genetically modified organisms (gmos)
DESCRIPTIONGenetically modified organisms (GMOs). and. Genetically modified foods (GMH). РИОКОЗ- Varna Lecturer: Dr. Lyudmila Poptomova. S ummary : What are GMOs and GMH? Why create genetically modified organisms? Are genetically modified foods dangerous? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
1. What are GMOs and GMH?2. Why create genetically modified organisms?3. Are genetically modified foods dangerous?4. How is legally settled the question with GMH and
GMOs in the European Union?5. What types of GMH are present on the Bulgarian
market and European market?6. How was normative settled question with GMH in
Bulgaria?7. How does the control the market of GMH in
GMO can be microorganisms, plants or animals (without human) whose genome has been changed with help of genetic engineering. Genetic engineering is modern biotechnology in which one or a group of genes are “cut “from one organism and “put” in other in this way created an organism with new characteristics .
GMH consist of GMOs ,or contain, or produced by GMO.
What are the components of foods that are produced by GMOs?For example:• Vegetable oil was produced by GMsoybean or GM rape seed • The vitamins which are added to fruit juices and breakfast cereals and they are using GM bacteriums.• The sugar produced by GMsugar beetThese components (vegetable oil, vitamins, sugar) subsequently they are used in foods such as dough , in the sugar and confectionery products etc…
In general, organisms are genetically modified to give them new characteristics, new qualities , which are consistented with economic, technical, agronomic perspective.
1. With their help produce vitamins , enzymes, sweeteners and spices, which are used as food additives in food production.
2. Used in the process of fermentation and ripening of food products in order to cut down expenses of the production.
Very often the plants are genetically modified.The genetically modification is used in the farming:
To create crops with raised resistance to diseases, enemies to plants, weeds To improve the taste and nutritional quality of products To prolongation thr expiry date To create нискоалергенни food Greater resistance to low temperatures, the drought
Lately created GMplats with raised nutritional value, such as:
Sort of saya and rape ,from which oil is extracted with a similar composition of fatty acids and the proven health effects Sorts with raised quantity of gluten in the flour (this improves the quality of products produced by the same flour) and raised content of starch. Sorts of tomatoes, bananas, strawberries, pineapple with raised sweetness and flavor Sorts of rice called “Golden Rice” with raised content of vitamin A (this is due golden color) and iron.
In contrast to plants experiments with genetically modified animals are a little . In genetically modified animals is aimed to creating new breeds , which have a higher rate of growth, greater productivity, are more resistant to diseases, have altered fat in meat and milk, raised content of protein in milk, eggs from which chicks hatched with a higher resistance to viral diseases. at the present time there isn’t genetically modified animal which is used as as a raw material for food production.
Since 1995 have started mass cultivation of crops and GM plats .Today about 1/3 of farmland in the world are occupied by biotechnological crops. Basic producers of GMplants and corps are USA, India, China, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, Brazil, Mexico, South Africa, Australia, Philippines, Romania.
For now in European Union are cultivating only GMcorn ,which is resistant against one type of organism on it- in Spain, France, Czech Republic and Germany. For now in Bulgaria have been made experiments with corn, potatoes and sunflowers, and experimental work conducted in laboratory conditions with many kinds of cultivated plants.
According to more scientists there isn’t reason for disquiet. Before products will be put on the market , they pass through extremely precise assessment of the risk for to human health, animals and the environment to guarantee the absence of unfavourable effects.
But according to other scientists studies have not enough yet and at the moment can’t foresee all possible long-term effects on human health and environment. They think that it’s unnatural insertion of genes of viruses, animals and insects in the genome of the fruit , vegetables and other animals.In nature similar process isn’t doing. Some scientists fear that the implantation of bacteria and viruses into crops can lead to spontaneous occurrence of highly pathogenic viruses and bacteria with raised resistance to antibiotics which can to be used as bio-weapons.
For now in European Union is active the legislation on GMOs which is considered the strictest in the world. In 2004 was operated new legislative framework for all member countries of the EU about GM food.The requirements of Regulation 1829/2003 were introducted, they deals with GMOs , GM food and forages and dealing with the protection of consumer health and safety ,labeling of food. In the EU is premising limit for GMO content which is 0.9% in Korea - 3% in Japan- 5%. It is possible one product to be dirty with GMO in the harvest the crops, conservation transport or processing. These products are not labeled as GMH, if the GMO in them is below 0.9% and appear accidental or technically unavoidable.
In the summer of 2004 was operated new law for food,in which all questions abot GM food were settled. GMH competent authority is the Ministry of Health. He was set up commissions on new genetically modified foods. This is a National Expert commission, which consists of 15 scientists in the medicine, biotechnology, toxicology, molecular biology, molecular genetics, food technology, agronomy, stock-breeding and environmental protection. This commission gives attitudes to applications for permission to market a GMH, GMOs for use in foods and as food containing components, produced from GMOs.
Everybody, who wants to put on the market a GMO or GMH in or as food , is obliged to making:
1. appreciation of risk for human health2. appreciation of risk for environment
1) A person ,who wants to market a a GMO or GMH sells written application (Bulgarian and English) to the Ministry of Health, in which contains all available information about the food or organism and full risk appreciation.
2) National Expert commission gives her attitude.3) Then the Ministry of Health sends an application and all documents to
the European Food Safety Authority-EFSA. (A commission of highly qualified experts).
4) The attitude of EFSA is made public and the community could comment it.
5) On the basis of attitude of EFSA, the European Commission made suggestion for the permission or refusal to the marketing of GMOs. (Permission is granted for a maximum 10-year period.)
All approved products are included in the public register of GM food. This list published on the website of the Ministry of Health.
In case of eventual appearance of illegal GMO in the European market, all Member States are informed by the system for quick publication of food and forages (RASFF) the European Commission coordinates all after actions and measures between Member States.
Cornmeal-Bulgarian production and importPopcorn-importSoya four- importSoya гранулати и изолати- importSausages (with components of genetically modified soy beans) - Bulgarian production
Every permissive product in EU can be legally put on the Bulgarian market – often they are GM corn , soya and colza , which usually is rarely consumed directly.From these products are produced foods (flour, starch, confectionery products etc.).There is sweet corn, which is legal for direct human consumption. Soy beans are used for production of soy oil, soy sauces, tofu, гранулати , sausages.
In Bulgaria there are 28 РИОКОЗ, which takes samples of food offered in supermarkets, stores network, producers of food etc. The control is made according to a yearly plan under the indications of the Ministry of Health. As permissive GMO and GMH in EU have already been put on tests for safety, they are safe for humans, animals and the environment. In this case , the control of food containing GMOs is to check the whether the labeling requirements - through control of documentation. Regularly take samples of food and products which haven’t label . All food samples are sent to the Metropolitan РИОКОЗ ,where is the National Laboratory for genetically modified foods.
In 2009 for the presence of GMOs will be check samples from:Soya- Soya bean,soya гранулати , Soya concentrates, soya изолати- importSoya flourВитабел, soya cutlets, dicedMeat products- cold cuts, kebapche, meatballs, cutlets, sausages and other.WafflesChocolate and chocolate productsMaize grain, maize flour, corn breadPopcornCorn chips- import
Източници: Ръководство за контрол на генетично модифицирани храниГМО и ГМХ , биологични храни и съвместно общуване земеделските практики-Информационен материал ГМХ в България .Какво трябва да знаем за тях?- брошура изготвена по туининг проект “Химикали и храни”