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B E N C H M A R K E D U C A T I O N C O M P A N Y Skills and Strategies Anchor Comprehension Strategies • Analyze story elements • Identify sequence of events Genre Study • Recognize genre features • Analyze genre texts • Make text-to-text genre connections Tier Two Vocabulary • See book’s glossary Word Study • Synonyms Fluency • Read with anticipation and mood Writing • Writer’s tools: Metaphor • Write a fairy tale using writing-process steps Rough-Face Girl The Red Swan TEACHER’S GUIDE Level Q/40 Unit at a Glance Day 1 Prepare to Read Day 4 Reread “The Red Swan”* Day 2 Read “Rough-Face Girl”* Day 5 Literature Circle Discussion/Reinforce Skills* Day 3 Read “The Red Swan”* Days 6–15 Write a fairy tale using the writing- process steps on page 10 *While you are meeting with small groups, other students can: • read independently from your classroom library • reflect on their learning in reading response journals • engage in literacy workstations Genre: FAIRY TALES

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  • B e n c h m a r k e d u c a t i o n c o m p a n y

    Skills and Strategies

    Anchor Comprehension Strategies• Analyze story elements• Identify sequence of events

    Genre Study• Recognize genre features• Analyze genre texts• Make text-to-text genre connections

    Tier Two Vocabulary• See book’s glossary

    Word Study• Synonyms

    Fluency• Read with anticipation and mood

    Writing• Writer’s tools: Metaphor• Write a fairy tale using writing-process

    steps

    Rough-Face Girl

    The Red Swan

    Teacher’S Guide

    Level Q/40

    Unit at a Glance

    Day 1 Prepare to Read Day 4 Reread “The Red Swan”*

    Day 2 Read “Rough-Face Girl”* Day 5 Literature Circle Discussion/Reinforce Skills*

    Day 3 Read “The Red Swan”* Days 6–15 Write a fairy tale using the writing- process steps on page 10

    *While you are meeting with small groups, other students can:• read independently from your classroom library• reflect on their learning in reading response journals• engage in literacy workstations

    Genre: Fairy Tales

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  • • Ask students to turn to pages 4–5. Say: The fairy tales in this book were told by a Native American tribe. Let’s read about the origins of the fairy tales.

    • Have a student read aloud the background information while others follow along.

    • Say: “Rough-Face Girl” is a type of Cinderella story. “The Red Swan” was referred to by a famous American poet. What can you infer, or tell, from this? Allow responses. Prompt students to understand that literature from various cultures all over the world is related.

    Introduce the Tools Writers Use: Metaphor• Read aloud “Tools Writers Use” on page 5. • Say: Many writers use metaphors to describe a

    person, place, or thing. Metaphors helps readers create vivid images in their minds. The fairy tales in this book have examples of metaphors. Let’s practice identifying metaphors so we can recognize them in the fairy tales we read.

    • Distribute BLM 1 (Metaphor). Read aloud sentence 1 with students.

    • Model Identifying Metaphors: Matt says the Internet is a treasure chest of information. The Internet and a treasure chest are two entirely different things. However, if we think about how the two are alike, Matt’s idea makes perfect sense. The Internet is like a treasure chest in that it is full of valuable items, such as facts, maps, videos, and photographs. By using a metaphor, the author provides readers with a more vivid image than if the sentence had said “The Internet has a lot of valuable information.”

    • Ask students to work with a partner or in small groups to identify the examples of metaphors in the remaining sentences, complete a sentence using a metaphor, and write their own metaphor.

    • Bring the groups together to share their findings. • Ask each group to read one of the sentences they

    wrote. Use the examples to build their understanding of how and why writers use metaphors. Remind stu dents that metaphors can help readers better understand and visualize the characters, plot, and setting of a fairy tale.

    • Ask groups to hand in their sentences. Transfer student-written sentences to chart paper, title the page “Metaphor,” and post it as an anchor chart in your classroom.

    Two NaTive americaN Fairy Tales2

    Prepare to ReadBuild Genre Background• Write the word genre on chart paper. Ask: Who

    can explain what the word genre means? Allow responses. Say: The word genre means “a kind of something.” Ballet and ballroom dancing are different genres, or kinds, of dance. Each genre of dance has its own characteristics that we can use to identify it. In the same way, we can identify literary genres by their characteristics. As readers, we use what we know about genre to help us anticipate what will happen or what we will learn. As writers, we use what we know about genre to help us develop and organize our ideas.

    • Ask: Who can name some literary genres? Let’s make a list. Allow responses. Post the list on the classroom wall as an anchor chart.

    • Draw a concept web on chart paper or the chalkboard. Write Fairy Tales in the center circle of the web.

    • Say: Fairy tales are one example of a literary genre. Think of any fairy tales you know. How would you define what a fairy tale is?

