extraordinary scents 2012

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  • 1.Out of the Wilds and Into Your GardenGardening with Western L.A. County Native PlantsProject SOUND 2012 (our 8th year) Project SOUND

2. Extraordinary Scents Native Plant Scents forPotpourri and MoreC.M. Vadheim and T. DrakeCSUDH & Madrona Marsh PreserveMadrona Marsh Preserve May 5 & 8, 2012 Project SOUND 3. Do you ever wish you knew more abouthow to use your native plants? Project SOUND 4. http://www.sepulvedabasinwildlife.org/vegemanage.htmlSmell is a potent wizard that transports us across athousand miles and all the years we have lived. - Helen Keller Project SOUND 5. Smell is our most primitive sense Memories recalled by smells often feel more vivid and emotional than those associated with sights, sounds and tastes. Unlike the other sense organs, the nose sends information directly to the limbic system, a primitive part of the brain concerned with memory and emotion. Project SOUND 6. Floral scent is often the most powerfullysensual experience in the garden The scent-sensing part of the brain is very ancient Floral memories can last a lifetime and are among the strongest memories Not all people experience the same scent in the same way: Biologic differences different receptorshttp://www.altmd.com/Articles/Aromatherapy--Encyclopedia-of-Alternative-Medicine The memories thatparticular scents evoke Project SOUND 7. Despite their complexity, plant scents can be as recognizable as their other attributes The human nose is capable of recognizing 10,000 scents. Scent in plants comes from volatile oils found in the glands of flowers, leaves, branches, seeds, bark, and, in some cases, roots. More than 3,000 chemically different oils have been identified from at least eighty-seven families of plants. Project SOUND 8. The experience of scent is individualistic Yet some scents have been purported to cause certain effects for a long time and in many different cultures: Lavender calming Mint energizing Sage can reduce mentalfatigue, stress and mentalexhaustion. Is there a chemical basis for these effects?http://www.allure.com/beauty-trends/blogs/daily-beauty-reporter/2011/10/the-floral-fragrance-note-both-you-and-he-will-love.html Project SOUND 9. Practitioners of aromatherapy say yes An aromatherapy garden focuses on the scents of the plantsand flowers in it. The scents are the basis for the essentialoils used in aromatherapy. Essential oils are volatile (from the Latin volare, meaning tofly), which means they evaporate at or above roomtemperature. Heat releases the fragrance of the oils (essentially theplants perfume or flavor), hence the more noticeablefragrances generated by a walk through a summer garden. Inthe winter these fragrances are less noticeable as the coolerair prevents easy evaporation of the oils from plants. A scentless garden would have amazed the ancient Greeks,Romans, Persians even the Victorians! Project SOUND 10. Traditional SimpleHanging herbsmethods of using Simmering herbs scented foliage Scented wood for drawers Bath teas Hand rubs Slightly more complex Smudge sticks Sachets/scent pillows Bath salts Potpourri/infusers Infused oils for massage Scents/flavors/oils Hydrosols and essential oils Soaps Candles Perfumes Project SOUND 11. CA native essential oils and other products commonly available for purchase Salvia apiana Salvia mellifera Achillea millefolia Balsam fir Juniperhttp://www.artisan-aromatics.com/sunshop/catalog/artisan-essential-oils-/yarrow--milfoil-62.html Bay Laurel Monterey Cypress Incense Cedarhttp://www.wildrootbotanicals.com/html/essential_stan.html Project SOUND 12. * Incense Cedar Calocedrus decurrensJ.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database Project SOUND 13. * Incense Cedar Calocedrus decurrens Montane forests from Oregon south through California to northern Baja California, Mexico and east to western Nevada Locally in San Gabriel Mtns. On mesic sites including riparian habitats in mixed-http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?157,158,159 evergreen, yellow-pine forests, 2000-7000 feet 2005 Steven Perkins Project SOUND 14. Incense Cedar: a true N. American Cedar Size: Commonly 40 to 70 ft. with age may be much taller 10-25+ ft wide Growth rate fast up to 20 ft. Growth form: Woody tree Can live 500+ years J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database Bark thick, furrowed, cinnamon- brown later gray Foliage: Bright green; in flattened sprays of scale-like leaves Very aromatic Roots: taproots and shallowlaterals Project SOUNDSusan McDougall @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database 15. Flowers are unusual Blooms: winter/spring Flowers: Separate male an female cones (on same tree) Female cones urn-shaped small but noticeable Seeds: Take 1 year to develop Female cones split open (decorative) releasing seeds Vegetative reproduction: Tip-propagate from current years growth in fallCharles Webber California Academy of Sciences Project SOUND 16. Incense Cedar: Soils: not demanding