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GODS & GODDESSES ! Egyptians believed very strongly in the balance of opposites: light & dark, order & chaos, male & female ! This balance was maintained by the gods, goddesses, and king (Pharaoh)

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Page 1: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

! Egyptians believed very strongly in the balance of opposites: light & dark, order & chaos, male & female

! This balance was maintained by the gods, goddesses, and king (Pharaoh)

Page 2: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

! Pharaoh - literally means “Great House” and was originally used to signify the buildings of the court or a palace

! Came to mean the king, himself, in 18th Dynasty (under Akhenaten)

Page 3: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

! Believed that the Pharaoh was a representative of the gods on Earth

Page 4: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

! Amun

! The great god of Thebes

! Man wearing ostrich-plumed hat

Page 5: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

Page 6: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

! Anubis

! Jackals always seen in cemeteries, so…

! Jackal-god of embalmers and guardian of cemeteries

Page 7: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

Page 8: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

! Aten

! The sun-disk with rays that end in hands

! Until Akhenaten, was referred to as “The Aten”

Page 9: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

Page 10: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

! Atum

! A creator god

! Man with a double crown

Page 11: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

Page 12: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

! Bastet

! The cat goddess

! Protective goddess

Page 13: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

Page 14: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

! Bes

! Weird, bearded, dwarf-guy

! Domestic protector

Page 15: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES! Geb

! The Earth god

! God lying down under the sky

Page 16: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

Page 17: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

! Hapy

! The Nile god

! Shown with pot belly and water plants

! Responsible for the inundation - yearly flooding of Nile

Page 18: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

! Hathor ! A feminine cow-goddess

with horned headdress, daughter of Ra.

! Associated with The Milky Way

! Goddess of love and joy

Page 19: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

Page 20: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES! Horus

! Falcon god

! Son of Osiris.

! God of the sky

! Protector of the pharaoh

Page 21: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

Page 22: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES! Isis ! Wife of Osiris ! Mother of Horus ! Headdress is a throne ! Name means “She of the

Throne” ! Protective goddess - used

magic to help people

Page 23: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES! Khnum

! Ram-headed god

! Created people on a potter’s wheel

! Also responsible for inundation

Page 24: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

Page 25: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

! Khonsu

! Son of Amun & Mut

! His Name means “Wanderer”

! The Moon god

Page 26: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

! Maat

! Goddess of truth, justice, and order

! Woman with feather on head, or just a feather

Page 27: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

Page 28: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

! Menthu

! Ancient god of war.

! Represented strength & victory.

Page 29: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

Page 30: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

! Mut

! Wife of Amun.

! Creator goddess

! Name means “Mother”

Page 31: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

Page 32: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

! Nekhbet

! Vulture goddess

! Represents Upper Egypt

Page 33: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

Page 34: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES! Nephthys

! Wife of Seth

! Sister of Osiris

! Protective goddess of the dead

! Headdress is her name in hieroglyphics

Page 35: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

Page 36: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess

Page 37: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

Page 38: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris

! Husband of Isis

! Father of Horus

! God of the underworld

! God of the dead

! Depicted as mummified king/pharaoh

Page 39: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

Page 40: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

! Ptah

! God of crafts

! Man with goatee, carrying staff, wrapped loosely in cloak

Page 41: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

Page 42: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES! Ra

! The sun god

! Most important of Egyptian gods

! Later, other gods would embody powers of Ra

!Ra-Horakty, Amun-Ra

Page 43: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

! Sekhmet

! Fierce lioness wife of Ptah

! Goddess of war

Page 44: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

Page 45: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

! Seth

! God of chaos, violence, & bad weather

! Unidentified animal

Page 46: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

Page 47: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

! Shu

! God of the air

! Man wearing a headdress with feathers, holding up the sky

Page 48: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

Page 49: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

! Sobek

! Nile god

! Man with the head of a crocodile

Page 50: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

Page 51: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES! Taweret

! Head of a hippo with the arms and legs of a lion, the back and tail of a crocodile, and the breasts and stomach of a pregnant woman.

! patron of women in childbirth

Page 52: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

Page 53: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

! Tefnut

! The goddess of moisture

! Wife of Shu

! Mother of Geb (earth) and Nut (sky)

Page 54: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES! Thoth

! The divine scribe

! Inventor of writing, associated with the Ibis bird

! Gave the Egyptians the gift of hieroglyphics

Page 55: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

Page 56: Gods and Goddesses - Copley · GODS & GODDESSES! Nut - the sky goddess. GODS & GODDESSES. GODS & GODDESSES! Osiris ! Husband of Isis ! Father of Horus ! God of the underworld ! God

GODS & GODDESSES

! Wadjet

! Cobra goddess

! Represents Lower Egypt