    • Turn and Talk. Ask students to turn and talk to a classmate and jot down any features of a fairy tale they can think of. Then bring students together and ask them to share their ideas. Record them on the group web. Reinforce the concept that all fairy tales have certain common features.

    Introduce the Book• Distribute a copy of the book to each student. Read

    the title aloud. Ask students to tell what they see on the cover and table of contents.

    • Ask students to turn to pages 2–3. Say: This week we are going to read fairy tales that will help us learn about this genre. First we’re going to focus on this genre as readers. Then we’re going to study fairy tales from a writer’s perspective. Our goal this week is to really understand this genre.

    • Ask a student to read aloud the text on pages 2–3 while others follow along. Invite a different student to read the web on page 3.

    • Point to your Fairy Tales web on chart paper. Say: Let’s compare our initial ideas about fairy tales with what we just read. What new features of this genre did you learn? Allow responses. Add new information to the class web.

    • Post this chart in your classroom during your fairy tales unit. Say: As we read fairy tales this week, we will come back to this anchor chart. We will look for how these features appear in each fairy tale we read.

    Day 1

    ©2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC. All rights reserved. Teachers may photocopy the reproducible pages for classroom use. No other part of the guide may be reproduced or transmitted in whole or in part in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.ISBN: 978-1-4509-0002-7

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  • 3Two NaTive americaN Fairy Tales©2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC

    Reflect and Review • Turn and Talk. Write one or more of the following

    questions on chart paper. What is a literary genre, and why do readers and writers separate literature into genres? What did you learn today about the fairy tale genre? How can readers tell whether a writer has used metaphors in a fairy tale? Ask partners or small groups to discuss their ideas and report them back to the whole group as a way to summarize the day’s learning.

    Before ReadingIntroduce “Rough-Face Girl”• Reread the Fairy Tales anchor chart or the web

    on page 3 to review the features of a fairy tale.• Ask students to turn to page 6. Ask: Based on

    the title and illustration, what do you predict this fairy tale might be about? Allow responses.

    • Invite students to scan the text and look for the boldfaced words (unique, splendid, boldly, aura). Say: As you read, pay attention to these words. If you don’t know what they mean, try to use clues in the surrounding text to help you define them. We’ll come back to these words after we read.

    Set a Purpose for Reading• Ask students to read the fairy tale, focusing on

    the genre elements they noted on their anchor chart. They should also look for examples of metaphors and think about how the author’s use of metaphors helps them visualize the setting, plot, and characters.

    Read “Rough-Face Girl”• Place students in groups based on their reading

    levels. Ask students to read the fairy tale silently, whisper-read, or read with a partner.

    • Confer briefly with individual students to monitor their understanding of the text and their use of fix-up strategies.

    After ReadingBuild Comprehension: Analyze Story Elements• Lead a student discussion using the “Analyze the

    Characters and Plot” questions on page 13, or use the following steps to provide explicit modeling of how to analyze story elements in a fairy tale.

    • Explain: We learned yesterday that a fairy tale focuses on a problem to solve. The tale often includes fantastic or magical characters, setting, and plot elements to help portray this problem. Readers must pay close attention to all three of these elements, as each one contributes to creating both the problem and its solution. Ana-lyzing the fairy tale’s characters, setting, and plot can help you appreciate the story’s features and better understand what is happening and why.

    Day 2

    Management TipAsk students to place self-stick notes in the margins where they notice examples of metaphors or features of the genre.

    Name Date

    ©2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLCTwo NaTivE amEriCaN Fairy TaLEs BLm 1

    MetaphorDirections: Read each sentence. Write the two things that are being compared. Then explain the comparison.

    1. “The Internet is a treasure chest of information,” said Matt.Internet and treasure chest; the Internet has many valuable facts

    2. Ashley’s athletic talent is her ticket to a college education. athletic talent and a ticket; Ashley’s talent will enable her to go to college

    3. The summer days were ripe apples waiting to be picked.summer days and apples; the days were beautiful and ready to be enjoyed

    4. Julie’s secrets are a prison from which she cannot escape.secrets and a prison; Julie’s secrets made her feel restrained

    5. The prince was an ugly duckling who would soon become a swan.the prince and a duckling; the prince was not attractive but soon would be

    Directions: Complete the following sentence using a metaphor.

    6. The brilliant moon was _____________ for the stranded sailors.Answers will vary. Possible answers: a beacon, a lifeline

    Directions: Write your own metaphor.

    7. Answers will vary. Possible answer: The freshly cut grass was a green velvet carpet.

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  • ©2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC4

    • Model. Read the first Find It! question. Say: When I read the question, I look for important words that tell me what to look for in the book. What words in this question do you think will help me? Allow responses. Say: Yes, I’m looking for the words Invisible One and sister. On page 7, I read “The Invisible One announced that he was ready to marry. His sister, Nadie, would help him choose a wife.” These sentences answers the question.

    • Use the Power Tool Flip Chart to help you develop other Find It! questions.

