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GUERILLA WARFARE

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GUERILLA WARFARE. What is “Guerilla Warfare”?. From the Spanish word for “little war” Also called non-conventional or unconventional Most common form of warfare in the 20 th century after World War II Practiced world-wide but especially in Developing or Third World Countries. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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GUERILLA WARFARE

What is “Guerilla Warfare”?

From the Spanish word for “little war”Also called non-conventional or

unconventional Most common form of warfare in the 20th

century after World War IIPracticed world-wide but especially in

Developing or Third World Countries

Conventional War

• Regular military• Uniformed soldiers• Separated from public• “Heavy” weapons and

large units• Massive logistical

support• Recognized

governmental arm

Guerilla Warfare

• Irregular forces• Small units (cells)• Highly mobile• Minimal logistical

support• Blend with public• Not a recognized

governmental arm

One of the earliest uses of guerilla war was during the American Revolution…

Francis Marion – The “Swamp Fox” of South Carolina

The strategy takes its name from its use by the Spanish in the Napoleonic wars while under French occupation…

“The Third of May, 1808” by Francisco Goya

Early in the 20th century, guerilla war was employed by other “freedom fighters” such as Ireland’s Michael Collins…

Collins the reality… vs. Collins the myth…

As the century has progressed numerous others have taken up the strategy…

From Jews…

To Arabs…

To the Vietnamese…

And of course…

Fidel CastroMao Zedong

Guerilla War Theory

Mao Zedong was one of the greatest guerrilla warfare theorists in the 20th Century

He divided it into three phases:

PHASE 1 - ORGANIZATION

• Build up a structure of small “cells” to organize popular support

• Cells develop and disseminate propaganda to win popular support

• Cells also use selective terror attacks against government officials, landlords, collaborators and other unpopular figures

PHASE 2 – GUERILLA PHASE

• Introduce guerilla attacks and ambushes

• Goal – to acquire weapons and destroy infrastructure which supports the enemy

• Make it difficult for government to maintain a military presence (create “liberated areas”)

PHASE 3 – MOBILE WAR

• Amounted to civil war• Force government forces to retreat to

major cities• Win the support of the countryside and

surround city “enclaves” with hostile population

• Mao used the metaphor of the guerilla fighter being the fish and the people the sea

A Final Question

What is the real difference between -

“Freedom Fighters” and…

…terrorists?

Or is it just a matter of the winners writing the history books?

British troops in front of King David Hotel after bombing by Jewish freedom fighters, 1946

American troops in front of Mount Lebanon Hotel after bombing by Iraqi terrorists, 2004