DirectionDistance tool

    1. Click the tool palettedropdown arrow and clickthe DirectionDistance tool.

    2. Click a point to specify fromwhere the direction to thenext vertex was measured.

    3. Move the pointer to get theapproximate direction towardthe next vertex.

    As you move the pointer thedirection from the point youclicked to, the pointer isdisplayed in the lower-leftcorner of the ArcMapwindow.

    Press the D key and type thedirection to the vertex fromthe point you clicked, thenpress Enter.

    You can also click again onthe map to set the direction.

    4. Click a point to specify fromwhere the distance to thenext vertex was measured. u

    Often a vertex location is onlyknown according to thedirection and the distance fromtwo known features. Forexample, the location of a treeon a lot could be located at aparticular direction from thecorner of the lot and a givennumber of feet from anothercorner. In this situation, theDirectionDistance tool willplace a vertex at the specifiedlocation.

    As illustrated in this example,the direction is specified fromone corner of the parcel. u

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    5. Move the pointer to get theapproximate distance fromthe point you clicked to thenext vertex.

    As the cursor is moved, acircle, centered at the secondpoint you clicked, is draggedout to intersect the directionline you just defined. Theradius of the circle is dis-played in the lower-leftcorner.

    Optionally, you can press theD key and type a distance, inmap units, to the next vertexfrom the point you specified.Pressing the Enter key willset the size of the circle.

    The new vertex will be at oneof the intersection points ofthis circle and the directionline.

    6. Click the intersection of thecircle and the direction linewhich corresponds to theposition of the new vertex.

    The intersection pointnearest the cursor will behighlighted and, onceclicked, the new vertex isplaced.

    Optionally, you can use theTab key to switch betweenthe two intersection pointsand press Enter to select oneof them.

    The distance is specified fromanother corner of the parcel,and the locations where boththe direction and distancecriteria are met, a potentialvertex is placed. By clicking oneof the two vertices, the newvertex is placed. u

    Tip

    Determining map unitsWith many of these sketch tools youmust specify a distance in mapunits. The map units are specifiedunder the General tab of the DataFrame Properties dialog box. Thisis found by clicking View on theMain menu, then clicking DataFrame Properties.

    A vertex is addedat the intersectionyou chose. It is atthe angle youspecified from thefirst point and thedistance youspecified from thesecond point.

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  • CREATING NEW FEATURES 61

    Creating a multipointfeature

    1. Click the Task dropdownarrow and click Create NewFeature.

    2. Click the Target layerdropdown arrow and click amultipoint layer.

    3. Click the tool palettedropdown arrow and clickthe Sketch tool.

    4. Click the map to create partsof the multipoint feature.

    5. Right-click anywhere on themap when you have createdthe last point of the multipointfeature and click FinishSketch. u

    You can also create amultipoint feature, a featurethat consists of more than onepoint but only references oneset of attributes in the data-base. For example, a system ofoil wells could be created as amultipoint feature; the databasereferences a single set ofattributes for the main well andthe multiple well holes in thesystem.

    Tip

    Creating multipoint layersWhen creating multipoint features,your target layer must also be amultipoint feature class.

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  • 62 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    Now when you click one partof the multipoint feature toselect it, all points areautomatically selectedbecause they all belong toone multipoint feature.

    All points of the feature are selected.

    Tip

    Modifying existing featuresDouble-click a feature or selectsingle features and change the taskin the Editor toolbar to ModifyFeature. Use the Sketch Propertiesdialog box to edit vertices. You canopen the sketch properties by click-ing the Sketch Properties button onthe Editor toolbar.

  • CREATING NEW FEATURES 63

    Creating a line orpolygon feature bydigitizing

    1. Click the Task dropdownarrow and click Create NewFeature.

    2. Click the Target layerdropdown arrow and click aline or polygon layer.

    3. Click the tool palettedropdown arrow and click theSketch tool.

    4. Click the map to digitize thefeatures vertices.

    5. Right-click anywhere on themap when finished and clickFinish Sketch. u

    Creating linesand polygonsYou can create lines or poly-gons by digitizing the verticesthat make up the feature. Forexample, to create a squarebuilding, you would digitize thefour corners, using anycombination of methods forcreating vertices or segments.

    By selecting in the target list afeature class that is representedby lines or polygons, the editortools will create thecorresponding feature type.

    Tip

    Shortcuts for finishing thesketchYou can double-click the last vertexof the feature to finish the sketch.Or, press F2 when youve finishedcreating the sketch.

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    Tip

    Creating circles andrectangles with theAdvanced Editing toolbarYou can use the Circle andRectangle tools on the AdvancedEditing toolbar to create lines andpolygons of these shapes in theTarget layer.

  • 64 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    The line or polygon iscreated on your map.

    A new feature is createdon your map.

    Tip

    Deleting a vertexTo delete a single vertex from asketch, center the pointer over thevertex, right-click, then click DeleteVertex.

