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    Go Higher Arts

    Introduction to Language

    Mary E. ClintonSchool of English

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    HousekeepingNo Food or Drink in any of the Classrooms

    Prompt start at 11.00 a.m.

    No extensions given unless formally requested via the office

    Reading and/or exercises each week (except week 6 and

    week 12)

    1 trial essay at week 6 of approx 1,500 words

    1 assessed piece of work at the end of term 3,000 words

    Contact via [email protected]

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    Blended Learning

    Virtual and in class

    Lectures Seminars

    Workshops

    Tutorials

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    Pro-Active Learning

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    Reflective Learning Journal Done every two weeks

    Based on an ILP done in week 2

    Encourages pro-active open independent

    learners

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    The benefits of developing your

    skills in reflective learning Reflective learners are more likely to

    develop a deeper understanding of their

    subject and to achieve higher grades as aresult.

    Reflective learners tend to:

    B

    e motivated, know what they are trying toachieve and why

    Be pro-active in extending their understanding

    of new topics and subjects

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    What is Linguistics ? Linguistics is the scientific study of

    language.

    It includes both written and spoken

    language.

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    Types of Linguistics

    Theoretical (general) Linguistics

    Applied Linguistics

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    Theoretical Linguistics

    studies language structure (grammar), and meaning

    (semantics).

    The study of grammar encompasses morphology

    (formation and alteration of words)

    and syntax (the rules that determine the way words

    combine into phrases and sentences).

    Phonology, which is the system used to represent

    language through abstract 'sounds', also forms part ofthis field.

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    Theoretical Linguistics

    Linguistics compares languages (comparative linguistics)

    and explores their histories, in order to find universal

    properties of language and to account for its developmentand origins (historical linguistics).

    Slightly separate from general linguistics is the sub-field of

    phonetics, the study of how sounds are produced and

    perceived.

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    Applied Linguisticsputs linguistic theories into practice in areas

    such as: foreign language teaching,

    speech therapy,

    Corpus Linguistics

    Lexicography and Translation,

    Discourse Analysis,

    Conversational Analysis

    Speech Pathology.

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    Applied Linguistics and

    Computersy Many areas of applied linguistics today involve the explicit

    use of computers.

    ySpeech synthesis and speech recognition use phonetic and

    phonemic knowledge to provide voice interfaces to

    computers.

    y Applications of computational linguistics in

    y machine translation, computer-assisted translation,

    y natural language processing

    y corpus linguistics

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    Divisions, Specialties, and Subfields

    Phonetics, the study of the sounds of human language .

    Phonology (or phonemics), the study of patterns of a language's basic sounds .

    Morphology, the study of the internal structure of words

    Syntax, the study of how words combine to form grammatical sentences.

    Semantics, the study of the meaning of words (lexical semantics) and fixed word

    combinations (phraseology), and how these combine to form the meanings of

    sentences.

    Pragmatics, the study of how utterances are used (literally, figuratively, or otherwise)

    in communicative acts.

    Discourse analysis, the study of sentences organized into texts.

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    IntersectionsWithin the subfields specific areas may include Language acquisition, the study of how language is acquired

    Historical linguistics orDiachronic linguistics, the study of languages whose

    historical relations are recognizable through similarities in vocabulary, word

    formation, and syntax

    Psycholinguistics, the study of the cognitive processes and representations

    underlying language use

    Sociolinguistics, the study of social patterns of linguistic variability

    Clinical linguistics, the application of linguistic theory to the area ofSpeech-

    Language Pathology

    Neuro linguistics the study of the brain networks that underlies grammarand communication

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    Variation and Diachronic

    Survey differences among the languages of the

    world.

    diachronic linguistics examines how

    language changes through time,

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    Contextual Linguistics Contextual linguistics may include the study

    of linguistics in interaction with other

    academic disciplines.

    Whereas in core theoretical linguistics

    language is studied for its own sake, the

    interdisciplinary areas of linguisticsconsiderhow language interacts with the

    rest of the world.

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    Contextual LinguisticsySociolinguistics,

    yanthropological linguistics and linguistic

    anthropology

    yCritical discourse analysis is where

    rhetoric and philosophy interact with

    linguistics and real life situations .

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    Contextual LinguisticsyPsycholinguistics and neuro-linguistics

    combine medical science and linguistics.

    yOther cross-disciplinary areas of linguistics

    include language acquisition, evolutionary

    linguistics, computational linguistics and

    cognitive science.

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    A (brief) History of LinguisticsSome big names

    Ancient

    Tolkappiyanaar

    Bharthari

    19th Century

    Jakob Grimm

    Karl Verner

    August Schleicher

    Johannes Schmidt

    20th Century

    Ferdinand de Saussure

    Edward Sapir Zellig Harris

    Leonard Bloomfield

    Contemporary

    Noam Chomsky

    Michael Hoey

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    Tolkappiyanaar

    The South Indian linguist Tolkappiyanaar (c.

    3rd BCE)

    yHe wrote the Tolkppiyam, the grammar of

    Tamil, which is also still in use today.

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    Bharthari ( Hindu Philosopher and

    Poet c. 450-510 CE)

    y He theorized the act of speech as

    being made up of four stages:

    1. 1.conceptualization of an idea,

    2. 2. its verbalization and sequencing

    3. 3.delivery of speech into

    atmospheric air, all these by thespeaker

    4. 4.the comprehension of speech by

    the listener, the interpreter.

