genetic disorders and gene therapy

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Genetic Disorders Genetic Disorders and and Gene Therapy Gene Therapy

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Genetic Disorders and Gene Therapy. Overview of Lesson. Genetic diseases Chromosomal Single gene Gene Therapy What is it? How is it done?. Chromosomal Diseases. Gametes have abnormal chromosome numbers and mutations Offspring inherit extra chromosome or are missing a chromosome - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: Genetic Disorders  and  Gene Therapy

Genetic Disorders Genetic Disorders and and

Gene TherapyGene Therapy

Page 2: Genetic Disorders  and  Gene Therapy

Overview of Lesson• Genetic diseases

– Chromosomal

– Single gene

• Gene Therapy– What is it?– How is it done?

Page 3: Genetic Disorders  and  Gene Therapy

Chromosomal DiseasesChromosomal Diseases• Gametes have abnormal Gametes have abnormal

chromosome numbers and chromosome numbers and mutationsmutations

• Offspring inherit extra Offspring inherit extra chromosome or are missing a chromosome or are missing a chromosomechromosome

• Caused by problems with meiosisCaused by problems with meiosis

Page 4: Genetic Disorders  and  Gene Therapy

Based on: Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning

Nondisjunction of chromosomes during meiosis

Page 5: Genetic Disorders  and  Gene Therapy

Characteristics of a child with Down Characteristics of a child with Down SyndromeSyndrome

-wide, rounded face -wide, rounded face -equal length fingers-equal length fingers-Lower cognitive ability -webbed neck-Lower cognitive ability -webbed neck-enlarged tongue -enlarged tongue

Normal female karyotype with 46 chromosomes

Down syndrome karyotype with an extra chromosome 21

Based on: Mader, S., Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill

Page 6: Genetic Disorders  and  Gene Therapy

Overview of Lesson• Genetic diseases

– Chromosomal

– Single gene

• Gene Therapy– Process– Vectors

Page 7: Genetic Disorders  and  Gene Therapy

Important Points about InheritanceImportant Points about Inheritance

•Genes have different forms, called Genes have different forms, called allelesalleles

•Each trait is controlled by effects of Each trait is controlled by effects of two allelestwo alleles

•Some alleles are:Some alleles are:• dominant/recessive dominant/recessive • other alleles are co-dominantother alleles are co-dominant

Page 8: Genetic Disorders  and  Gene Therapy

•Allele for Widow’s Peak Allele for Widow’s Peak is dominantis dominant•A person with WW or Ww A person with WW or Ww will have Widow’s Peakwill have Widow’s Peak

•Allele for Straight Hairline Allele for Straight Hairline is recessiveis recessive•A person with ww will have A person with ww will have a Straight Hairlinea Straight Hairline

http://images.google.com/

Hairline Traits

Page 9: Genetic Disorders  and  Gene Therapy

Genotype vs. PhenotypeGenotype vs. Phenotype

•Genotype refers to the allelesGenotype refers to the alleles

•Phenotype refers to the appearancePhenotype refers to the appearance

Example: Genotype - PhenotypeExample: Genotype - PhenotypeWW - person has a widow’s peakWW - person has a widow’s peakWw - person has a widow’s peakWw - person has a widow’s peakww - person has a straight hair lineww - person has a straight hair line

Page 10: Genetic Disorders  and  Gene Therapy

Genetics & Human DiseasesGenetics & Human Diseases

• About 4,000 human diseases are thought to be inherited.

• Scientists are making good progress figuring out where genes are located on chromosomes.

• Genetic diseases are caused by mutations, Genetic diseases are caused by mutations, or incorrect sequences, in the normal form or incorrect sequences, in the normal form of the gene.of the gene.

Page 11: Genetic Disorders  and  Gene Therapy

Huntington’s DiseaseHuntington’s Disease

• Results in a loss of muscle control and mental function.

• The symptoms usually do not appear until after 30 years old.

• 1 in 10,000 people.

Caused by a Caused by a dominantdominant alleleallele

Page 12: Genetic Disorders  and  Gene Therapy

Mucus in bronchi is thick, interfering with lung function

1 in 25 are carriers

One of the first disorders to be actively studied for gene therapy.

Most lethal autosomal recessive disorder in U.S.