    Focus on Vocabulary: Synonyms• Explain/Model: Synonyms are words that mean

    the same or almost the same thing. For example, I can say, “The movie was exciting,” or I can say, “The movie was thrilling.” The words exciting and thrilling are synonyms. Sometimes readers can figure out the meaning of an unfamiliar word by looking for a synonym in the text.

    • Practice. Ask students to think of synonyms for words such as smart, jump, scared, and run. List the words and their synonyms on a two-column chart. (For example: smart/clever, jump/leap, scared/frightened, run/dash)

    • Say: Let’s find the boldfaced words in this fairy tale. What can you do if you don’t know what these words mean? Allow responses. Say: Besides looking in the glossary or a dictionary, you can look for clues in the text to help you figure out the meaning of an unfamiliar word. One type of clue you can look for is a synonym for the word.

    • Ask students to work with a partner to complete the “Focus on Words” activity on page 13 using BLM 3 (Focus on Synonyms). Explain that they should look in the sentences around each boldfaced word to find a synonym that helps define the word and then explain how they know that the word is a synonym.

    • Transfer Through Oral Language. Ask groups of students to share their findings. Then challenge individual students to use all four words in a brief, original, oral fairy tale. Have students take turns telling their fairy tales to the class. Ask listeners to raise their hands when they hear the target words.

    • Ask students to save their work in their genre studies folders to continue on Days 3 and 4.

    Day 2 (cont.)• Distribute copies of BLM 2 (Analyze Story Elements)

    and/or draw a chart like the one below.

    Story Element

    Details from Story Fantastic or Magical Features

    Characters Rough-Face Girl, her two sisters, her father, The Invisible One, his sister Nadie

    The Invisible One can only be seen by the pure of heart.

    Setting a small Native American village Nadie washes Rough-Face Girl’s scars away in healing waters.

    Plot The Invisible One’s sister calls the young women together. The one who can see her brother will marry him. Rough-Face Girl’s sisters make fun of her and take all the new clothes for themselves, but Rough-Face Girl makes her own dress. As the only girl to see The Invisible One, she is chosen as his bride.

    Rough-Face Girl sees the aura, bow, and sled of The Invisible One that no one else can see.

    • Model: When I analyze a fairy tale, I think about each element and how it contributes to the story problem. I think about the characters and their traits. I think about the setting and how it affects the problem. I think about the plot. How does each event help the characters come closer to solving the problem? In a fairy tale, all the elements work together to lead to a solution.

    • Guide Practice. Work with students to analyze the story elements. Help them identify elements of the story that are fantastic or magical. Remind them that all the elements work together to tell a fairy tale. Ask students to think about how the magical elements lead to the solution of the main character’s problem.

    • Have students keep BLM 2 in their genre studies folders.

    Practice Text Comprehension Strategies for ELA Assessment• Remind students that when they answer questions

    on standardized assessments, they must be able to support their answers with facts or clues and evidence directly from the text.

    • Use the Comprehension Question Card with small groups of students to practice answering text-dependent comprehension questions.

    • Say: Today I will help you learn how to answer Find It! questions. The answer to a Find It! question is right in the book. You can find the answer in one place in the text.

    Two NaTive americaN Fairy Tales

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  • 5©2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC

    Page Word Synonym How do you know?

    7 unique one of a kind The next sentence says, “You’re one of a kind . . . .”

    9 splendid grand The sentence two sentences after says, “They are very grand indeed!”

    10 boldly bravely The next sentence says Rough-Face Girl “bravely made her way through the circle of people.”

    11 aura air surrounding

    The next sentence says, “The air surrounding him glows with his warmth.”

    Reflect and Review • Turn and Talk. Ask partners or small groups to

    reread the “Features of a Fairy Tale” web on page 3 and decide whether all of these features are present in “Rough-Face Girl.” Ask groups to share and support their findings.

    Fluency: Read with Anticipation and Mood• You may wish to have students reread the story

    with a partner during independent reading time. Work with students to identify the various moods of the tale from clues in the title, illustrations, and character feelings. Then have them focus on expressing the mood of the first four paragraphs on page 7, using pacing, tone, and pitch to portray sadness or melancholy.

    Before ReadingIntroduce “The Red Swan” • Ask students to turn to page 14. Say: This fairy

    tale is written in a different format from the other fairy tale we read. Notice the notes in the margin. First, we will read to understand the fairy tale. Tomorrow, we will read this fairy tale like a writer and think about how the notes in the margin can help us write our own fairy tales.

    • Say: Let’s look at the title and illustrations of this fairy tale. What do you predict it might be about?

    • Ask students to scan the text and look for the boldfaced words (fashioned, hue, scarlet, disbelief, reclaim, rivals). Ask: What do you notice about these words? Why do you think they appear in boldfaced type? Allow responses.

