food adulteration main.doc

Objective The Objective of this project is to study some of the common food adulterants present in different food stuffs.

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Food Adulteration Main.doc


Page 1: Food Adulteration Main.doc


The Objective of this project is to study some of

the common food adulterants present in different

food stuffs.

Page 2: Food Adulteration Main.doc


FOOD ADULTERATION [food adulteration] act of intentionally debasing

the quality of food offered for sale either by the admixture or substitution of

inferior substances or by the removal of some valuable ingredient. The Greek and

Roman classics contain allusions to wine makers and dealers who colored and

flavored their wine. In England as early as the 13th cent., bakers cheapened their

wares or scanted the weight, and lawmakers for the first time made an effort to

prevent fraudulent dealings on the part of butchers and brewers. In Great Britain in

the 18th and early 19th cent., coffee, tea, and cocoa were placed under protection

laws by Parliament, passed not so much in the interest of the consumer as to keep

up internal revenues. About the middle of the 19th cent. chemical and microscopal

knowledge had reached the stage that food substances could be analyzed, and the

subject of food adulteration began to be studied from the standpoint of the rights

and welfare of the consumer. In 1860 the first food law framed in the interest of

the purchaser was passed. That law, lacking sufficient means of enforcement,

remained largely ineffective until 1872, when administrative officials were

appointed and penalties for violation provided. In the United States the federal

Food and Drug Act of 1906 was the result of a long and stormy campaign led by

Dr. Harvey Washington Wiley . This law defined food adulteration and the

misbranding of products; it provided regulations covering the interstate movement

of food and penalties for violations. The act was superseded in 1938 by the more

rigorous Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act administered since 1940 by the Food and

Drug Administration (now within the Dept. of Health and Human Services). It is

charged with enforcing truthful and informative labeling of essential commodities,

maintaining staff laboratories, and formulating definitions and standards

promoting fair dealing in the interests of the consumer. The 1938 act broadened

the definitions of adulteration, misbranding, and lack of informative labeling; it

provided for factory inspections; and it increased the penalties for violations. It

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was amended in 1958 and 1962 to define and regulate food additives and food

coloring. The federal law controls traffic from one state to another and is

supplemented by local regulations that require food handlers to be licensed,

thereby discouraging the spread of disease; it provides for the inspection by health

officers of meat and other foods, of restaurants, and of dairies and cold storage

methods. Food may be poisonous for reasons other than deliberate adulteration.

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Adulteration of fats and oils is easy and cannot be easily detected. Ghee

(butter oil) is adulterated with hydrogenated oil and animal fats. Recently, because

of the discovery of synthetic colours and flavours, any fat can be made to look like

ghee and customers may easily be cheated. Til oil and coconut oil are often mixed

with groundnut or cottonseed oil as the latter are cheaper. Mustard seeds are often

mixed with argemone seeds and extracted together. Argemone oil contains an

alkaloid-sanguinarine which is highly toxic and results in dropsy and paralysis.

Adding allylisothiocyanate to soybean oil or palm oil gives the characteristic

pungent smell of mustard oil. Mixing of palm oil with soybean oil is a common

practice among dishonest traders for more profits.

The adulteration of milk is

normally done with the

addition of water and

removal of fat. Sometimes

extraneous substances like

soybean and groundnut

milk, wheat flour, etc are

mixed. Selling diluted

buffalo milk as cow milk is

a common practice in rural

areas. Addition of wheat flour, semolina, etc to milk powder is also common.

TEA leaves may be adulterated with the addition of used tea leaves, sawdust, and

dried and ground leaves other than tea leaves. Spices like chillies and turmeric

powder are adulterated with the addition of lead pigment to impart brightness in

colour and good appearance. Metanil yellow, a carcinogenic agent, is used for

colouring turmeric powder. CHILLI powder is normally adulterated by adding

brick powder. Excessive use of wheat flour in place of milk protein (chhana) in

the preparation of sweetmeat is an example of adulteration. Use of carboxy methyl

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cellulose (CMC) in lieu of liquid glucose or sugar syrup in the preparation of soft

drinks is an example of extortion. In the name of various fruit juices, imitation

products are prepared by using artificial and prohibited ingredients instead of

using original fruit juice. Recently, a special drink named mineral water is being

prepared and marketed with little or no assurance of quality.


Adulterants are chemical impurities or substances that by law do not belong

in a food, pesticide, or other substance. Some are added intentionally to lower the

manufacturing cost of the product, or to modify its characteristics in a deceptive


Usage of adulterants was very common and often was a penal offense. A few

examples used through the history are:

Mogdad coffee , whose seeds have been used as an adulterant for coffee

Roasted chicory roots were used for the same purpose, starting during the

Napoleonic era in France

Roasted ground peas, beans, or wheat used to adulterate roasted chicory

Diethylene glycol , used by some winemakers to fake sweet wines

Oleomargarine or lard, added to butter

Rapeseed oil , commonly added to sunflower oil and soybean oil,

brassicasterol being a marker of its presence

Rye flour, corn meal or potato starch used to dilute more expensive

flours; alum is also added to disguise usage of lower-quality flour

Apple jellys were substituted for more expensive fruit jellys, with added

colorant and sometimes even little pieces of wood that simulated eg.

strawberry seeds

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Artificial colorants , often toxic - eg. copper, zinc, or indigo-based green

dyes added to absinthe

Sudan I yellow color, added to chili powder

Water , for diluting milk and beer

Lower-quality black tea disguised as higher class

Starch , added to sausages

Cutting agents are often used to adulterate (or "cut") illicit drugs

Adulterants can be also added to urine, in order to interfere with the accuracy of

drug tests. They are often oxidative in nature - hydrogen peroxide, and bleach

have been used, sometimes with pH-adjusting substances like vinegar or sodium

bicarbonate. These can be detected by drug testing labs, but some of the less

expensive tests do not look for them.