    Tip

    Deleting the sketchTo delete the entire sketch of thefeature you are creating, positionthe pointer over any part of themap, right-click, and click DeleteSketch. You can also delete a sketchby pressing Ctrl + Delete.

    If the sketch has alreadybeen finished, select the feature withthe Edit tool, right-click, and clickDelete Sketch.

  • CREATING NEW FEATURES 65

    Creating a multipart lineor polygon

    1. Create a line or polygonfeature.

    2. Right-click anywhere on themap when you have finishedcreating the first part of thefeature and click Finish Part.

    3. Create the next part of thefeature.

    4. Right-click anywhere on themap when you have finishedthe last part of the featureand click Finish Sketch. u

    Tip

    Replace sketchYou can add the shape of a line orpolygon feature to the sketch byright-clicking over the feature withthe Sketch tool and clickingReplace Sketch. The sketch willcontain the shape of the feature youclicked over. Using the Edit tool,the sketch can be dragged anddropped anywhere on the map.

    ArcMap also provides a way tocreate a multipart feature, afeature that is composed ofmore than one physical part butonly references one set ofattributes in the database. Forexample, the State of Hawaiicould be considered a multipartfeature. Although composed ofmany islands, it would berecorded as one feature. Amultipart feature can only sharevertices, not edges.

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    Tip

    Undoing and redoing avertexYou can undo the last vertex youcreated by clicking the Undo buttonon the ArcMap Standard toolbar.Click the button again to undo thesecond-to-last vertex you created,and so on. Click the Redo button ifyou want to re-add the vertex.

  • 66 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    Both parts of the feature are selected.

    Now when you click one partof the feature to select it, allparts are automaticallyselected because they allbelong to one multipartfeature.

    Tip

    Shortcut for finishing apartWhen creating a multipart sketch,you can hold down the Shift keyand double-click the last vertex of apart to finish it.

    Tip

    Shortcut for finishing thesketchYou can double-click the last vertexof the new feature to finish thesketch.

  • CREATING NEW FEATURES 67

    Squaring a polygon orpolyline

    1. Click the Current Taskdropdown arrow and clickCreate New Feature.

    2. Click the Target layerdropdown arrow and click apolygon or polyline layer.

    3. Click the tool palettedropdown arrow and click theSketch tool.

    4. Digitize at least twosegments.

    5. Right-click anywhere awayfrom the sketch and clickSquare and Finish. u

    The Square and Finish com-mand on the Sketch tool contextmenu is a way of completing apolygon. It finishes a polygonby adding two new segments at90-degree angles. Square andFinish saves you time andensures precision whencreating square-corneredbuildings.

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  • 68 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    The angles from the firstvertex and the last vertex aresquared. A new vertex isadded, and the sketch isfinished where the resultingsegments intersect.

    Tip

    StreamingYou can also create lines and poly-gons with the mouse using streammode digitizing (streaming). Formore information, seeChapter 5,Using a digitizer.

    Tip

    Adding attributes tocreated featuresTo add attributes to the newlycreated features, with the Edit tool,right-click the feature and clickAttributes. The Attributes dialogbox will open, which allows you tomodify the attributes.

    Firstvertex

    Lastvertex

    Newvertex

  • CREATING NEW FEATURES 69

    Creatingsegments usingdirections andlengthsThe edit tools help you createsegments in specific directions,measured either using the mapcoordinate system (Direction)or from the last segment(Deflection).

    The Direction command useseast as 0 degrees and measurespositive angles counterclock-wise by default. For example, a90-degree angle representsnorth and a 180-degree anglerepresents west. You canchange the direction measuringsystem and angular units on theUnits tab of the Editing Optionsdialog box.

    The Deflection command usesthe last segment as 0 degrees andcalculates the angle you specifyfrom there. Positive values arecalculated in a counterclockwisedirection from the existingsegment, while negative valuesare calculated clockwise. u

    Creating a segment usingan angle and a length

    1. Click the tool palettedropdown arrow and clickthe Sketch tool after creatingat least one vertex.

    2. Right-click away from thesketch and click Direction.

    3. Type the direction and pressEnter.

    The segment is constrainedto the specified direction. u

    Tip

    Shortcut for direction angleAfter clicking the Sketch tool andcreating at least one vertex, youcan press Ctrl + A to set thedirection angle.

    Angle constrained to 33 degrees

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  • 70 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    Tip

    Shortcut for lengthAfter clicking the Sketch tool andcreating at least one vertex, youcan press Ctrl + L to set the length.

    4. Right-click anywhere on themap and click Length.

    5. Type the length and pressEnter.

    The vertex that makes thesegment the desired angleand length is created.

    You might use Deflection tocreate the bent end of a water orgas line at a 33-degree angle toa house.

    Both the Direction and Deflec-tion commands constrain theangle of the segment. Forexample, if you type 45 as theDirection, the segment will beconstrained to a 45-degreeangle one way and a 225-degreeangle the other.

