gendered nonverbal communication chapter 6. gendered nonverbal communication nonverbal behaviors...

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  • Gendered Nonverbal CommunicationChapter 6

  • Gendered Nonverbal CommunicationNonverbal behaviors 65%+ of the total meaning of communicationNonverbal = all elements of communication other than wordsLearned through interaction with others

  • Gendered Nonverbal CommunicationNonverbal communication related to gender and culture:Expresses cultural meanings of genderMen and women use to present themselves as gendered people

  • To Regulate InteractionRegulate interactionWomen use to invite others into conversationMen use to hold onto talk stage

  • To Establish Relationship LevelFemalesSmile moreMaintain more eye contactMaintain more direct body orientation

  • To Establish Relationship LevelMalesLean forwardAdopt postures congruent with speaker

  • LikingLikingSignal we like or dislike othersFemales socialized to be niceMore nonverbal signals of friendliness than men

  • Power or ControlPower or controlPower = degree we act as equal, dominant, deferentialControl = who defines topics, directs conversation, defers

  • ArtifactsPersonal objects that influence how see self and express identityParents send messages through toys give to sons and daughtersBoys given toys that invite competition, active playGirls given toys that encourage nurturing, attention to appearance

  • ArtifactsIn adult life, continue to reflect cultural views of masculinity and femininityMens clothes not as colorful, more functionalWomens clothes call attention to body, less functionalMeaning depends on cultural context

  • ArtifactsAdvertisements for food, homemaking, child rearing feature womenProducts associated with work, cars, sports feature men (or women in seductive poses)Cosmetics industry multimillion dollar business

  • ArtifactsSome use artifacts to challenge existing perceptionsMen wear earringsWomen wear military boots

  • Proximity and Personal SpaceProxemics refers to use of spaceMen have private spacesFew women with families have private spaces

  • TerritorialityPersonal space we dont want others to invadeNot equally respectedPeople with power more likely to enter space of those with less powerMen go into womens spaces more than women enter mens

  • TerritorialityHow respond to invasion?Women more likely to accept invasion and cede territoryMen more likely to challenge invasion

  • Haptics (Touch)Touch from adults communicates differentlyParents touch daughters more often and more gentlyBoys learn to associate touching with control and power

  • Haptics (Touch)Women initiate touches that express supportMen use touch to assert power and express sexual interestWomen may perceive mens touch as harassingGay and lesbians may not feel can touch in public

  • Kinesics (Facial and Body Motion)Womens movements signal they are approachable, friendly, unassumingMens movements indicate they are reserved, in control

  • Kinesics (Facial and Body Motion)Men more likely to use movements aggressivelyWomen signal interest by sustaining eye contactMen do not sustain eye contact during conversationsExcept when challenge others

  • ParalanguageWomen use higher pitch, softer volume, more inflectionMen use lower pitch, greater volumeWomen perceived as feminine assumed to be pretty, immatureMen perceived as masculine assumed to be intelligent, mature

  • Physical AppearanceMen and women pressured to meet cultural idealsConcern about appearance not as much of a problem for malesMen with concerns tend to focus on musculatureSee how GI Joe has changed:

  • Physical AppearanceGirls and women more dissatisfied with appearance Dislike of bodies affects self-esteemConcern about weight starts earlyBy 5, many girls have negative self-images based on weight

  • Interpreting Nonverbal BehaviorWomen more skilled at interpreting nonverbals and identifying emotionsFemales more adept at decoding emotionsMen faster at noticing angry faces

  • Interpreting Nonverbal BehaviorFemales right brain specialization may make more adept at decoding emotionsCognitive development and social learning females encouraged to be sensitive to others

  • Interpreting Nonverbal BehaviorWomens standpoint as caregiversWomen outnumber men in caring professionsDecoding skill results from women's standpoint as subordinate members of society