ess 303 - biomechanics basic movements and the skeletal system

29
ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System

Upload: lorin-butler

Post on 13-Dec-2015

216 views

Category:

Documents


1 download

TRANSCRIPT

Page 1: ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System

ESS 303 - Biomechanics

Basic Movements andThe Skeletal System

Page 2: ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System

Basic Movements

Head: Flexion, Extension, Hyperextension, R/L Lateral Flexion, R/L Rotation, & Circumduction

Trunk: Same as above Shoulder: Flexion, Extension,

Hyperextension, Abduction, Adduction, Hyperabduction, Hyperadduction, Horizontal Abduction, Horizontal Adduction, Med/Lat Rotation, & Circumduction

Page 3: ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System

Basic Movements (Cont.)

Sternoclavicular: Elevation & Depression

Acromioclavicular: Abduction, Adduction

(Protraction & Retraction), &

Upward/Downward Rotation

Elbow: Flexion, Extension, & Hyperextension

Radioulnar: Pronation, & Supination

Wrist: Flexion, Extension, Hyperextension,

Radial Flexion, Ulnar Flexion, & Circumduction

Page 4: ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System

Basic Movements (Cont.)

Metacarpophalangeal (Fingers): Flexion,

Extension, Hyperextension, Abduction,

Adduction, & Circumduction

Thumb Interphalangeal: Flexion, Extension,

Hyperextension

Carpometacarpal: Flexion, Extension, Abduction,

Adduction, Opposition, & Circumduction

Metacarpophalangeal: Flexion & Extension

Page 5: ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System

Basic Movements (Cont.)

Hip: Flexion, Extension, Hyperextension, Abduction, Adduction, Hyperadduction, Horizontal Abduction, Horizontal Adduction, Med/Lat Rotation, & Circumduction

Knee: Flexion, Extension, Hyperextension, & Med/Lat Rotation

Ankle: Plantar Flexion, DorsiflexionIntertarsal: Inversion, & Eversion

Page 6: ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System

Basic Movements (Cont.)

Metatarsophalangeal:

Flexion, Extension,

Abduction, Adduction,

& Circumduction

Interphalangeal:

Flexion, & Extension

Page 7: ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System

Axial Skeleton

Appendicular Skeleton

Page 8: ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System

Internal Structure of Bone

Epiphyseal line

Medulary Cavity

Epiphysis

Diaphysis

Spongy

Trabeculae

Compact

Page 9: ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System

Internal Structure of Bone

Page 10: ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System

Internal Structure of Bone

Page 11: ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System

Bone Remodeling Cycle

Page 12: ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System

Stress & Tissue Adaptation (Remodeling)

Pathological Overload ZoneDistress (Injury)

Overload ZoneEustress (Adaptation)

Physiological Loading ZoneMaintenance

Under-loading ZoneDistress (Atrophy)

Page 13: ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System

Stress & Strain

Stress: Force within a structure (internal) divided by the cross-sectional area

Strain: Measured deformation of an object as a result of stressLinear: A change in the object’s lengthShear: A change in an object’s orientation of

adjacent molecules

Page 14: ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System

Stress Strain

Page 15: ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System

Stress Strain

Page 16: ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System

Basic Types

Tension: Tensile Stress & Strain (Stretching)

Stress Strain

Page 17: ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System
Page 18: ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System

Basic Types

Compressive Stress & Strain

Stress Strain

Page 19: ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System
Page 20: ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System

Basic Types

Shear Stress & Strain

Stress

Strain

Page 21: ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System
Page 22: ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System

Mechanical Loads: Bending

Page 23: ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System

Mechanical Loads: Torsion

Page 24: ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System
Page 25: ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System

Types of Bone

Long (Femur)

Short (Carpals)

Flat (Scapula & Ribs)

Irregular (Skull & Vertebrae)

Sesamoid (Patella)

Page 26: ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System

Articulations

Synarthrodial (Sutures of skull)

Amphiarthrodial (Between

vertebrae)

Diarthrodial (Common)

Page 27: ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System

Planes & Axes

Page 28: ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System

Sagittal Plane(Anterioposterior or Median)

Transverse Plane(Horizontal)

Frontal Plane(Coronal)

Page 29: ESS 303 - Biomechanics Basic Movements and The Skeletal System

Sagittal-Horizontal Axis

Vertical Axis

Frontal-Horizontal Axis