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4/21/2016 1 GMO’s:  Genetically Modified Organisms Genetically Modified Organisms GMO’s, GM GE (Genetically Engineered) Transgenic “Frankenfoods” DNA from 1 organism transplanted into another Overview of an Organism Organism Organs systems Tissues Cells Organelles Molecules Atoms

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Page 1: Genetically Modified Organisms › ~cfink › ES 10 › ES 10 Powerpoint lectures › GMO’s zika.pdfGMO’s: Genetically Modified Organisms Genetically Modified Organisms • GMO’s,

4/21/2016

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GMO’s:  Genetically Modified Organisms

Genetically Modified Organisms

• GMO’s, GM

• GE (Genetically Engineered)

• Transgenic

• “Frankenfoods”

DNA from 1 organism transplanted into another

Overview of an Organism• Organism

• Organs systems

• Tissues

• Cells

• Organelles

• Molecules

• Atoms

Page 2: Genetically Modified Organisms › ~cfink › ES 10 › ES 10 Powerpoint lectures › GMO’s zika.pdfGMO’s: Genetically Modified Organisms Genetically Modified Organisms • GMO’s,

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DNARNAProteins

Proteins: molecules that provide physical structure, hormones, enzymes, etc.    

DNA:  molecule made of “bases” and “backbone”

http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/dna2.php

Genes:  specific physical sequences of DNA that code for specific proteins

Brown eyes sequence: AAAAGCGCCCGGBlue eyes sequence: AAATGCGCCCGC

http://www.mrpscience.com/Genetics/DNAFingerprint.htm

Page 3: Genetically Modified Organisms › ~cfink › ES 10 › ES 10 Powerpoint lectures › GMO’s zika.pdfGMO’s: Genetically Modified Organisms Genetically Modified Organisms • GMO’s,

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Number of Genes in Different Species

Chromosome:  one long, double‐stranded DNA molecule, containing many genes

http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/Human_Karyotype.html

“Genetically Modified”DNA from 1 organism transplanted into another

Conventionally done via

• Hybridization

• Selective breeding

http://2011russellbiology.wikispaces.com/Chapter+8+Mendel+and+Genetics

Page 4: Genetically Modified Organisms › ~cfink › ES 10 › ES 10 Powerpoint lectures › GMO’s zika.pdfGMO’s: Genetically Modified Organisms Genetically Modified Organisms • GMO’s,

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Hybridization

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selective_breeding

History of Corn

Selective Breeding

Liger

Tigon

Dogs

Page 5: Genetically Modified Organisms › ~cfink › ES 10 › ES 10 Powerpoint lectures › GMO’s zika.pdfGMO’s: Genetically Modified Organisms Genetically Modified Organisms • GMO’s,

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Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)

Genetic Engineering: transplanting DNA (gene) from one organism to another

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http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/05/27/us‐monkeys‐green‐idUSTRE54Q4A520090527

How to create transgenic organisms:

http://www.nepadbiosafety.net/subjects/biotechnology/plant‐transformation‐bombardment http://www.research.uci.edu/tmf/dnaMicro.htm

Gene gun  DNA Microinjection

Why Create GMOs?

• Better taste

• Better appearance

• Faster growth

• Longer shelf‐life

• Improved nutrition

• Pest‐resistant

• Herbicide resistant

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Golden_Rice.jpg

http://extension.entm.purdue.edu/radicalbugs/default.php?page=pests/european_corn_borer

Page 6: Genetically Modified Organisms › ~cfink › ES 10 › ES 10 Powerpoint lectures › GMO’s zika.pdfGMO’s: Genetically Modified Organisms Genetically Modified Organisms • GMO’s,

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Advantages of GMOs:

•Increased crop yield/efficiency of food production

•Drought/frost resistant crops

•Disease resistant crops

•Improved nutritional content

• Decreased allergenicity

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•Food without toxins or allergens

•Plants that contain vaccines

•Animals that produce pharmaceutical drugs

•Animals that grow faster, eat less

•Animals that could donate organs?