Cystic FibrosisCystic Fibrosis

Page 13: Genetic Disorders  and  Gene Therapy

Based on: Harvard Family Health Guide, 1999

Sickle Cell Disease- recessive allele•Red blood cells are sickle shaped, issues with circulation causing anemia and pain

Page 14: Genetic Disorders  and  Gene Therapy

Sickle cell disease (sickle cell anemia)

• Codominant disorder found in African Americans.– 1 in 400 African Americans

• Can be fatal.• Possible cure: bone-marrow

transplants• The sickle cell trait can prevent

Malaria

Page 15: Genetic Disorders  and  Gene Therapy

Hemophilia

• A disorder in which a person’s blood does not clot properly.

• It is a recessive sex-linked, X-chromosome disorder.

• 1 in 10,000 males born are afflicted.“Royalty Disease”

Page 16: Genetic Disorders  and  Gene Therapy

ADA-deficient persons are affected by severe immunodeficiency, with recurrent infections that might be life-threatening.

First disease approved for gene therapy.

Autosomal recessive disorder.

The drug exists but is very expensive, needs to be injected

in vein for life.

Adenoside Deaminase (ADA) Deficiency

Page 17: Genetic Disorders  and  Gene Therapy

Overview of Lesson• Genetic diseases

– Chromosomal

– Single gene

• Gene Therapy– What is it?– How is it done?

Page 18: Genetic Disorders  and  Gene Therapy

What is Gene Therapy?

• Gene therapy is a treatment or cure for disorders caused by mutated genes.

• It involves adding a normally functioning copy of the gene(s) to enough affected cells to restore normal function.

Page 19: Genetic Disorders  and  Gene Therapy

What is Gene Therapy

• Germline gene therapy would be the permanent transfer of a gene into sperm or egg cells.– Future generations would be “cured”.

• Somatic cell (body cell) gene therapy is ideally only the transfer of genes to the affected cells.

Page 20: Genetic Disorders  and  Gene Therapy

Gene Therapy Successes

• Although no gene therapies have been approved by the FDA for sale, some diseases have been experimentally successful:– Melanoma (skin cancer)– Severe Combined Immunodeficiencies– Hereditary Blindness– Sickle Cell Anemia

Page 21: Genetic Disorders  and  Gene Therapy

How is it done?How is it done?Viral Vector Carrying Healthy Gene

Cell with mutated gene(s)

Vector inserts healthy gene into

cell

New gene in the cell along with original genes

Page 22: Genetic Disorders  and  Gene Therapy

Gene TherapyGene Therapy

To design and carry out a gene therapy treatment, a researcher must:

1. Identify the gene(s) responsible for the disorder.

2.Make copies of the normal gene.

3. Insert the copies into vectors.

4. “Infect” the affected cells with the vectors.

5.Activate the gene so that transcription and translation take place.

Page 23: Genetic Disorders  and  Gene Therapy

Viruses as VectorsViruses as Vectors• Replicate by inserting their DNA into a

host cell• Gene therapy can use this to insert

genes that encode for a desired protein to create the desired trait

• Four different types– Adenovirus– Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV)– Retrovirus– Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)

Page 24: Genetic Disorders  and  Gene Therapy
Page 25: Genetic Disorders  and  Gene Therapy

Vector Advantages and Disadvantages

• Adenovirus+ Infects many cell types− Does not integrate into host genome and can be lost.

• Retrovirus+ Integrates into host genome and cannot be lost− Integrates into host genome and can cause cancer

• Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV)+ Integrates into host genome and cannot be lost− Difficult to work with.

• Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)+ DNA stays in nucleus without integrating into host

genome.− Only infects cells of the nervous system.

Page 26: Genetic Disorders  and  Gene Therapy

Gene Therapy Disappointments

• In 1999 a boy died due to an immune response to an adenovirus gene therapy vector.

• Four children have developed cancer due to a retrovirus gene therapy vector

Page 27: Genetic Disorders  and  Gene Therapy

My Research: Building a better Vector

Adenovirus shell delivers genes

HSV-like virus protein tethers DNA to chromosome to keep genes in cell without integration

Page 28: Genetic Disorders  and  Gene Therapy

Your Goals:• Learn more about gene therapy by

completing a becoming a SPACE DOCTOR!

• Gene Therapy Vector Engineering Project.– First groups to complete the Space Doctor

activity gets to chose from the genetic diseases we talked about today.

– Use what you have learned and the Vector Toolbox to choose the best vector for treating the disease.