An article of food shall be deemed to be adulterated -

a. if the article sold by a vendor is not of the nature, substance or quality

demanded by the purchaser or which it purports to be;

b. if the article contains any substance affecting its quality or of it is so

processed as to injuriously affect its nature, substance or quality;

c. if any inferior or cheaper substance has been substituted wholly or partly

for the article, or any constituent of the article has been wholly or partly

abstracted from it, so as to affecting its quality or of it is so processed as to

injuriously affect its nature, substance or quality;

d. if the article had been prepared, packed or kept under insanitary

conditions whereby it has become contaminated or injurious to health;

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e. if the article consists wholly or in part of any filthy, putrid, disgusting,

rotten, decomposed or diseased animal or vegetable substance or being

insect-infested, or is otherwise unfit for human consumption;

f. if the article is obtained from a diseased animal;

g. if the article contains any poisonous or other ingredient which is injurious

to health;

h. if the container of the article is composed of any poisonous or deleterious

substance which renders its contents injurious to health;

i. if the article contains any prohibited colouring matter or preservative, or

any permitted colouring matter or preservative in excess of the prescribed


j. if the quality or purity of the article falls below the prescribed standard,

or its constituents are present in proportions other standard, or its

constituents are present in proportions other than those prescribed, whether

or not rendering it injurious to health.


An article of food shall be deemed to be misbranded-

a. if it is an imitation of, or is a substitute for, or

resembles in a manner likely to deceive, another article

of food, and is not conspicuously labelled so as to

indicate its true character,

b. if it is falsely stated to be the product of any place or country,

c. if it is sold by a name which belongs to another article of food,

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d. if it is so coloured, flavoured, coated, powdered or polished as to

conceal any damage to the article or to appear of greater value than it

really is,

e. if false claims are made for it upon the label or otherwise,

f. if, when sold in sealed or prepared packages by its manufacturer, the

contents of each package are not conspicuously and correctly stated on

the outside thereof;

g. if the package containing it is deceptive with respect to its contents, in

any manner, such as label, statement, design or device which is misleading,

h. if the package containing it, or the label thereon, bears the name of a

fictitious individual or company as the manufacturer or producer of the


i. if it purports to be, or is represented as being for special dietary uses,

unless its label bears the prescribed information concerning its dietary


j. if it contains any artificial flavouring, colouring or chemical

preservatives without declaring the same on the label, or in violation of

the requirements of this Act and the Rules made thereunder, and

k. if it is not labelled in accordance with the requirements of this Act and

the Rules made thereunder.

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It is sad to note that most Indians are resigned to drinking milk diluted with water which

not only reduces the nutritious value of the beverage but also poses risk to health. Delhi

Chief Minister Sheila Dixit says: “We have a huge challenge before us. We need more

laboratories to test milk. India being largely a vegetarian society relies on milk rather

than meat for its nutritional needs.”

A glass (250ml) of unadulterated whole milk will give around 146 kcals; 8gms of fat and

protein with 257mg of calcium. Calciumand other vitamins and minerals in milk make it

an important part of a healthful diet for people of all ages. The benefits of drinking milk

include strengthening bones, improved cardiovascular and oral healthand even relief from



Milk is most commonly diluted with water - this not only reduces its nutritional value,

but contaminated water can also cause additional health problems.

The other adulterants used are mainly starch, sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), sugar,

urea, hydrated lime, sodium carbonate, formalin, and ammonium sulfate.


The Indian Council of Medical Research has reported that “milk adulterants have

hazardous health effects. The detergent in milk can cause food poisoning and other

gastrointestinal complications. Its high alkaline level can also damage body tissue and

destroy proteins. Other synthetic components can cause impairments, heart problems,

cancer or even death. While the immediate effect of drinking milk adulterated with urea,

caustic soda and formalin is gastroenteritis, the long-term effects are far more serious.”


Urea can lead to vomiting, nausea and gastritis. Urea is particularly harmful for the

kidneys, and caustic soda can be dangerous for people suffering from hypertension and

heart ailments.

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Formalin can cause more severe damage to the body like liver damage. The health impact

of drinking milk adulterated with these chemicals is worse for children. Caustic soda

harms the mucosa of the food pipe, especially in kids. The chemical which contains

sodium, can act as slow poison for those suffering from hypertension and heart ailments.

 To avoid these dangers, it is best to buy milk from a renowned source. For those who

can, buying milk sold by reputed companies in tetra packs is also a good option.



 To detect various adulterants present in milk using specific biochemical tests.