    • Say: As you read, try to figure out the meanings of these words. Look for synonyms in the text.

    Set a Purpose for Reading• Ask students to read the fairy tale, focusing on

    how the characters and plot lead to the solution of the main character’s problem. Encourage them to notice the author’s use of metaphor.

    Read “The Red Swan”• Place students in groups based on their reading

    levels. Ask students to read the fairy tale silently, whisper-read, or read with a partner.

    • Confer briefly with individual students to monitor their understanding of the text and their use of fix-up strategies.

    After ReadingBuild Comprehension: Analyze Story Elements• Say: Yesterday we analyzed the story elements

    in “Rough-Face Girl.” Today’s story has some elements that are similar and some that are different. How do the fantastic or magical elements of the characters, setting, and plot in “The Red Swan” lead to the story problem and solution? Record responses on a whole-group chart like the one below.

    Day 3

    Two NaTive americaN Fairy Tales

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  • ©2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLCTwo NaTive americaN Fairy Tales6

    Focus on Vocabulary: Synonyms• Ask students to work with a partner to complete the

    “Focus on Words” activity on page 21 using BLM 3. Have groups of students share their findings.

    • Transfer Through Oral Language. Pairs of students think of other synonyms for each target word. Then they take turns making up sentences using one of the new synonyms. Other students in the class repeat the sentence using the target word that is a synonym.

    Page Word Synonym How do you know?

    15 fashioned made The next sentence says, “They made some of oak, some of stone, and some of bone.”

    15 hue color The sentence before says “everything he saw was the color red.”

    15 scarlet red Sentences before and after mention the color red.

    16 disbelief doubt In the next sentence the old man says, “I doubt you could hit such a bird.”

    19 reclaim get back Two sentences later, Deep Voice says, “I must get it back.”

    20 rivals enemies Five sentences earlier, Deep Voice “saw that his enemies were as many as the leaves in spring.”

    Reflect and Review • Turn and Talk. Ask partners or small groups to

    discuss the following questions and report their ideas to the whole group. What traits does Deep Voice have? How does he show these traits? Think of a time in your life when you were determined to solve a problem. What happened?

    Fluency: Read with Anticipation and Mood• Have students reread the story with a partner,

    focusing on reading with expression to fit the mood of the story. Ask students to identify the mood of the tale on pages 16–19 from clues in the events and character descriptions. Then have them choose one or two paragraphs to read aloud, focusing on using a tone appropriate to express the mood of urgency and excitement. Remind students that they can use pacing and pitch as well as tone to portray the mood.

    Day 3 (cont.)

    Story Element

    Details from Story Fantastic or Magical Features

    Characters Red Thunder; his wife; his three sons, including Deep Voice, the youngest; a red swan; two wise men and their daughters; a great medicine man and his daughter, Red Swan

    Red Thunder gives his sons three magic arrows. The medicine man has a magic cap. His daughter can turn into a red swan.

    Setting a lodge in the woods, the woods, an enemy village

    After washing in the lake, Deep Voice sees only red.

    Plot Red Thunder dies of sorrow after his wife is killed. He leaves his sons three magic arrows. Deep Voice shoots one into a red swan, who then flies away. As he searches for the swan, he finds that she is really a girl. He wins her hand after finding and returning her father’s magic cap.

    A teapot refills itself.Magic arrows enable Deep Voice to change into a hummingbird, dandelion seed, and nighthawk.

    • Discuss Story Elements Across Texts. Lead a discussion using the following questions: How are the characters in “Rough-Face Girl” similar to those in “The Red Swan”? Which story setting is more vivid? How are magical characters involved in the plot of each story? Where has the author used metaphors? How do these metaphors help you better appreciate the characters and settings?

    Practice Text Comprehension Strategies for ELA Assessment • Use the Comprehension Question Card to practice

    answering text-dependent questions.• Say: Today we will answer Look Closer! questions.

    The answer to a Look Closer! question is in the book. You have to look in more than one place. You find the different parts of the answer, then you put the parts together to answer the question.

    • Model. Read the first Look Closer! question. Say: This question asks me to identify a sequence of events. I know because it has the clue words after that. Now I need to look for other important information to find in the book. What information do you think will help me? Allow responses. Say: Yes, I’m looking for the words Deep Voice and medicine man. I find these words on page 19. The next sentence says Deep Voice “ran all day and into the night. Finally, he came upon the hut of the medicine man.” I have found the answer in the book. I looked in several sentences to find the answer.

    • Guide Practice. Use the Power Tool Flip Chart to help you develop other Look Closer! questions.

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  • ©2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC Two NaTive americaN Fairy Tales 7

    Before ReadingSet a Purpose for Rereading• Have students turn to page 14. Say: Until now,

    we have been thinking about fairy tales from the perspective of the reader. Learning the features of fairy tales has helped us be critical readers. Now we are going to put on a different hat. We are going to reread “The Red Swan” and think like writers. We’re going to pay attention to the annotations in the margins. These annotations will help us understand what the author did and why she did it.

