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Issue 9 of the European Geographer with articles from the Scientific Symposium 2011 in Ebermannstadt

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  • Magazine of the European Geography Association for students and young geographers

    The European Geographer

    9th issue September 2012

    ISSN: 1605-6566

    The Scientific Symposium 2011

  • Contents

    3 Sandra Sosnowski and Tobias Michl Editorial

    4 Tom De Bruyn Political representation of minorities in Cape Town

    9 Tine Bergmans Struggles over urban space. A case-study of state-led urban restructuring and squatters struggles over urban space in Lund, Sweden

    13 Agata Warchalska-Troll Susceptibility of large post-socialist housing estates in Poland to landscape and social degradation. The example of the city of Katowice (Upper Silesia)

    18 Ctlina Ioni Willingness to Pay for Ecological Reconstruction Projects - Partial Results of a Contingent Valuation Study in Braila Islands and Neajlov Catchment

    21 Cristina Ciobanu The ecotouristic potential of the central region of the Republic of Moldova

    23 Svetlana Samsonova Geomorphologic analysis of urban protected areas for environmental management (case study of Moscow parks)

    26 Catrin Promper Multi-temporal analysis of surface processes of an anthropogenic influenced high alpine catchment (Idalpe, Ischgl, Austria) - Master thesis

    ColophonThe EGEA Magazine is a publication from the European Geography Association for Geography students and young Geographers. The EGEA Magazine is published twice a year. The magazine is produced for the EGEA community, EGEA partners and all others interested in EGEA, Geography and Europe.

    Postal address:EGEAFaculty of Geosciences - Utrecht UniversityP.O.Box 80.115NL-3508 TC UtrechtTelephone: +31-30-2539708E-mail: egea@egea.eu E-mail EGEA magazine: egea.magazine@egea.eu Website: www.egea.eu

    Editors of the 9th issue:Inge Wiekenkamp (Chief Editor), Tobias Michl (Chief Editor), Colette Caruana (Chief Editor), Ciprian Caraba, Cosmin Ceuca, Olga Chernopits-kaya, Nicu Ciobotaru, Amanda Finger, Franziska Hbner, Annika Palomki, Jakub Ondruch, Cristi-na Onet, Laura Helene Rasmussen, Julian Thesen

    Graphic Design: Cosmin Ceuca, Inge Wiekenkamp, Nicu Ciobotaru

    Contributing authors:Tine Bergmans, Cristina Ciobanu, Tom de Bruyn, Catalina Ioanita, Tobias Michl, Catrin Promper, Svetlana Samsonova, Sandra Sosnowski, Agata Warchalska-Troll.

    Coverphoto:Ekrem Canli

    All authors are completely responsible for the con-tent of their articles and references made by them.

    The editors would like to thank:Sanne Heijt EGEA BoE Secretariat Director 11/12Karl Donert - president of EUROGEO and UK National Teaching Fellow at Liverpool Hope UniversityAll authors

    EGEA is supported by:ESRIEUROGEOFaculty of Geosciences, Utrecht UniversityEYF - European Youth FoundationThe European Union

    2

    The European Geographer, 9th Issue

  • The chosen presentations covered a vari-ety of themes, which, once again, exempli-fies the diversity of geographical research, which is what makes it such a valuable sub-ject.

    The presenters covered a variety of top-ics, including the connection of urban plan-ning and protest, the link between socialist heritage and real-estate markets, the inter-relation of socio-spatial groups and elec-toral systems, the consequences of Alpine surface processes for spatial planning, the effects of ecological awareness on tourism or the question of which obligations people are willing to take because of this afore-mentioned awareness.

    Geography offers a unique point of view to a variety of aspects and the capability of linking themes and disciplines which seem to differ enormously. Therefore, geography offers helpful tools for developing solutions for wider problems whilst making it clear that everything is interrelated.

    With its holistic approach it shows that physical and social processes are not to be treated separately, but that they are in-terdependent.

    Using this point of view, our presenters were able to introduce the audience to very interesting and exceptional themes. In this special issue of the European Ge-ographer we are happy to present you with the written work of these EGEAns.

    We hope you will learn something new and that you have fun reading this magazine.

    This 9th Edition of the European Geog-rapher is a special edition with articles of EGEAs Scientific Symposium 2011.

    Due to the first Scientific Symposium held at the Annual Congress 2010 being such a great success, the Scientific Committee and the Annual Congress organizers de-cided to continue this project in 2011.