            Milk procurement is one of the important aspects that ensure the safety level of

the milk.  Quality control tests for milk are a considerable aspect to assure adulterant free

milk for consumption. Adulteration of milk is considered to reduce the quality of milk. 

Adulterants like soap, acid, starch, table sugar and chemicals like formalin are added to

the milk.  Most of the chemicals used as adulterants are poisonous and cause health

hazards.  Adulterants are mainly added to increase the shelf life of milk. Some of the

preservatives like acid and formalin is added to the milk as adulterants, thereby

increasing the storage period of milk. Generally, water is added to the milk to increase

the volume content of the milk.  Some of the common adulterants found in milk and their

detection are discussed.

1)  Microorganism:

          Milk may contain some harmful microorganisms like bacteria along with   some

potentially beneficial microbes. Microbiological analysis of milk is carried out to

determine the degree of bacterial contamination in milk and   to understand  the chemical

changes brought in milk as a result of microbial action.  Pasteurization is done to destroy

such harmful bacteria.  If pasteurization of milk is not carried out properly there will be

presence of larger count of bacteria in the milk.  Methylene blue Reduction test is used to

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detect the presence of bacteria in milk. This test works on the principle that the methylene

blue indicator is present in an oxidized form, but in the presence of bacteria, leads to the

reduction of this indicator in a comparatively short span of time.  The blue color

developed on addition of the indicator to the milk will change to white color within a

short period indicates the presence of bacteria in the milk and thus denotes improper


2) Table Sugar:

           The common sugar present in milk is lactose. The fat content of the milk is more

compared to the protein content. Table sugar like sucrose is added to the milk to increase

the carbohydrate content of the milk and thus the density of milk will be increased. So the

milk can now be adulterated with water and it will not be detected during the lactometer

test.  Ketose sugar will react with the resorcinol to give a red colored precipitate,

indicating the presence of Table sugar in milk.

3) Starch:

          Milk contains relatively large amount of fat. Addition of carbohydrate to milk

increases its solid content. There by reducing the amount of fat present in the milk. Starch

is one such component that is added to adulterate milk. The test to detect starch in milk

uses iodine solution, addition of which turns the milk solution to blue black color due to

the formation of starch –Iodo complex, in the presence of starch.

4)  Acids:

            Generally acids like Benzoic acid and Salicylic acid is used as a preservative in

food industry. It is added to milk to preserve and thus increase the shelf life of milk.

Presence of these acids can be detected by adding conc.sulphuric acid   and ferric

chloride, which when reacts with benzoic acid and salicylic acid to give buff colored and

violet colored reaction products. 

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5) Soap:

           Soap is added to milk to increase the foaming of milk and thus to have thick milk. 

Addition of such chemicals will cause health problem especially related to stomach and

kidneys. Soap can be detected by adding phenolphthalein indicator to the adulterated

milk. A pink color will be observed if soap is present as the alkali will be neutralized by

the acidity of the milk when phenolphthalein indicator is added.

6) Formalin:

          Formalin is a preservative and can preserve milk for long period of time. Due to its

high toxicity, it is considered to cause liver and kidney damage.  Formalin reacts with

Sulphuric acid and ferric chloride to give a purple colored ring at the junction of the milk

layers, thereby indicating the presence of formalin adulterated in milk.

7) Ammonium Sulphate:

        Ammonium Sulphate is added to the milk as it increases the lactometer reading by

maintaining the density of milk.  Ammonium sulphate adulterated milk can be detected

by adding sodium hydroxide, sodium hypochlorite and phenol, the reaction of the three

reagents with ammonium sulphate results in formation of deep blue colour. The deep blue

color is generated when the amine reacts with phenol in the presence of hypochlorite in

an alkaline environment, results in the formation of a complex which is blue in color.

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Khoa is a milk food widely used in Indian and Pakistani cuisine, made of either dried

whole milk or milk thickened by heating in an open iron pan.

It is similar to ricotta cheese, but lower in moisture[1] and made from whole milk instead

of whey.

There are three types of khoya - batti, chickna, and daanedaar. Batti, meaning “rock,”

has 50% moisture by weight and is the hardest of the three types; it can be grated

like cheese. It can be aged for up to a year, during which it develops a unique aroma and

a mouldy outer surface. Chickna (“slippery” or “squishy”) khoya has 80% moisture.

For daanedaar, the milk is coagulated with an acid during the simmering; it has a

moderate moisture content.[2] Different types of khoya are used for different preparations.


A concentration of milk to one-fifth volume is normal in the production of khoa. Khoa is

used as the base for a wide variety of Indian sweets. About 600,000 metric tons are

produced annually in India. Khoa is made from both cow and water buffalo milk.

Khoa is normally white or pale yellow. If prepared in the winter, it may be saved for use

in the summer, and may acquire a green tinge and grainier texture from a surface mould.

This is calledhariyali (green khoa) and is used to make gulab jamun.

Khoa is made by simmering full-fat milk in an iron karahi for several hours, over a

medium fire. The gradual vaporization of its water content leaves coagulated solids in

milk, which is khoa. The ideal temperature to avoid scorching is 175–180°F (about

80°C).[2] Another quick way of making khoa is to add full fat milk powder to skimmed

milk and mixing and heating until it becomes thick. This may, however, not have the

same characteristics as traditionally made khoa.