    Reread “The Red Swan”• Place students in groups based on their reading

    levels. Ask students to reread the fairy tale silently or whisper-read.

    • Confer briefly with individual students to monitor their understanding of the text and annotations.

    After ReadingAnalyze the Mentor Text• Explain to students that the text they have just read

    is a mentor text. A mentor text is a text that teaches. This text is designed to help them understand what writers do to write a fairy tale and why they do it.

    • Read and discuss each mentor annotation with students. Encourage them to comment on the writer’s style, character and plot development, and use of literary techniques such as metaphor.

    Practice Text Comprehension Strategies for ELA Assessment • Use the Comprehension Question Card with small

    groups of students to practice answering text-dependent questions.

    • Say: Today I will help you learn how to answer Prove It! questions. The answer to a Prove It! question is not stated in the book. You have to look for clues and evidence to prove the answer.

    • Model. Read the first Prove It! question. Say: I will show you how I answer a Prove It! question. This question asks me to analyze character. I know because it asks about a character’s traits. Now I need to look for other important information in the question. What information do you think will help me? Allow responses. Say: Yes, I need to find details about Deep Voice on page 18. I read “Once again, he chased the flaming, feathered arrow all day and into the night.” I have located the clue I need to support the idea that Deep Voice will not give up.

    • Guide Practice. Use the Power Tool Flip Chart to help you develop other Prove It! questions and support students’ text-dependent comprehension strategies.

    Analyze the Writer’s Craft• Ask students to turn to page 22. Explain: Over

    the next few days, you will have the opportunity to write your own fairy tales. First, let’s think about how the author wrote “The Red Swan.” When she developed this fairy tale, she followed certain steps. You can follow these same steps to write your own fairy tale.

    • Read step 1. Say: The first thing you’ll do is decide on the main characters you want to create. Let’s turn back to the two fairy tales we read and recall the main characters in them. Each fairy tale has one or more characters with a problem, one or more characters who help, and one or more characters who are evil or cruel. (Write the three kinds of characters and their names on chart paper.) What characters of each kind can we think of? Allow responses. Write down students’ ideas on chart paper.

    • Read step 2. Say: In the fairy tales we read, one or more characters has a problem. The other characters make the problem better or worse. For example, Rough-Face Girl wants to take the test, but her sisters leave nothing for her to wear and the other villagers laugh at her. What could our characters be like? Let’s make a list of the characters and their traits. Allow responses. Write down students’ ideas on chart paper.

    • Read step 3. Say: Before you’re ready to write a fairy tale, you need a setting and plot. “The Red Swan” takes place in a forest. This is a perfect setting for the plot. It is home to Deep Voice and his brothers as well as the wise old men. It is where Deep Voice sees the red swan. When you write your fairy tale, think about what setting is right for your characters. What plot events will help your characters solve the problem of your fairy tale? Choose some of the characters and a problem the class has brainstormed, and work as a group to construct a possible setting and plot.

    Build Comprehension: Identify Sequence of Events• Explain: A story plot is a series of events that

    happen in a particular order, or sequence. For example, Rough-Face Girl sees The Invisible One after her sisters have been unable to see him. Then Nadie washes Rough-Face Girl’s scars away in the healing water. These events happen in a logical order to portray the solution to the story’s problem. Authors often use words such as then and next to show the sequence of events in a story. Thinking about the sequence of events helps you understand and remember the plot of the story.

    • Model: In “The Red Swan,” Deep Voice meets a wise old man and his daughter. Then he meets a second wise man and his daughter. Finally, he

    Day 4

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  • Analyze & SynthesizePractice Text Comprehension Strategies for ELA Assessment • Use the Comprehension Question Card with small

    groups of students to practice answering text-dependent questions.

    • Say: Today I will help you learn how to answer Take It Apart! questions. To figure out the answer to a Take It Apart! question, you must think like the author.

    • Model. Read the first Take It Apart! question on the Comprehension Question Card. Say: This question asks me to evaluate the author’s purpose. I know because it asks why the author used particular words. Now I need to look for other important information in the question. What information do you think will help me? Allow responses. Say: Yes, I need to look on page 15 to see what the author is describing. The author uses these words to describe how sad the great chief was after his wife died. Thinking about the author’s purpose helped me find the answer.

    • Use the Power Tool Flip Chart to help you develop other Take It Apart! questions to use with students.

    Summarize & Make Connections Across Texts• Engage students in a discussion about the fairy tales

    in this book. Invite a different student to summarize each fairy tale. Encourage other students to add their ideas and details.

    • Ask students to turn to the inside back cover of the book. Say: Good readers think about how literary works are related. We know, for example, that both of these fairy tales share certain features. They both have a character with a problem. They both have a mean or cruel character. What else do they have in common? Allow responses. Say: Today we will think about the characters in both fairy tales. We’ll think about how the characters are alike and different and what we can learn from them.

