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Formaldehyde-Based Resins for Sustainable Composite Wood Products “Informed by LCI data and achieved through proven low-emitting technology” Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto, Canada October 9, 2013 Jeff Swartzentruber North American Technical Service Leader, Momentive Specialty Chemicals

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  • Formaldehyde-Based Resins for Sustainable Composite Wood ProductsInformed by LCI data and achieved through proven low-emitting technologyWood Adhesives 2013Toronto, CanadaOctober 9, 2013

    Jeff SwartzentruberNorth American Technical Service Leader, Momentive Specialty Chemicals

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  • Sustainable Composite Wood ProductsWhat is Sustainability?1987 United Nations Bruntland Commission defined Sustainability Development that meets the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. There are a myriad of other definitions and descriptions of sustainabilityMost have three basic dimensionsEnvironmentalSocialEconomicThe differences in most definitions is on how these three dimensions are measured and weighted

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • Sustainable Composite Wood ProductsComposite Wood Products are positive in all three areasEnvironmentalWood is a preferred material environmentallyComposite wood products increase the utilization rate of wood resourcesEconomicComposite wood products provide jobs and directly impact local economiesSocialComposite wood products improve the quality of life through the wide variety of products made from them to improve utility, functionality, performance and aesthetics of everyday life

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • Wood Is A Preferred Material Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.Source: Tackle Climate ChangeUse Wood

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Composite Wood Products Increase Wood Utilization Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Composite Wood Products Increase Wood Utilization Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.Formaldehyde-based resins were essential in the development of the composite wood products that have increased utilization rates. It wasnt until the late 1970s and early 1980s that focus was given to formaldehyde emissions from those products.

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

  • LCI Data Supports Composite Wood Products Carbon StorageLife Cycle Inventory (LCI) Data has been collected for Composite Wood ProductsExamples include Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM)Softwood Plywood (2005)I-Joists (2005)Laminated Veneer Lumber (2005)Oriented Strand Board (2005)Particleboard (2008)Medium Density Fiberboard (2008)Formaldehyde based resins (2008)Data shows that carbon stored in composite wood products exceeds that generated in the extraction and production of the composite wood productsLife Cycle Analysis (LCA) reports have also been completed for many of these products or in the process of being completed.

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • LCA / LCI Energy for Common Resins SystemsWood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • One Example Tying It All Together ECC Certification is available to individual manufacturing plants and requires an on-site qualification audit and subsequent annual audits. Unfinished composite panel products must first comply with the stringent California Air Resources Board (CARB) formaldehyde emissions regulation before being considered for other ECC criteria.

    Qualified plants must then meet at least three of the following requirements:

    Carbon Footprint Local and Renewable Resource Recycled/Recovered Sustainability Wood SourcingWood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.Source: ECC Sustainability Standard & Certification ProgramBrochure Composite Panel Association

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • How can the worlds largest formaldehyde producer embrace sustainability?Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • Sustainability at Momentive is an Integrated Business ApproachAt Momentive, sustainability creates long-term stakeholder value through responsible stewardship of our assets, the environment, our products and our social responsibility.Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Sustainability the Momentive WayOur sustainability initiatives grouped into 3 broad categories: Operational excellence programs Product innovation effortsOur focus on being good corporate citizens

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.http://www.momentive.com/sustainability/

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Housing/Construction Industries & Formaldehyde Based ResinsWood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.*

  • Formaldehyde Based Resins Offer Performance AttributesWood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.PF resins for OSBLower cost solution for surface resinsDoes not adhere to metalDoes not require a release agentDurable and creep resistantEasy to manage for safe handling at the panel manufacturer

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • Formaldehyde Based Resins Offer Performance AttributesWood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.Amino Resins for HWPWHigher solids Less water means reduced issues with wood regarding checking and blows or blistersThermosettingbetter heat resistance rigid glue linesIn making curved plywood this is critical to hold the curve and not have any springback.Provides impact resistance for paper laminatingWill not soften under the heat of embossingHeat cured amino resins are faster setting than thermoplastic systems Light color cureNo bleed through with thin veneersTack for layup time

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Formaldehyde Based Resins Offer Performance AttributesWood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.Amino Resins for PB/MDFCure speed customizable to enhance productivityBuffersCatalystsAbility to develop tack for process flexibilityDry tackWet tackWater based for ease of cleanup/line flushingExcellent machinability and paintabilityLight color cure