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Khoa is used in various types of sweets:

Pedha (penda in Gujarati) is sweetened khoa formed into balls or thick disks (like

patties) with flavorings such as saffron and/or cardamom added.

Gulab Jamun Also a round ball sweet made from khoya and then deep fried and

soaked in rose water flavoured sugar or honey syrup. A very popular South Asian


Barfi (or burfi) is also flavoured, but khoa is not the only ingredient. Typically,

another ingredient, such as thickened fruit pulp or coconut shavings, is added to

khoya and slow cooked until the moisture evaporates sufficiently to give the

consistency of fudge, so it can be flattened and cut into rectangles, parallelograms or

diamond shapes.

Gujia, a sweet dumpling stuffed with khoa

Halwa is essentially a fudge made by adding khoa to give a dairy-like taste and

texture and as a thickening agent.



To detect adulterated khoa.

Relevant information:

Khoa is often adulterated with wheat or rice flour (starch). Hence iodine method is used

to its direction; iodine solution gives intense blue colour with starch due to formation of

unstable complex starch iodine compound.

Material required:

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 i) Khoa

 ii) Starch

 iii) Water

 iv) Iodine solution (1%)


i) Test tube 

ii) Test tube holder 

iii) Gas burner 

iv) Physical balance.


1. Mix about 5 gm of khoa in 15 ml water.

2. Take about 3 gm of the mixed solution in a test tube.

3. Boil the content over a burner.

4. Cool and add one drop of 1 % iodine solution and observe the colour.

5. Presence of starch as adulterant in khoa gives blue colour with iodine solution.

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Sugar is the generalised name for a class of chemically-related sweet-flavored

substances, most of which are used as food. They are carbohydrates, composed of

carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. There are various types of sugar derived from different

sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as

dextrose), fructose and galactose. The table or granulated sugar most customarily used

as food is sucrose, a disaccharide (in the body, sucrose hydrolyses into fructose and

glucose). Other disaccharides include maltose and lactose. Chemically-different

substances may also have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugars. Some are used

as lower-calorie food substitutes for sugar described as artificial sweeteners.

Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants but are only present in sufficient

concentrations for efficient extraction in sugarcane and sugar beet. Sugarcane is a giant

grass and has been cultivated in tropical climates in the Far East since ancient times. A

great expansion in its production took place in the 18th century with the setting up of

sugar plantations in the West Indies and Americas. This was the first time that sugar

became available to the common people who had previously had to rely on honey to

sweeten foods. Sugar beet is a root crop and is cultivated in cooler climates and became a

major source of sugar in the 19th century when methods for extracting the sugar became

available. Sugar production and trade has changed the course of human history in many

ways. It influenced the formation of colonies, the perpetuation of slavery, the transition

to indentured labour, the migration of peoples, wars between sugar trade-controlling

nations in the 19th century, and the ethnic composition and political structure of the new


The world produced about 168 million tonnes of sugar in 2011. The average person

consumes about 24 kilograms of sugar each year (33.1 kg in industrialised countries),

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equivalent to over 260 food calories per person, per day. Sugar provides energy but

no nutrients—empty calories.

Since the latter part of the twentieth century, it has been questioned whether a diet high in

sugars, especially refined sugars, is bad for human health. Sugar has been linked to

obesity and suspected of or fully implicated as a cause in the occurrence of diabetes,

cardiovascular disease, dementia, macular degeneration and tooth decay. Numerous

studies have been undertaken to try to clarify the position but with varying results, mainly

because of the difficulty of finding populations for use as controls that do not consume or

are largely free of any sugar consumption.


Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is a perennial grass in the family Poaceae. It is cultivated

in tropical and sub-tropical regions for the sucrose that is found in its stems. It requires a

frost-free climate with sufficient rainfall during the growing season to make full use of

the plant's great growth potential. The crop is harvested mechanically or by hand,

chopped into lengths and conveyed rapidly to the processing plant. Here it is either milled

and the juice extracted with water or the sugar is extracted by diffusion. The juice is then

clarified with lime and heated to kill enzymes. The resulting thin syrup is concentrated in

a series of evaporators after which further water is removed by evaporation in vacuum

containers. The resulting supersaturated solution is seeded with sugar crystals and the

sugar crystallizes out, is separated from the fluid and dried. Molasses is a by-product of

the process and the fiber from the stems, known as bagasse, is burned to provide energy

for the sugar extraction process. The crystals of raw sugar have a sticky brown coating

and can either be used as they are or can be bleached by sulphur dioxide or treated in

a carbonatation process to produce a whiter product.

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To detect the presence of adulterants in sugar requirements

Test tubes, Con. H2So4, Alcoholic solution of α-napthol, dil HCl


Sugar is usually contaminated with NaHCO3 and other insoluble substances, which are

detected as follows-

Adulteration of various insoluble substances in sugar

Take small amount of sugar in a test tube and shake it with little water but insoluble

impurities do not dissolve.

Adulteration of chalk powder, NaHCO3 in sugar

To a small amount of sugar in test tube. Add few drops of dil HCl. Brisk effervescence of

CO2 shows the presence of chalk powder or NaHCO3 in given sample of sugar.