“Pharm” animals

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Wild‐type plant        Salt‐tolerant plant18

Page 7: Genetically Modified Organisms › ~cfink › ES 10 › ES 10 Powerpoint lectures › GMO’s zika.pdfGMO’s: Genetically Modified Organisms Genetically Modified Organisms • GMO’s,

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AquAdvantage salmon vs. Wildtype

Potential Disadvantages of GMOs

• Human health risks (allergies)

• Ecological/environmental risks (contamination)

• Economic/social justice concerns (patents, intellectual property)

Concerns Regarding GMOs

• GMOs could “escape”

• Might interbreed with wild relatives

• Might accelerate pesticide resistance 

• Unequal access to technology

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Page 8: Genetically Modified Organisms › ~cfink › ES 10 › ES 10 Powerpoint lectures › GMO’s zika.pdfGMO’s: Genetically Modified Organisms Genetically Modified Organisms • GMO’s,

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Specific Examples of GMOs

• Bt corn

• Round‐up ready crops

• Flavr Savr tomatoes

http://www.lifesciencesfoundation.org/printer_events‐The_FlavrSavr_tomato.htmlhttp://www.21stcentech.com/agriculture‐update‐gm‐minnesota‐family‐farm‐perspective/

http://blogs.cornell.edu/agsci‐interns/2012/08/05/highlights‐of‐crop‐scouting‐with‐wnycma/

Conventional apple

Arctic  apple

Arctic Apples

“Truly a non‐browning apple!”

Bt CornBacillus thuringiensis gene inserted into corn genome 

Corn plant that can produce Bt in every cell (or not)

Pests eat Bt plant

Pests die

Page 9: Genetically Modified Organisms › ~cfink › ES 10 › ES 10 Powerpoint lectures › GMO’s zika.pdfGMO’s: Genetically Modified Organisms Genetically Modified Organisms • GMO’s,

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Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis )

•Pests $$billions of damage per year to crops

•Bt protein kills pests selectively

•Used as insecticide for decades by organic farmers

Advantages of Bt corn over topically applied Bt:

•Bt toxin not destroyed by UV, heat, dessication

•Wider coverage of insect feeding sites

•No guessing as to when to apply

Roundup

Glyphosate

Herbicide, Created by Monsanto in 1970

Page 10: Genetically Modified Organisms › ~cfink › ES 10 › ES 10 Powerpoint lectures › GMO’s zika.pdfGMO’s: Genetically Modified Organisms Genetically Modified Organisms • GMO’s,

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Pros and Cons…

Pros:•Increase crop yields•Affects enzyme only in plants

Cons:•Human health effects?•Environmental impacts (soil/water contamination)•Superweeds/resistance

RoundUp‐Ready Crops:

• Crops genetically modified to be resistant to  Roundup

•Currently Include:soy, corn, canola, alfalfa, cotton, sorghum (wheat is under development)

•"terminator seeds“‐‐ crops produced from Roundup Ready seeds are sterile.

Monsanto:  Myth or Fact?

• Monsanto routinely sues farmers whose fields are     unintentionally contaminated with their seeds

• Monsanto gouges farmers, forcing them to buy fresh seed each year  

• Glyphosate is an established carcinogen

• Pesticide use has increased due to use of GMO crops

Page 11: Genetically Modified Organisms › ~cfink › ES 10 › ES 10 Powerpoint lectures › GMO’s zika.pdfGMO’s: Genetically Modified Organisms Genetically Modified Organisms • GMO’s,

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U.S. Government Regulation of GMOs

1. EPA – evaluates for environmental safety

2. USDA – evaluates whether the plant is safe to grow

3. FDA – evaluates whether the plant is safe to eat

Current Use of GMOs

• GMOs are used internationally

• U.S. majority of soybeans, cotton, corn are GMOs

• 60% of all processed food estimated to contain GMOs

• No “GMO” label is required in the U.S.