    • Ask students to work individually or in small groups to complete BLM 4 (Make Connections Across Texts).

    • Class Discussion or Literature Circles. Facilitate a whole-class discussion or keep students in their small groups for a literature circle discussion. If you choose to conduct literature circles, share the rules for good discussion below. Each group should discuss and be prepared to share its ideas about the following prompts. Which characters were most alike? How were they alike? Which character was most like a person you might meet in real life? Which was least like a person you might meet in real life? Why? Which fairy tale’s plot did you find most entertaining? Why?

    meets the medicine man and his daughter, Red Swan. By arranging the events in this order, the author ensures that readers will be curious and engaged in the story. A well-planned sequence of events makes us want to keep reading to find out what happens next.

    • Guide Practice. Invite students to work in small groups to outline another sequence of events in “Rough-Face Girl” or “The Red Swan.” Ask each group to summarize the events and explain why the sequence is both logical and suspenseful.

    Reflect and Review • Ask and discuss the following questions.

    How is thinking about a fairy tale as a reader different from thinking about a fairy tale as a writer? How is it similar? What new words have you added to your vocabulary this week? Which is your favorite? Which of the characters you met in these fairy tales do you most admire? Why? How can you use synonyms and metaphors as a writer?

    Fluency: Read with Anticipation and Mood• You may wish to have students reread the story with

    a partner during independent reading time. Have them focus on reading with expression to fit the mood of the story. Ask students to identify the mood of the last three paragraphs of the tale from clues in the events, characters’ words, and illustrations. Then have them focus on expressing the mood, using pacing, tone of voice, and pitch to portray happiness and satisfaction.

    ©2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLCTwo NaTive americaN Fairy Tales8

    Day 4 (cont.) Day 5

    Y06602_G4_TG_FairyTalesNA_TGCB_Rev3.indd 8 10/10/10 10:49 PM

  • • Make a two-column chart on the board. Invite the pairs to write their original word in the first column and its synonyms in the second column. Then, invite the group to suggest other synonyms to add.

    Reread for Fluency: Oral Reading Performance• Discuss with students the emotions shown by the

    various characters in the fairy tales. • Say: Different characters in the fairy tales show

    enthusiasm, boldness, wonder, happiness, and sadness, among other emotions. When you read the fairy tales aloud, you can demonstrate your understanding of these emotions through your expression. This will help your listeners understand and connect with the characters, which in turn will help them understand and enjoy the story.

    • Invite groups of three or more students to choose a dialogue in one of the fairy tales and select character roles. Then have the groups read the dialogues with expression that helps listeners understand each character’s emotions.

    • Encourage students to have fun with their readings and to make them as dramatic as possible.

    • As a whole class, discuss each group’s interpretation of the dialogue and alternate ways to express the emotions.

    Review Writer’s Tools: Metaphor• Ask students to look for other examples of

    metaphors in titles from your classroom library or the school’s library. Each student should select one title at his or her independent reading level. Ask students to read pages specifically to find examples of metaphors.

    • Invite students to share their examples with the class. Encourage students to discuss how the metaphors make the writing more vivid and interesting. Point out that not all students will have found examples in the books they chose. Metaphor is not a tool all writers use all of the time.

    • Tell students that at the end of their discussion, you will ask them to share the important text-to-text, text-to-world, and text-to-self connections they have made.

    • While each small group of students discusses the book, confer with individual or small groups of students. You may wish to revisit elements of the genre, take running records, or model fluent reading skills.

    Directions: Fill in the chart. Use it to compare and contrast the two fairy tales.

    Rough-Face Girl The Red SwanCharacter(s) with a Problem

    Rough-Face Girl Deep Voice

    Character Who Helps

    Nadie Two wise men, medicine man

    Evil Character(s)

    sisters, people in the crowd

    white bird, enemy tribe

    How does the author describe the character(s)?

    Rough-Face Girl: kind, hard-working, specialNadie: enthusiastic, caring, magicalSisters: lazy, cruel, vain, foolish

    Deep Voice: brave, persistent, kind, generousTwo wise men: helpfulMedicine man: happy, gratefulEnemy village: cruel, power-hungry

    How does the fairy tale end?

    Rough-Face Girl marries The Invisible One.

    Deep Voice recovers the medicine man’s cap and marries the medicine man’s daughter. Deep Voice’s brothers marry the daughters of the wise men.

    Rules for Good Discussion• Pay attention to the person who is talking and

    do not interrupt him or her.

    • Think about what others are saying so you can respond and add to their ideas.

    • Allow and encourage everyone in the group to speak.

    • Be respectful of everyone’s ideas.

    Reinforce SkillsIf time permits, choose from the following activities to reinforce vocabulary and fluency.