To detect the presence of adulterants in sugar REQUIREMENTS Test-tubes, dil. HCl.

PROCEDURE Sugar is usually contaminated with washing soda and other insoluble

substances which are detected as follows : (i)           Adulteration of various insoluble

substances in sugar Take small amount of sugar in a test-tube and shake it with little

water. Pure sugar dissolves in water but insoluble impurities do not dissolve. (ii)        

Adulteration of chalk powder, washing soda in sugar To small amount of sugar in a test-

tube, add few drops of dil. HCl. Brisk effervescence of CO2 shows the presence of chalk

powder or washing soda in the given sample of sugar.

Read more at:

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Turmeric is a spice used in cooking, as well as for medicine and as a dye for food and

fabric. It imparts a subtle flavor and brilliant yellow color. Therapeutically, turmeric is

known as a powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, helpful in the treatment of skin

diseases, digestive problems, bacterial and viral infections, wounds, and many other uses.

Turmeric is the rhizome (a stem that grows underground) of a plant (Curcuma longa L.)

in the Ginger family, Zingiberaceae. It is related to gingerroot and arrowroot. Turmeric

has been in use for thousands of years and has also been called "golden spice" and

"Indian saffron".

Turmeric powder is widely used to color and flavor mustard, relish, chutney, and pickles.

It is a component of curry spice mixtures and commonly used in Indian and Indonesian

cooking, where it originated. Turmeric enhances the flavor of many foods, including

meats, poultry, seafood, eggs, potatoes, rice, lentils, and vegetables.

For yellow color, you can substitute annatto seeds, marigold blossoms, saffron (which is

much more expensive), curry powder, or mustard powder. However, there is no substitute

for the flavor of turmeric and each of these substitutes carry their own distinct flavor.


Metanil yellow is an azo dye synthesized from the coupling of metanilic acid and

diphenylamine, as described here. Here's a sketch:

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Now, the thing with most azo dyes like metanil yellow is that when they are taken

internally, liver enzymes or intestinal flora will usually reduce the azo dye to the

components that were used in the diazo coupling. (See this article for more details.) For

metanil yellow, the metanilic acid is poorly absorbed from the intestinal tract (and is thus

easily excreted), and your remaining worry is the diphenylamine, which is a suspected

mutagen and carcinogen (apart from the usual toxicity associated with arylamines). (In

short, the metanil yellow itself is not your worry, but the metabolite diphenylamine sure


By way of contrast, the natural coloring agent in turmeric is the phenolic compound


As it turns out, both compounds are in fact acid-base indicators, though they have

different transition ranges; for metanil yellow, the pH transition range is 1.2-2.3 (red to

yellow), while for curcumin, the transition range is 7.8-9.2 (yellow to red-brown). (Data

taken from the Handbook of Acid-Base Indicators.) I'm not quite sure where the

purple/violet color would come from, but the key point is that natural turmeric would be

reddish in an alkaline environment, while metanil yellow will be reddish in an acidic

environment; however, vinegar (pH ~ 2.4) is not sufficiently acidic to display the color

change for metanil yellow, and thus a stronger acid like hydrochloric acid is needed to

display the color change.


Common adulterants in turmeric include rice flour, Wheat or jowar flour saw dust, rice,

metanil yellow, yellow clay. Yellow clay can be detected by mixing turmeric with water.

Yellow clay will settle down to the bottom after sometime leaving the turmeric on the

top. Instant appearance of violet color after addition of few drops of Conc.HCl to the

sample indicates the presence of metanil yellow. Lead chromate is also added which is

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highly poisonous. Dangerous chemicals and pesticides are used in growing the plants

such as Copper Oxychloride; Dithane M-45; Bavistin are said to cause sperm damage in



AIM : To detect the presence of adulterants in samples of turmeric powder.

REQUIREMENTS: Test-tubes, conc. HCl.

PROCEDURE: Common adulterants present in  turmeric powder are red coloured yellow

lead salts , Chalk  powder.They are detected as follows .

(i)   Adulteration of yellow lead salts to turmeric powder

To a sample of turmeric powder add conc. HCl. Appearance of magenta colour shows the

presence of yellow oxides of lead in turmeric powder.

(ii)Adulteration of  Chalk or yellow soap stone powder to turmeric powder

Take a small quantity of turmeric powder in a test tube containing small quantity of

water. Add a few drops of conc. HCL, effervescence will indicate the presence of chalk

or yellow soap stone powder.

(iii)Adulteration of  Starch of maize, wheat, tapioca, rice  to turmeric powder

A microscopic study reveals that only pure turmeric is yellow coloured, big in size and

has an angular structure. While foreign/added starches are colourless and small in size as

compared to pure turmeric starch.

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Chili powder (also powdered chili or chile powder) is the dried, pulverized fruit of one or

more varieties of chili pepper, sometimes with the addition of other spices (when it may

be known aschili powder blend). It is used as a spice to add pungency or piquancy and

flavor to dishes. In American English the name is usually spelled "chili", or, less

commonly, "chile". In British Englishthe spelling "chilli" (with two "l"s) is used


Chili powder is sometimes known by the specific type of chili pepper used (such

as cayenne pepper). It is used in many different cuisines, including Tex-

Mex, Indian, Chinese, Korean and Thai.

