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DESCRIPTIONFilm Editing. HUM 110: Intro to American Film JC Clapp, North Seattle Community College Info here borrowed heavily from the Film Art (10 th ed.) textbook by Borwell & Thompson and from the Yale Film Studies website: http://classes.yale.edu/film-analysis/htmfiles/editing.htm. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Film EditingHUM 110: Intro to American FilmJC Clapp, North Seattle Community CollegeInfo here borrowed heavily fromthe Film Art (10th ed.) textbook by Borwell & Thompson and from the Yale Film Studies website: http://classes.yale.edu/film-analysis/htmfiles/editing.htm
Basic Types of TransitionsBetween ShotsCut instant change from one shot to anotherFade-out gradually darkens the end to blackFade-in gradually lightens a shot from blackDissolve briefly superimposes the end of shot A and the beginning of shot BWipe shot B replaces shot A by means of a line that moves across the screen (both shots are seen at the same time, but dont blend)Editing Allows for . . .Graphic relations between shotsRhythmic relations between shotsSpatial relations between shotsTemporal relations between shots
Examples . . .Graphic Relations Between ShotsGraphic match shapes, colors or composition in shot A is reflected in shot B. (The example below from Aliens uses a dissolve, as well)
Rhythmic Relations Between ShotsPace or tempo is the amount of time the audience has to grasp and reflect on what we see. Rapid shots leave us with little time and can build excitement. Pay attention to the rhythm of the film the pace matters.
Some examples . . .
Spatial Relations Between ShotsJuxtaposing any two points in space suggests some kind of relationship.Kuleshov Effect: cutting together portions of a space in a way that prompts the viewer to assume a spatial whole that isnt actually shown. Soviet Montage (collision montage) http://vimeo.com/8082147 Temporal Relations Between ShotsOrder of events (chronology)FlashbackFlashforwardElliptical editing: presents an action so that it consumes less time on screen than it does in the story.Overlapping editing: stretches the action out past its story durationContinuity EditingAims to transmit narrative information smoothly and clearly. Graphic qualities are kept roughly continuous, figures are balanced in the frame, lighting tonality remains constant, action occupies central zones of the screen. Long shots left on screen longer than medium shots, and medium shots are left on longer than close-ups. http://www.criticalcommons.org/Members/pcote/clips/vertigo-editing-clip-1.mov/viewContinuity: 180 degree systemEnsures that relative positions in the frame remain consistentEnsures consistent eyelinesEnsures consistent screen direction (direction of movement)Ensures the viewer always knows where the characters are in relation to one another180 degree system
ContinuityShot/reverse-shot: shot from one end of the axis of action, then the otherPOV shot: shot down the axisEyeline match: shot A presents someone looking at something offscreen and shot B shows us what is being looked at. (Eyeline matches often used with Kuleshov effect to create false spaces through editing.)Match on action: carrying a single movement across a cutEstablishing shots and reestablishing shots