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • Low-Emitting Composite Wood Products Is The GoalWood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.Primary Focus On Resins Used for Interior ProductsIndoor Air Quality the driving force Focus on formaldehyde as an indoor air pollutant result of several factorsHUD standard for PB and HWPW implemented in 1984ANSI Standards for PB and MDF lowered the levels furtherCalifornia Air Resources Board Composite Wood Rule pushed the levels down closer to the levels of natural woodOutside of North America, similar push for lower emissions in EU, AU/NZ and Japan

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • Formaldehyde Bioassay Results (Rats) Nasal tumor data that initiated investigations

    Levels of formaldehyde given to rats that had an effectWood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • Formaldehyde Emissions in Particleboard UF Resin (NA)PPBYearWood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

    Chart1

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    Formaldehyde Emissions

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    Formaldehyde Emissions

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    To resize chart data range, drag lower right corner of range.

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  • Interior Panel Emission Standards

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.ULEF RT and Exempt are 90% of QC and all quarterly certification limits, 10% of QC tests are allowed up to a higher limit.

    ULEF RT max is 80 ppb and 90 ppb for PB and MDF not applicable for HWPW

    ULEF Exempt max is 50 ppb for HWPW and 60 ppb for PB/MDFF*** and F**** are 6 month average results, maximum individual tests at 120 ppb and 70 ppb respectively

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • Typical Formaldehyde Indoor Air Levels are Already Very Low (ppb levels)EPA InformalLevel of ConcernWHO GuidelineSource: CARBWood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • How Did We Get There?It is not resin technology alonePanel producers play an important roleIncreased emphasis on process controlFurnish moisture controlWeight controlPressing strategiesCatalyst strategiesScavenger strategiesImportant no matter which resin technology is utilized

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.http://evergreengroup.com.my/pop.php?view=MDF_Particleboard_Process&mid=1931

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • How Did We Get There?But particleboard resin molar ratios (formaldehyde:urea*) have changed dramaticallyPrior to HUD1.20 1.40After HUD pre CARB1.10 1.20 surface layer 1.15 1.40 core layerCARB phase 1 1.00 1.10 surface layer 1.10 1.25 core layerCARB phase 20.75-0.90 surface layer1.00-1.20 core layerULEF 0.65-0.80 surface layer0.80-1.00 core layer

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.*Mole Ratios are expressed as an approximate F/U equivalent to account for melamine

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • Resin Technology ModificationsMultiple methods of achieving target molar ratiosSpecific to an individual plants need for flexibility and required molar ratio rangeIncorporation of melamine at the lowest molar ratios (1-4% typical) has become more commonCook strategiesInternal buffers/catalysts

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • One Size Does Not Fit AllThe same molar ratio, or even the exact same resin formulation does not result in the same formaldehyde emissions when used at different manufacturing locationsSome differences have been observed on different production lines within the same site when making the same products!Old relationships still applyThicker panels vs. thinner panelsPB vs. MDFHigh density vs. low density

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.Customization of formulation to manufacturing process is needed!

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Panel Emissions Decay Over TimeWood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.Source: Particleboard Formaldehyde Emissions and Decay under Elevated Temperature and Humidity Conditions. 2012 Reidlinger et al

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Beyond the Raw PanelWood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.Source: VOC Emission Barrier EffectsTechnical Bulletin, Composite Panel Association

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • Continuing into the FutureAll adhesive systems have positives and negativesDevelopment efforts focused on improving formaldehyde based resin performanceReduced resin usageImproved property performanceImproved productivityImproved moisture resistanceIncorporation of renewable raw materialsAs technologies develop and become economical formaldehyde and urea from bio based syn gas becomes possibleEnhances the sustainability messageAll with low emission products as a prerequisite

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Momentive AdvocacyMomentive continues to advocate for bringing value to the wood/forest industryWe continue to advocate vigilantly for:The sustainability of the forest products industryThe sustainability of wood as a building/construction productThe sustainability of advanced formaldehyde technologies and its responsible use

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

    Wood Adhesives 2013 Toronto June 2013 2013 Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc. All rights reserved.

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    Average Concentration (ppb)

    OutdoorsClassroomOffice BuildingManufactured

    Homes

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    Housing