Chili powder blend is composed chiefly of chili peppers and blended with other spices

including cumin, oregano, garlic powder, and salt. The chilis are most commonly either

red chili peppers or cayenne peppers, which are both of the species Capsicum annuum;

many types of hot pepper may be used, including ancho, jalapeño, New Mexico,

and pasilla chilis. As a result of the various potential additives, the spiciness of any given

chili powder is variable.

Chili powder blends are especially popular in American cuisine, where they are the

primary flavor ingredient in chili con carne. The first commercial blends of chili powder

in the U.S. were created by D.C. Pendery and William Gebhardt for this dish.

[3] Gebhardt opened Miller's Saloon in New Braunfels, Texas. Chili was the town's

favorite dish. However, chili peppers could only be found at certain times of the year.

Gebhardt imported some ancho peppers from Mexico and ran the peppers through a

small meat grinder three times and created the first commercial chili powder, which

became available in 1894.

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Adulteration may have sneaked into your kitchen too. Turmeric, red-chilli powder,

coriander, cumin powder- essential ingredients of food cooked in your home could all be


Often, red chilli powder is sold at a lower price than the actual chillies. Despite being a

processed food product, what makes this possible?

Here is how: "Red chilli powder often contains only 30 per cent good chilli. The

remaining 70 per cent are chillies that have been rejected by shops or are rotten.

These are first dried and then red edible colour is added to them before being powdered

and sold. This is what ensures the reddish colour the moment you add it to your food,"

said sources.


AIM : To detect the presence of adulterants in samples of chilli powder.

REQUIREMENTS:Test-tubes , dil. HNO3.

PROCEDURE:Common adulterants present in chilli powder  are red coloured lead

salts, brick powder. They are detected as follows .

(i)   Adulteration of red lead salts in chilli powder

To a sample of chilli powder, add dil. HNO3. Filter the solution and add 2 drops of

potassium iodide solution to the filtrate. Yellow ppt. indicates the presence of lead salts in

chilli powder.

(ii)   Adulteration of brick powder in red chilli powder

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Add small amount of given red chilli powder in beaker containing water. Brick powder

settles at the bottom while pure chilli powder floats over water.

(iii) Adulteration of Oil  solube coal tar colour  in red chilli powder.

Take 2 gms of the samples in a test tube, add few ml of solvent ether and shake, Decant

ether layer into a test tube containing 2ml of dilute Hydrochloric acid . Shake it, the lower

acid layer wil be coloured distinct pink to red indicating presence of oil soluble colour.

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Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for

its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. The fruit, known as a

peppercorn when dried, is approximately 5 millimetres (0.20 in) in diameter, dark red

when fully mature, and, like all drupes, contains a single seed. Peppercorns, and the

ground pepper derived from them, may be described simply as pepper, or more precisely

as black pepper (cooked and dried unripe fruit), green pepper (dried unripe fruit)

and white pepper (unripe fruit seeds).

Black pepper is native to south India, and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere

in tropical regions. Currently Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of

pepper, producing 34% of the world's Piper nigrum crop as of 2008.

Dried ground pepper has been used since antiquity for both its flavour and as a medicine.

Black pepper is the world's most traded spice. It is one of the most common spices added

to European cuisine and its descendants. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the

chemical piperine, not to be confused with the capsaicin that gives fleshy peppers theirs.

It is ubiquitous in the modern world, often paired with salt.


Black pepper is produced from the still-green unripe drupes of the pepper plant. The

drupes are cooked briefly in hot water, both to clean them and to prepare them for drying.

The heat rupturescell walls in the pepper, speeding the work

of browning enzymes during drying. The drupes are dried in the sun or by machine for

several days, during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin,

wrinkled black layer. Once dried, the spice is called black peppercorn. On some estates,

the berries are separated from the stem by hand and then sun-dried without the boiling


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Once the peppercorns are dried, pepper spirit & oil can be extracted from the berries by

crushing them. Pepper spirit is used in many medicinal and beauty products. Pepper oil is

also used as an ayurvedic massage oil and used in certain beauty and herbal treatments.


Pepper.--Black and white pepper are the fruit of the pepper plant (_Piper nigrum_), a

climbing perennial shrub which grows in the East and West Indies, the greatest

production being in Sumatra. For the black pepper, the berry is picked before thoroughly

ripe; for the white pepper, it is allowed to mature. White pepper has the black pericarp or

hull removed. Pepper owes its properties to an alkaloid, piperine, and to a volatile oil. In

the black pepper berries there is present ash to the extent of about 4.5 per cent, it ought

not to be above 6.5 per cent; ether extract, including piperine and resin, not less than 6.5

per cent; crude fiber not more than 16 per cent; also some starch and nitrogenous

material. The white pepper contains less ash and cellulose than the black pepper. Ground

pepper is frequently grossly adulterated; common adulterants being: cracker crumbs,

roasted nut shells and fruit stones, charcoal, corn meal, pepper hulls, mustard hulls, and

buckwheat middlings. The pepper berries wrinkle in drying, and this makes it difficult to

remove the sand which may have adhered to them. An excessive amount of sand in the

ash should be classed as adulteration. Adulterants in pepper are detected mainly by the

use of the microscope. The United States standard for pepper is: not more than 7 per cent

total ash, 15 per cent fiber, and not less than 25 per cent starch and 6 per cent non-volatile

ether extract.