Texture: likes a deep, well-drainedloam takes most pH: any local wide range (5.5-8.0) Light: full sun to part-shade Water: Winter: good, deep water Summer: amazingly droughttolerant; good in Water Zone 2 onceestablished Fertilizer: very tolerant Other: likes an organic mulch Does well in a wide range ofconditions 2010 Ryan Gilmore Project SOUND 17. Incense Cedar is a magnificent tree Good choice for evergreen tree inlarge yards, parks, business parks,schools & other large areas Used as a large screen Project SOUNDhttp://shriverfarms.com/default.aspx http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calocedrus_decurrens http://www.panoramio.com/photo/37860873 18. Human uses of Incense Cedar Flavoring Leaves used to flavor acorn meal Medicinal Leaves decocted to treat stomachailments Foliage steamed to treat nasalcongestion and colds Other Wood used for shelters by nativeCalifornians Wood still used as insect-resistantlumber, fence posts, railroad ties,venetian blinds, greenhouse benches,siding, decking, cedar chests, pencils 2012 Daniel Passarini and shingles. Roots and bark used for basket-making Project SOUND 19. Monterey Cypress-Cupressus macrocarpa Citriodora Project SOUND 20. Why do cedars & junipers have unique,earthy or woodsy scents Cedar oil (cedarwood oil; Cypress oil) is an essential oil derived from the foliage, and sometimes the wood and roots, of various types of conifers, most in the pine or cypress botanical families. The most important cedar oils are produced from distilling wood of junipers and cypresses (Juniperus and Cupressus spp. - family Cupressaceae), rather than true cedars (Cedrus spp., of the family Pinaceae). Similar oils are distilled, pressed or chemically extracted in small quantities from wood, rootshttp://www.hardtofinditems.com/cedar-oil-32oz.html and leaves from plants of the genera Calocedrus. Project SOUND 21. What makes up the scent of Cedar? The main components ofcypress oil are a-pinene,camphene, sabinene, b-pinene,d-3carene, myrcene, a-terpinene, terpinolene, linalool,bornyl acetate, cedrol andcadinene The main components ofIncense Cedar oil are: -3-carene, limonene, -pinene,terpinolene, -fenchylacetate, with some cedrol. Project SOUND 22. Essential oils are volatile, natural, complex What are compounds characterized by a strong odorand are formed by aromatic plants asessential oils? secondary metabolites. Chemically, essential oils are very complexnatural mixtures which can contain about2060 components at quite differentconcentrations. They are characterized by23 major components at fairly highconcentrations (2070%), compared toother components present in traceamounts. Generally, these major componentsdetermine the biological properties of theessential oil. The components include twogroups with different biosyntheticalorigins: the main group is composed ofterpenes, and the other of aromatic andaliphatic constituents, all characterized bytheir low molecular weight. Project SOUND 23. Various essential oils have been used medicinally atEssential oils different periods in history. Medical applications proposed by those who sell medicinal oils range from skin treatments to remedies for cancer, and often are based solely on historical accounts of use of essential oils for these purposes. Claims for the efficacy of medical treatments and treatment of cancers in particular, are now subject to regulation in most countries. Interest in essential oils has revived in recent decades with the popularity of aromatherapy, a branch of alternative medicine that claims that essential oils and other aromatic compounds have curative effects. Oils are volatilized or diluted in a carrier oil and used in massage, diffused in the air by a nebulizer, heated over a candle flame, or burned as incense. Project SOUND 24. The distillation process: the most common method for extracting essential oils http://www.baldwins.co.uk/blog/2011/07/how-is-essential-oils-produced/ Project SOUND 25. Hydrosols and Floral Waters Made by distilling the whole plant;contain not only essential oils, butmany other water soluble components More true to the essence of the plantand a more complete representation ofit, chemically. Contain the same medicinal propertiesas the essential oils, but not asconcentrated, so it can be used inmore applications. Can be used as a facial toner/cleanser,perfume, deodorant or room freshener- or incorporate into lotions/homemade soap. Project SOUND 26. An organic compound (a monoterpene) alpha-Pinene Contains a reactive four-memberedring; very reactive. Found in the oils of many species ofmany coniferous trees, notably thepine. It is also found in the essentialoil of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Known for its growth-inhibitoryactivity. -pinene inhibits early rootgrowth and causes oxidative damage inroot tissue through enhancedgeneration of ROS, as indicated byhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:(1S)-disruption of membrane integrity and(%E2%88%92)-alpha-pinene-from-xtal-3D-balls.pngelevated antioxidant enzym