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    Jakob GrimmJakob Ludwig Carl Grimm (4 January 1785 20 September 1863)

    German philologist, jurist and mythologist.

    He is best known as the discoverer ofGrimm's

    Law (1822) , the principle of consonantal shiftsin pronunciation in Historical Linguistics.

    the author (with his brother Wilhelm ) of the

    monumentalDeutsches Wrterbuch (DWB,

    The "German Dictionary cfOED )

    Deutsche Mythologie (Teutonic Mythology1835)

    Children's and Household Tales (Kinder- und

    Hausmrchen 1812 ) aka Grimms Fairy Tales

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    Grimms Law Not for now, but hold onto to later

    Proto-Indo-European voiceless stops change into voiceless

    fricatives.

    Proto-Indo-European voiced stops become voiceless stops.

    Proto-Indo-European voiced aspirated stops become voiced

    fricatives; ultimately, in most Germanic languages these voiced

    fricatives become voiced stops.

    The chain shift can be abstractly represented as:

    b b p f d d t g g k x g g

    k x

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    Karl Verner

    Karl (Adolph)Verner (7

    March 1846 5 November

    1896)

    Verners law (1875) . describes

    a historical sound change in the

    Proto-Germanic languagewhereby voiceless fricatives *f,

    *, *s, *h (including *h ),

    when immediately following an

    unstressed syllable in the same

    word, underwent voicing andbecame respectively the

    fricatives *b, *d, *z, *g(and

    *g)

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    August Sch

    leich

    er

    August Schleicher

    (19 February 1821 6 December 1868)

    His great work was A Compendium

    ofthe Comparative Grammar of

    the Indo-European Languages, in

    which he attempted to reconstructthe Proto-Indo-European language.

    He created the Tree Model

    (German Stammbaumtheorie),

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    Stammbaumtheorie

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    Johannes Schmidt

    Johannes Schmidt (July 29,

    1843 July 4, 1901)

    He developed the Wellentheorie

    ('wave theory') of language

    development.

    In historical linguistics, the wavemodel orwave theory is a model

    of language change in which new

    features of a language spread from

    a central point in continuously

    weakening concentric circles,similar to the waves created when a

    stone is thrown into a body of

    water.

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    Diagram from: Johannes Schmidt, 1872. Die

    Verwandtschaftsverhltnisse der indogermanischen Sprachen.

    Weimar: H. Bhlau.

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    Ferdinand de Saussure the founder of modern

    structural linguistics

    Course in GeneralLinguistics (1916)

    Semiotician

    (26 November 1857 22 February 1913)

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    Edward Sapir a leader in American

    structural linguistics,

    was one of the firstwho explored the

    relations between

    language studies and

    anthropology Sapir-Whorf

    hypothesis,

    (January 26, 1884 February 4, 1939)

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    SapirWhorfhypothesis A theory of the relationship between language and

    thought expounded in its most explicit form by the American anthropological

    linguists Edward Sapir (18841939) and Benjamin Lee Whorf (1897

    1941). Also known as the theory of linguistic relativity, the hypothesis

    states (in the words of Whorf) that we dissect nature along lines laid down by

    our native languages . . . by the linguistic systems in our minds. The differences

    in world-view imposed by different languages have, however, proved extremely

    difficult to elucidate or test experimentally, and the fact of successful bilingual

    translation weakens the force of the theorys claims; as a result, the Sapir

    Whorf hypothesis has made little impact on contemporary psycholinguistics,

    though the 1990s saw a renewed interest from cognitive psycholinguists and

    others.

    Crystal, D. (2008) ADictionary ofLinguistics and Phonetics 6th

    Edition. p. 422

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    Zellig Harris

    Zellig Sabbettai Harris (October 23,

    1909 May 22, 1992) linguist,

    mathematical syntactician, and

    methodologist of science.

    structural linguistics and discourse

    analysis and for the discovery oftransformational structure in

    language.

    sublanguage grammar, operator

    grammar, and a theory of linguistic

    information.

    Leonard Bloomfield

    Leonard Bloomfield (April 1, 1887

    April 18, 1949) structural linguistics.

    His influential textbookLanguage,

    published in 1933, presented a

    comprehensive description of American

    structural linguistics.

    He made significant contributions to Indo-

    European historical linguistics, the

    description of Austronesian languages

    , and description of languages of the

    Algonquian family.

    Bloomfield's approach to linguistics wascharacterized by its emphasis on the

    scientificbasis of linguistics, adherence to

    behaviourism , and emphasis on formal

    procedures for the analysis of linguistic

    data.

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    Chomsky

    Avram Noam Chomsky

    1928- Present

    Institute Professor and Professor of Linguistics at the

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology;

    transformational grammar ortransformational-

    generative grammar (TGG) (1957)

    that each sentence in a language has two levels of

    representation a deep structure and a surface

    structure.[

    The deep structure represented the core semantic

    relations of a sentence, and was mapped on to the

    surface structure (which followed the phonological

    form of the sentence very closely) via

    transformations.

    LAD Language acquisition device

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    Michael Hoey Michael Hoey is Baines

    Professor of English Language

    and Director of the Applied

    English Language Studies Unitat the University of Liverpool.

    Since 2007 he has also been

    Dean of the Faculty of Arts and

    Pro Vice Chancellor since

    2009.

    Computation and corpus

    linguistics

    Patterns in text

    lexical priming

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    Review