AIM : To detect the presence of adulterants in samples of pepper.

(i)   Adulteration of dried papaya seeds in pepper

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Add small amount of sample of pepper to a beaker containing water and stir with a glass

rod. Dried papaya seeds being lighter float over water while pure pepper settles at the


(ii)Adulteration of Coated with mineral oilseeds in pepper

Black pepper coated with mineral oil gives Kerosene like smell.

(iii)Adulteration of  Light black pepper in pepper.

Float the sample of black pepper in alcohol (rectified spirit). The mature black pepper

beries sink while the papaya seeds and light black pepper float.

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No person shall manufacture, store, sell or distribute

(i) any adulterated food, (ii) any misbranded food,

(iii) food articles to be sold under licence without fulfilling the conditions of the


(iv) any food article the sale of which is prohibited by the Food (Health) Authority

in the interest of public health,

(v) any food article in contravention of any other provision of the Act or the Rules,

(see ‘Conditions for Sale’) or

(vi) any adulterant.

The act of storing an adulterated article of food would be an offence only if storing

is for sale. The sale of a part of the stored article constitutes an offence distinct and

independent from the offence of storing for sale.



The package, label or the advertisement of edible oils and fats shall not use the

expressions Super-Refined, Extra-Refined, Micro-Refined, Double-Refined, Ultra-

Refined, Anti-Cholesterol, Cholesterol Fighter, Soothing to Heart, Cholesterol

Friendly, Saturated Fat Free or such other expressions which are exaggerations of

the quality of the product. (Rule 37 D).


For example, cream which has not been prepared exclusively from milk, milk

which contains any added water, ghee which contains any added matter not

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exclusively derived from milk fat, a mixture of two or more edible oils as an

edible oil and turmeric containing any foreign substances, etc. (Rule 44)

PROHIBITION ON USE OF ACETYLENE GAS (carbide gas) in artificially

ripening of fruits (Rule 44 AA).


MINERAL OIL, except in accordance with the permitted standards. (Rule 44

AAA and Appendix B).

RESTRICTION ON SALE OF GHEE having less than specified Reichert value

except under the "AGMARK" seal. (Rule 46).


on its use as an ingredient in the preparation of an article of food. (Rule 46).

Any food item resembling honey, but not pure honey, shall not be marked

"honey". (Rule 45).

RESTRICTION ON SALE OF KANGRA TEA except only after it is graded

and marked in accordance with the provisions of Agricultural Produce (Grading

and Marketing) Act, 1937 and the Rules made thereunder. (Rule 44E).


manufacturers. Who are registered with Tea Board and the package bearing the

label, ‘FLAVOURED TEA’ (Common name of permitted flavour, percentage and

Registration No.). (Rule 44G).

RESTRICTION ON SALE OF COMMON SALT No person shall, sell or offer

or expose for sale or have in his premises for the purpose of sale, common salt for

direct human consumption unless the same is iodised. (Rule 44H).


except that saccharin sodium can be added to carbonated water, supari, pan masala

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and pan flavouring material within the specified maximum limit and aspertaine

may be sold for diabetic use under medical advice. (Rule 47).


Synthetic colours, or their mixtures or any preparation of such colours, except

under a licence. (Rule 48A).


only under the ISI certification marks. (Rule 48C).



AUTHRACILATE, as flavouring agents. Any extraneous addition of flavouring

agent should be mentioned on the label attached to any package of food so

flavoured, in capital letters in the following manner:



preservatives i.e. Common Salt, Sugar, Dextrose, Glucose (syrup), Spices, Vinegar

or acetic acid, honey and edible vegetable oil, in any food is not restricted,

provided that the food article to which the preservative has been added conforms

to the specifications laid down in Appendix B.

Class II preservatives such as Benzoic acid and its salts, sodium diacetate and

sodium, potassium and calcium salts of lactic acid, etc. can be used only

restrictively. Use of more than one Class II preservative is prohibited.


container, used for manufacturing, preparing or containing any food or ingredients

therefor, and second hand tin containers for packaging of edible oils and fats,

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meant for sale, shall be maintained in a clean and sanitary condition, away from

impure air or dust, properly covered at all times, and such utensils or containers

shall not be used for any other purpose. Use of rusty containers, improperly tinned

copper or brass containers, containers of aluminium or plastic not conforming to

ISI specifications, etc., in preparation of food, is also prohibited. Besides, certain

special conditions for sale of certain articles such as asafoetida, salseed fat, lactic

acid, edible oils, katha, margarine, milk powder, etc. have also been laid down.

With effect from 22.2.95, on person shall sell powdered spices except in packed

form. No person shall sell or serve food in any commercial establishment in plastic

articles used in catering and cutlery, unless the plastic material used in catering

and cutlery articles, conform to the food grade plastic.


A purchaser of any article of food, or a recognised consumer association, may also

get an article of food analysed by the public analyst on payment of the prescribed

fees, provided that the vendor is informed of this intended action at the time of

purchase. Thereafter, the purchaser or the consumer associations, have to follow

the same procedure as discussed above in the case of Food Inspectors. If the article

of food is found to be adulterated, the fees paid by the purchaser or the association

shall be refunded.