    Reinforce Vocabulary: Synonym Search• Ask each student to think of a familiar adjective or

    verb and write it on a slip of paper.• Mix up the slips of paper and have pairs of students

    take a word.• Ask the pairs to think of as many synonyms for their

    words as they can. Remind them to use a dictionary or thesaurus if they get stuck.

    9Two NaTive americaN Fairy Tales©2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC

    Day 5 (cont.)

    Y06602_G4_TG_FairyTalesNA_TGCB_Rev3.indd 9 10/10/10 10:49 PM

  • Write a Fairy Tale• Use the suggested daily schedule to guide

    students through the writing-process steps. Allow approximately 45 to 60 minutes per day. As students work independently, circulate around the room and monitor student progress. Confer with individual students to discuss their ideas and help them move forward. Use the explicit mini-lessons, conferencing strategies, and assessment rubrics in Using Genre Models to Teach Writing for additional support.

    • Before students begin planning their fairy tales, pass out copies of BLM 5 (Fairy Tale Checklist). Review the characteristics and conventions of writing that will be assessed. Tell students that they will use this checklist when they complete their drafts.

    • This daily plan incorporates the generally accepted six traits of writing as they pertain to fairy tales.

    Days 6–7: Plan • Ask students to use BLM 6 (Fairy Tale Planning

    Guide) to brainstorm the characters, setting, and plot for their stories.

    • Encourage students to refer to the “Features of a Fairy Tale” web on page 3 and to the steps in “The Writer’s Craft” on pages 22–23 of the book.

    • Confer with individual students and focus on their ideas. Did students begin their fairy tales with a happy ending in mind? Did students include fantastic or magical creatures or elements?

    Days 8–9: Draft • Tell students that they will be using their completed

    Fairy Tale Planning Guides to begin drafting their fairy tales.

    • Say: Remember that when writers draft their ideas, they focus on getting their ideas on paper. They can cross things out and make mistakes in spelling. What’s important is to focus on developing your characters, setting, and plot. You will have an opportunity to make corrections and improvements later.

    • Confer with students as they complete their drafts. Use the Fairy Tale Checklist to draw students’ attention to characteristics of the fairy tale genre that they may have overlooked. Focus on how students have organized their ideas and the voice of the writer. Did students introduce characters at the beginning of the story? Did they set up a problem and then show a resolution? Does the fairy tale have a strong voice? Will the voice keep readers interested?

    • Pair students for peer conferencing.

    Days 10–11: Edit and Revise • Based on your observations of students’ writing,

    select appropriate mini-lessons from Using Genre Models to Teach Writing.

    • Remind students to use the Fairy Tale Checklist as they edit and revise their fairy tales independently.

    • Confer with students focusing on sentence fluency, word choice, and conventions. Did students include both long and short sentences? Do the sentences read smoothly? Have students used interesting words and phrases? Did they use metaphors? Did they use appropriate spelling, punctuation, and grammar?

    • You may want students to continue their editing and revision at home.

    Days 12–13: Create Final Draft and Illustrations • Ask students to rewrite or type a final draft of their

    fairy tales.• Invite students to illustrate their final drafts with one

    or more drawings that depict specific characters or events in their fairy tales.

    • Confer with students about their publishing plans and deadlines.

    Days 14–15: Publish and Share• Explain: Authors work long and hard to develop

    their works. You have worked very hard. And one of the great joys of writing is when you can share it with others. Authors do this in many ways. They publish their books so that people can buy them. They make their work available on the Internet. They hold readings. We can share our writing, too.

    • Use one or more of the ideas below for sharing students’ work: Make a class display of students’ completed fairy tales. Hold a class reading in which students can read their fairy tales to one another and/or to parents. Create a binder of all the fairy tales and loan it to the library so that other students can read them. Create a binder of all the fairy tales for your classroom library.

    Two NaTive americaN Fairy Tales ©2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC10

    Days 6–15

    rEviEws oF Two moviE musiCaLs ©2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLCBLm 5

    Name Date

    Title: Title:

    Features of the Genre Checklist Yes No 1. My fairy tale has a strong lead. 2. My fairy tale has a setting with time and place. 3. My fairy tale has a main character. 4. Another character helps the main character. 5. My fairy tale has a “bad guy.” 6. The helper and the bad guy have magical powers. 7. My fairy tale has a fantasy creature. 8. My fairy tale has animals or objects that can talk. 9. I tell the problem at the beginning of the fairy tale. 10. I have 3 to 5 events in my fairy tale. 11. I have a solution to the problem in the fairy tale. 12. My fairy tale has a happy ending. 13. I used figurative language in my fairy tale.

    Quality Writing Checklist Yes No I looked for and corrected . . .

    • run-on sentences • sentence fragments • subject/verb agreement • correct verb tense • punctuation • capitalization • spelling • indented paragraphs

    Fairy Tale Checklist

    Name Date

    Two NaTivE amEriCaN Fairy TaLEs ©2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLCBLm 6

    Fairy Tale Planning Guide

    Directions: Use the steps below to plan your own fairy tale.

