film editing silent early years (2)
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DESCRIPTIONFilm editing in the early years
- 1. The early history of film editing
2. Learning objective The Lumierre Brothers Georges Melies Edwin Porter The Kuleshov Effect Eisenstein and montage D. W. Griffith and the feature length film Nosferatu Harold Lloyd and special effects 3. The Lumierre BrothersTheir films where single, unedited shots such as Larrive dun train a lacoitat. The Lumierre Brothers found a subject the wanted to film, setup their camera and ran the camera until the film stock ran out. 4. Georges Melies Georges Melies was an illusionist who worked in the theater. He pioneereddouble exposure when his camera jammed while filming on the streets ofParis. This evolved into the first dissolve (Cendrillon, 1899).QuickTime and aQuickTime an d adecompressordecompressor are needed to see this picture. are need ed to see this picture. 5. The first film editThe process of editing film wasdone inside the camera bystopping the cranking of thefilm at the point of edit andthen continuing with the nextscene. 6. Edwin PorterAmerican filmmaker Edwin Porter was an early pioneer of editingIn order to tell a simple story. In 1903 he Made The Life of anAmerican Fireman. 7. The Kuleshov Effect.Between 1910 and 1920, Russian Filmmaker Lev Kuleshov and V. I. Pudovkinexperimented with editing and emotional response. They filmed an actorsresponse to different images; a bowl of soup (hunger), a woman (lust) and achild in a coffin (sadness). Although itappears that the actors expression doesnot change, when juxtaposed with thethree shots it may suggest to the audiencethat it does. 8. Sergie EisensteinRussian filmmaker Sergie Eisenstein believed film montage could create ideas that would have a greater impact on an audience. This allowed filmmakers to manipulate real time to a greater degree than just single shots. Note that Eisenstein is simply cutting using the naked eye and a pair of scissors. 9. D. W. Griffith In 1915, D. W. Griffith made The Birth of a Nation which used agreater variety of camera angles and editing techniques. His filmswere very popular and he was the first director to produce a featurelength film. 10. In 1922, German filmmaker F. W. Murnau made Nosferatu. It was the firstvisual representation of the Vampire and one of the first films to use editingfilm for more complex story telling and using reverse shots. 11. Harold LloydHarold Lloyd, along with Charlie Chaplin and Buster Keaton made silent filmsthat used special effects with storytelling that helped put Hollywood on theMap. His 1923 film Safety First Is still iconic cinema. 12. The editing bench 13. The Griswold Film SplicerFilm was edited simplyby splicing (cutting) thefilm at the exact frameand taping clipstogether. The splicerallowed cleaner andmore occur.ate cuts 14. The first MoviolaThe Moviola was invented in 1924by Iwan Serrurier. The deviceallowed film to be viewed whileediting. The Moviola company wasset up in Hollywood and the art ofediting film was revolutionized. Thedevise is still used today.