    Use the Length command tospecify the length of a segmentyoure creating.

    Tip

    Changing the length of asegmentIf you want to change the length ofa segment you have already cre-ated, you can use Change Lengthon the Sketch tool context menu.This undoes the last vertex whilekeeping the direction constraint.

    The vertex that makes the segment the desiredangle and length is created.

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  • CREATING NEW FEATURES 71

    Creating a segment at anangle from the lastsegment (deflection)

    1. Click the tool palettedropdown arrow and clickthe Sketch tool after creatingat least one vertex for thenew segment.

    2. Right-click away from thesketch.

    3. Click Deflection.

    4. Type the desired angle fromthe last segment and pressEnter.

    The segment is constrainedto the specified angle.

    5. Click once to digitize theendpoint of the segment orchoose Length from theSketch tool context menu.

    Tip

    Shortcut for deflectionAfter clicking the Sketch tool andcreating at least one vertex, youcan press Ctrl + F to set thedeflection angle.

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  • 72 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    Creating a segment at anangle from any othersegment

    1. Click the tool palettedropdown arrow and clickthe Sketch tool after creatingat least one vertex.

    2. Position the pointer over thesegment of a feature classfrom which you want tocreate a segment and right-click with the mouse.

    3. Click Segment Deflection.

    4. Type the desired angle fromthe segment you chose andpress Enter. u

    Creatingsegments usingangles fromexistingsegmentsThree commands on the Sketchtool context menuSegmentDeflection, Parallel, and Perpen-dicularhelp create segmentswith angles relative to segmentsthat already exist.

    The Segment Deflectioncommand lets you create asegment at an angle relative toany existing segment. WhileDeflection creates a segment ata specific angle from the lastsegment in the sketch yourecreating, Segment Deflectionlets you choose a segment in anexisting feature.

    As with the Deflection com-mand, the segment you workfrom with Segment Deflection is0 degrees, and the deflection u

    Tip

    Shortcut for segmentdeflectionAfter clicking the Sketch tool,creating at least one vertex, andpositioning the pointer over thesegment from which you want thespecific angle to be drawn, you canpress F7 to set the angle.

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  • CREATING NEW FEATURES 73

    angle you specify for the newsegment is calculated fromthere. Positive values arecalculated in a counterclock-wise direction from the existingsegment, while negative valuesare calculated clockwise. Theexample given shows a crossstreet created at a -45-degree angleto the existing streets. u

    The segment is constrainedto the specified angle.

    5. Click once to digitize theendpoint of the segment orchoose Length from theSketch tool context menu.

    Tip

    Using only positive valueswith segment deflectionIf you wish to work only withpositive angle values, convertnegative angles to positive anglesby adding 180 to the negativevalue. For example, a -45-degreeangle, measured clockwise,becomes a 135-degree angle,measured counterclockwise.

  • 74 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    Creating a segmentparallel to anothersegment

    1. Click the tool palettedropdown arrow and clickthe Sketch tool after creatingat least one vertex.

    2. Position the pointer over thesegment to which the newsegment will be parallel andright-click.

    3. Click Parallel.

    The segment is constrainedto be parallel to the specifiedsegment.

    4. Click once to digitize theendpoint of the segment orchoose Length from theSketch tool context menu.

    Tip

    Shortcut for parallelAfter clicking the Sketch tool,creating at least one vertex, andpositioning the pointer over thesegment to which the new segmentwill be parallel, you can pressCtrl + P to make the segmentparallel.

    The Parallel command on theSketch tool context menuconstrains a segment to beparallel to any segment youchoose. For instance, you mightuse this command to create a gasmain line parallel to the street.

    The Perpendicular command onthe Sketch tool context menuconstrains a segment to beperpendicular to an existingsegment. You might use thiscommand to place a service lineperpendicular to the main line.

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  • CREATING NEW FEATURES 75

    Creating a segmentperpendicular to anothersegment

    1. Click the tool palettedropdown arrow and click theSketch tool after creating atleast one vertex.

    2. Position the pointer over thesegment to which the newsegment will be perpendicu-lar and right-click with themouse.

    3. Click Perpendicular.

    The segment is constrainedto be perpendicular to thespecified segment.

    4. Click once to digitize theendpoint of the segment orchoose Length from theSketch tool context menu.

    Tip

    Shortcut for perpendicularAfter clicking the Sketch tool,creating at least one vertex, andpositioning the pointer over thesegment to which the new segmentwill be perpendicular, you canpress Ctrl + E to make the segmentperpendicular.

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  • 76 EDITING IN ARCMAP

    Creatingsegments thatare circular arccurvesWhen creating features, it isoften necessary to create acircular arc. Instead of beingmade of numerous vertices, acircular arc has only twovertices as endpoints. ArcMapoffers four ways to create asegment that is a circular arc.These include the Arc tool, theEndpoint Arc tool, the TangentCurve tool, and the TangentCurve command.

    First, you can cre