    1. Decide on the main characters.____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    2. Brainstorm characters.

    Characters Traits, Magical Abilities, ExamplesCharacter 1:

    Character 2:

    Character 3:

    Character 4:

    3. Brainstorm setting and plot.

    SettingProblemEventsSolution

    Y06602_G4_TG_FairyTalesNA_TGCB_Rev3.indd 10 10/10/10 10:49 PM

  • Name Date

    ©2011 Benchmark education company, llcTwo NaTive americaN Fairy Tales Blm 1

    MetaphorDirections: Read each sentence. Write the two things that are being compared. Then explain the comparison.

    1. “The Internet is a treasure chest of information,” said Matt. _______________________________________________________________

    2. Ashley’s athletic talent is her ticket to a college education. _______________________________________________________________

    3. The summer days were ripe apples waiting to be picked. _______________________________________________________________

    4. Julie’s secrets are a prison from which she cannot escape. _______________________________________________________________

    5. The prince was an ugly duckling who would soon become a swan. _______________________________________________________________

    Directions: Complete the following sentence using a metaphor.

    6. The brilliant moon was _____________ for the stranded sailors.

    Directions: Write your own metaphor.

    7.

    Y06602_G4_TG_FairyTalesNA_TGCB_Rev3.indd 1 10/10/10 10:49 PM

  • Two NaTive americaN Fairy Tales ©2011 Benchmark education company, llc

    Analyze Story Elements

    Blm 2

    Name Date

    Rough-Face Girl

    Story Element

    Details from Story Fantastic or Magical Features

    Characters

    Setting

    Plot

    The Red Swan

    Story Element

    Details from Story Fantastic or Magical Features

    Characters

    Setting

    Plot

    Directions: Use the charts below to analyze story elements in each fairy tale.

    Y06602_G4_TG_FairyTalesNA_TGCB_Rev3.indd 2 10/10/10 10:49 PM

  • Focus on Synonyms

    Directions: Reread each fairy tale. Use synonyms in the text to figure out the meanings of the words.

    ©2011 Benchmark education company, llcTwo NaTive americaN Fairy Tales Blm 3

    Name Date

    Page Word Synonym How do you know?7 unique

    9 splendid

    10 boldly

    11 aura

    Page Word Synonym How do you know?15 fashioned

    15 hue

    15 scarlet

    16 disbelief

    19 reclaim

    20 rivals

    Y06602_G4_TG_FairyTalesNA_TGCB_Rev3.indd 3 10/10/10 10:49 PM

  • Make Connections Across TextsDirections: Fill in the chart. Use it to compare and contrast the two fairy tales.

    Two NaTive americaN Fairy Tales ©2011 Benchmark education company, llcBlm 4

    Name Date

    Rough-Face Girl The Red SwanCharacter(s) with a Problem

    Character Who Helps

    Evil Character(s)

    How does the author describe the character(s)?

    How does the fairy tale end?

    Y06602_G4_TG_FairyTalesNA_TGCB_Rev3.indd 4 10/10/10 10:49 PM

  • Two NaTive americaN Fairy Tales ©2011 Benchmark education company, llcBlm 5

    Title:

    Name Date

    Features of the Genre Checklist Yes No 1. My fairy tale has a strong lead. 2. My fairy tale has a setting with time and place. 3. My fairy tale has a main character. 4. Another character helps the main character. 5. My fairy tale has a “bad guy.” 6. The helper and the bad guy have magical powers. 7. My fairy tale has a fantasy creature. 8. My fairy tale has animals or objects that can talk. 9. I tell the problem at the beginning of the fairy tale. 10. I have 3 to 5 events in my fairy tale. 11. I have a solution to the problem in the fairy tale. 12. My fairy tale has a happy ending. 13. I used figurative language in my fairy tale.

    Quality Writing Checklist Yes No I looked for and corrected . . .

    • run-on sentences • sentence fragments • subject/verb agreement • correct verb tense • punctuation • capitalization • spelling • indented paragraphs

    Fairy Tale Checklist

    Y06602_G4_TG_FairyTalesNA_TGCB_Rev3.indd 5 10/10/10 10:49 PM

  • Two NaTive americaN Fairy Tales ©2011 Benchmark education company, llcBlm 6

    Fairy Tale Planning Guide

    Directions: Use the steps below to plan your own fairy tale.

    Name Date

    1. Decide on the main characters.____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    2. Brainstorm characters.

    Characters Traits, Magical Abilities, ExamplesCharacter 1:

    Character 2:

    Character 3:

    Character 4:

    3. Brainstorm setting and plot.

    SettingProblemEventsSolution

    Y06602_G4_TG_FairyTalesNA_TGCB_Rev3.indd 6 10/10/10 10:49 PM