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Import, manufacture, storage, sale or distribution of any food article which

is adulterated by allowing its quality or purity to fall below the prescribed

standard, or is misbranded, or in contravention of any provision of the Act

or Rules. Penalty is minimum imprisonment of six months that may extend

upto 3 years and minimum fine of Rs 1000.

Import, manufacture, storage, sale or distribution of any adulterant not

injurious to health. Penalty is minimum imprisonment of six months that

may extend upto 3 years and minimum fine of Rs 1000

Preventing a Food Inspector from taking a sample or exercising his

powers.Penalty is minimum imprisonment of six months that may extend

upto 3 years and minimum fine of Rs 1000

Giving a false warranty in writing in respect of any food article. Penalty is

minimum imprisonment of six months that may extend upto 3 years and

minimum fine of Rs 1000

Import, manufacture, storage, sale or distribution of any food article which

is adulterated within the meaning of any of the sub-clauses(e) to (l) of

section 2(ia); or any adulterant which is injurious to health. Penalty is

minimum imprisonment of one year that may extend upto 6 years and

minimum fine of Rs 2000

Sale or distribution of any food article containing any poisonous or other

ingredient injurious to health, which is likely to cause death or grievous

bodily harm. Penalty is minimum imprisonment of three years that may

extend upto life and minimum fine of Rs 5000

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Name of Article Common Adulterants Diseases Caused

1. Black Pepper Dried Seeds of Papaya Stomach irritation, cancer,

liver damage

2. Chili Powder Red saw dust, brick powder Stomach irritation, cancer,

liver damage

3. Sugar Rawa, Fine White Sand &


Stomach Disorder

4. Turmeric Powder Lead Chromate or Starch

Coloured with metaline


Anemia, paralysis and brain


5. Cumin seeds Stone and aliked seeds from

wild plants

Stomach disorder and

damage to liver

6. Safaron Coloured dried tendrils of

maize cob


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          Laws existed in a number of States in India for the prevention of adulteration of

food- stuffs, but they lacked uniformity having been passed at different times without

mutual consultation between States.

The need for Central legislation for the whole country in this matter has been felt since

1937 when a Committee appointed by the Central Advisory Board of Health

recommended this step.

‘Adulteration of food-stuffs and other goods’ is now included in the Concurrent List (III)

in the Constitution of India. It has, therefore, become possible for the Central

Government to enact an all India legislation on this subject. The Bill replaces all local

food adulteration laws where they exist and also applies to those States where there are

no local laws on the subject. Among others, it provides for —

(i) a Central Food Laboratory to which food samples can be referred to for final opinion

in disputed cases (clause 4),

(ii) a Central Committee for Food Standards consisting of representatives of Central and

State Governments to advise on matters arising from the administration of the Act (clause

3), and

(iii) the vesting in the Central Government of the rule-making power regarding standards

of quality for the articles of food and certain other matters (clause 22).

ACT 37 OF 1954

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    The Prevention of Food Adulteration Bill was passed by both the house of Parliament

and received the assent of the President on 29th September, 1954. It came into force on





1.The Adaptation of Laws (No.3) Order, 1956.

2. The Prevention of Food Adulteration (Amendment) Act, 1964 (49 of 1964).

3. The Prevention of Food Adulteration (Amendment) Act, 1971 (41 of 1971).

4. The Prevention of Food Adulteration (Amendment) Act, 1976 (34 of 1976).

5. The Prevention of Food Adulteration (Amendment) Act, 1986 (70 of 1986).

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To check the suppliers of food from doing so, the government has passed a stringent act

which is known as preservation of food Adulteration Act.

They has been implemented with the objective of providing safety to human beings in the

supply of food. It covers safety from risks involved due to contamination of poisonous


The specification laid down of various foods under the provisions of PFA Act covers

minimum basic characteristics Of the Products Below which it is deemed to be

adulterated and also covers the maximum limit of contaminant not considered being safe

for human beings beyond a certain level.

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By taking a few precautions, we can escape from consuming adulterated products.

1. Take only packed items of well-known companies.

2.Buy items from reliable retail shops and recognized outlets.

3. Check the ISI mark or Agmark.

4. Buy products of only air tight popular brands.

5. Avoid craziness for artificially coloured sweets and buy only from reputed shops.

6. Do not buys sweets or snacks kept in open.

7. Avoid buying things from street side vendors.

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Selection of wholesome and non-adulterated food is essential for daily life to make sure

that such foods do not cause any health hazard. It is not possible to ensure wholesome

food only on visual examination when the toxic contaminants are present in ppm level.

However, visual examination of the food before purchase makes sure to ensure absence

of insects, visual fungus, foreign matters, etc. Therefore, due care taken by the consumer

at the time of purchase of food after thoroughly examining can be of great help.

Secondly, label declaration on packed food is very important for knowing the ingredients

and nutritional value. It also helps in checking the freshness of the food and the period of

best before use. The consumer should avoid taking food from an unhygienic place and

food being prepared under unhygienic conditions. Such types of food may cause various

diseases. Consumption of cut fruits being sold in unhygienic conditions should be

avoided. It is always better to buy certified food from reputed shops.

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