    Everybody was very happy with the nu-merous positive responses to the call for abstracts. We thank everybody who sent in their abstract and encourage you all to continue with your geographical work. Ul-timately we could only choose six topics which were then presented at the Scien-tific Symposium.

    Once again EGEAns proved that the qual-ity of their scientific work and research skills was very high and we were happy to see that the next generation of geogra-phers is capable of doing such good work.

    Editorial

    Scientific Symposium Presenters and team - EGEA Annual Congress 2011 - Ebermannstadt, Germany

    Photo: Joanna Wawrynowicz

    by Sandra Sosnowski (Speaker of the Scientific Committee 2011/12)and Tobias Michl (Chief Editor of the European Geographer 2011/12)

    3

    TheScientificSymposium2011-September2012

  • 1. Introduction

    Around the world, democracy is executed by mechanisms of representation. In doing so, an ongoing issue is whether everyone can be represented in an equal way.

    In order to achieve this there are different electoral systems, from those based on spatial systems (electoral dis-tricts) or ideological-proportional systems (proportional representation systems) to ideology-paramount systems (majority systems) or combinations thereof. However, because there are differ-ences between individuals in any so-ciety and democracy is very difficult to function with total participation (with-out representation), there will always be differences in the level of repre-sentation of individual citizens. A very interesting question for geographers refers to the representation of socio-

    spatial groups, and how they may or may not be influenced by the electoral system and its operation by politicians and the socio-spatial groups themselves.

    Cape Town is one of the largest cit-ies in South Africa, a country that has been a democracy for only 17 years. As it turns out, turning the wrongs of apart-heid into rights has not been very easy, and the inexperienced government has struggled to get South Africa out of a social low and into an economic high (Western, 1996; Prinsloo et al., 1999).

    Cape Town itself still looks a lot like the segregated city of the apartheid era, seeing the similarities between the ideal lay-out of the apartheid regime (Fig 1) and the current racial structure (Fig 2). Additionally, there is a high correlation of races and their economic situation (Fig 3), merely shifting the causes of apartheid from politics to the economy without significantly lessening racial segregation.

    Obviously, both geographical segrega-tion and economic segregation work together in creating several urban prob-

    lems. Segregated poverty creates a ghetto-effect, with declining communityintegration and rising rates of alcohol-ism, violence, crime, environmental problems and diseases such as TB and

    Figure 1: Map of racial areas during apartheid in Cape Town. Western, 1996

    Political representation of minorities in Cape Town

    Figure 2 - Map of races in Cape Town at the smallest statistical level. Data SSA, 2001, own cartography

    Tom De Bruyn, EGEA Leuven,

    KU Leuven

    4

    The European Geographer, 9th Issue

  • Figure 3 - Yearly income per capita of statistical areas. Poverty line indicated. Data SSA 2001

    electoral districts (wards) in the city.

    This system uses the background bias, namely the tendency of politicians to fa-vour their own neighbourhood or social group/class (Pande, 2003), to ensure each ward has its own representative, while also incorporating the more modern representational system of the people electing a certain number of seats to dif-ferent parties.

    This article researches this balance in Cape Towns local government.

    2. Objectives

    The main objective of this article is to see in what way different socio-spatial groups are represented in local government.

    In a city that is as divided into different so-cial, economic and racial neighbourhoods as Cape Town is, but where electoral repre-sentation is based on electoral districts that combine different neighbourhoods: where do the ward councillors live, and how do they take account of other neighbourhoods than their own in their policies?

    The main hypothesis is: There is a demo-cratic deficit benefiting affluent white social groups and hindering less affluent black groups.

    This occurs mainly in local government areas where different racial and economic groups are significantly present., or, as one councillor said it: Still a lot of people complain that this city is not well-repre-sented, and also is catering for the whites.

    To give an example, what if a councillor lives in a rich, white, secluded neighbour-hood, but parts of his/her ward include a poor, coloured area or a black township? How are they able to understand and meet the needs of those unknown areas in their decisions and policies? Lets find out.

    Figure 4 - Clusters in Cape Town. Data SSA, 2001; own cartography

    AIDS (Pieterse, 2002: 10). Western (1996) calls Cape Towns contemporary situation deracialized apartheid. This is one of the main reasons why race is still an issue in the self-proclaimed rainbow nation of South Afr

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