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http://mic.com/articles/89341/64‐countries‐have‐taken‐the‐bold‐stand‐against‐monsanto‐the‐u‐s‐won‐t

Page 12: Genetically Modified Organisms › ~cfink › ES 10 › ES 10 Powerpoint lectures › GMO’s zika.pdfGMO’s: Genetically Modified Organisms Genetically Modified Organisms • GMO’s,

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Zika Virus

• Related to virus that causes dengue, yellow fever

• May cause mild symptoms in adults (most are asymptomatic)

• Linked to microcephaly, Guillain‐Barré Syndrome

• Transmitted by mosquitoes, sex 

• There is no widely available test for Zika

• There is no treatment

• There is currently no vaccine 

• Aedes aegypti is a particularly challenging foe

The Bad News…

The Good News—GMO Mosquitoes to the Rescue

• Male mosquitoes modified to contain gene that  makes larvae unviable

• GMO males mate with wild females “dud” eggs (larvae die before adulthood) 

• Wild Aedes aegypti population decreases 

Page 13: Genetically Modified Organisms › ~cfink › ES 10 › ES 10 Powerpoint lectures › GMO’s zika.pdfGMO’s: Genetically Modified Organisms Genetically Modified Organisms • GMO’s,

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Pros and Cons of these GMO Mosquitoes

• Males, so don’t bite

• Safer than insecticides

• Reduced the number of mosquito larvae by 80‐90% in test city

• Aedes aegypti is not native to the Americas

U.S. Labeling LawsThe U.S. Food and Drug Administration currently requires labeling of GM foods if:

• the food has a significantly different nutritional property

• a new food includes an unexpected allergen (e.g., a peanut protein in a soybean product)

• if a food contains a toxicant beyond acceptable limits.

Pro‐labeling Arguments

• Consumers have a right to know what’s in their food

• Would allow consumers to identify and avoid food products that cause them problems.

• Some people want to avoid eating animal products, including animal DNA.

Page 14: Genetically Modified Organisms › ~cfink › ES 10 › ES 10 Powerpoint lectures › GMO’s zika.pdfGMO’s: Genetically Modified Organisms Genetically Modified Organisms • GMO’s,

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Anti‐labeling Arguments

• No significant differences between GMO and conventional foods have been detected. 

• Would impose a cost on all consumers. 

• Certified organic foods by definition cannot be produced with GM ingredients.

• Current food system could not accommodate segregation of GM and non‐GM products.

• No GM products currently on the market or under review contain animal genes

FDA Voluntary Guidelines for Labeling 

• If  GMO food is significantly different, the name must be changed to describe the difference.

• If a bioengineered food has a significantly different nutritional property, its label must reflect the difference.

• If a new food includes an allergen, the presence of that allergen must be disclosed on the label. 

Issues with Mandatory Labeling

• What specific technologies for crop variety development would require a label? 

• What percentage of a GE ingredient must be present in a food before a label is required?

• Would meat, eggs and dairy products from livestock that are fed transgenic crops require labeling? 

• How should regulators verify claims that a food is or is not genetically engineered?

• What is the economic impact of labeling?

Page 15: Genetically Modified Organisms › ~cfink › ES 10 › ES 10 Powerpoint lectures › GMO’s zika.pdfGMO’s: Genetically Modified Organisms Genetically Modified Organisms • GMO’s,

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California Proposition 37 Genetically Engineered Foods Labeling 

Initiative Statute

• Raw or processed food made from plants or animals with genetic material changed in specified ways.

• Prohibits labeling or advertising such food, or other processed food, as “natural.”

Prop 37 Exempts foods that are: 

– unintentionally produced with GM material

– made from animals fed or injected with GM material but not GM themselves

– processed with or containing only small amounts of GM ingredients

– administered for treatment of medical conditions

– sold for immediate consumption such as in a restaurant

– alcoholic beverages