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Guiding Guiding rules of rules of English English grammar grammar

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Page 1: Guiding Rules of Grammar 1

Guiding rules of Guiding rules of English grammarEnglish grammar

Page 2: Guiding Rules of Grammar 1

Thousands of words divided into eight parts of speech

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Nouns

Different types of nouns

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Nouns in plurals‘f’/’fe’ endings – change to

‘s’/’ves’ endingsExample – beliefs, proofs,

knives, leaves. dwarfs/dwarves

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Nouns in plurals ‘y’ endings – consonant + ‘y’

change to ‘ies’Example – ladies,ponies ‘y’ endings – vowel + ‘y’ – ‘s’ is

putExample – toys, guys

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Nouns in plurals‘Quy’ endings – ‘y’ changes to

‘ies’Example – colloquies, soliloquies‘o’ endings – add either ‘s’ or ‘es’Example – tomatoes, volcanoes,

commandos, zoos, studios

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Plurals for ‘s’ endings Many native English words

form plural by adding ‘es’Example - buses Some are always treated as

singular uncountableExample – news, billiards

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Plurals for ‘s’ endings Some are singular or plural

according to meaningExample – economics, ethics,

wages, rabies

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Plurals for ‘s’ endings Some plural nouns have no

singular formsExample – belongings, clothes,

congratulations, remains

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Plurals for ‘s’ endings Some plural nouns have singular

forms only in set phrases or with different meaning

Example: spectacles/ a spectacle, trousers/ trouser press, scissors/ scissor movement

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Plurals for ‘s’ endings Names of countries with ‘s’

endings are singular but treated as plural when the name denotes the country’s sports team

Example – Netherlands, United States

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Plurals for ‘s’ endings Mountain ranges and groups

of islands – pluralExample – The Himalayas,

The alps

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Old English pluralsChildren, women, men, feet,

teeth…

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PluralsPlural – only nouns without ‘s’

are – police, cattle, people etc.

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Zero pluralsSome have same singular and

plural forms – Example:sheepAnimals that you hunt or catch

have zero plurals – Example: deer, fish, duck

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Zero plurals Measurement nouns have zero

plurals – Example: two dozen eggs, six foot tall man

Nationality nouns ending in a hissing sound have zero plurals – Example: Chinese, Japanese, Swedish

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Problem plurals with foreign words Larva – larvae Alumna – alumnae Formula - formulas/formulae Stigma – stigmata Bacterium – bacteria Fungus - fungi(a list of such generally used foreign words

is given in the pdf file of your courseware)

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Nouns from verb formsSwimming is a good exercise.To see is to believe./ Seeing is

believing.

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Pronouns

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Pronouns – caseSubjective or ObjectiveIt’s me or It’s I ?What comes after ‘to be’ is not a

subject – it’s a complement – so a confusion…

It is she who broke the rules.

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Pronouns – caseSubjective or ObjectiveTwo together – between you

and I/ between you and meThe preposition between

requires the object formBetween you and me

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Pronouns – caseSubjective or Objective

Let you and I/ let you and meAn object follows the word let…Let Tina and me handle this.

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Pronouns – caseSubjective or Objective But me/ But I?But me/ But I? BUTBUT

I like that but I think it’s very I like that but I think it’s very expensive.expensive.

Nobody but me bought that.Nobody but me bought that.

CONJUNCTIONCONJUNCTION

PREPOSITION

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Pronouns – caseSubjective or Objective Taller than me/I amTaller than me/I am As tall as me/ I amAs tall as me/ I amThan and as are conjunctions Than and as are conjunctions

here… so, a subject is neededhere… so, a subject is neededI’m not as clever as she is.I’m not as clever as she is.She is much taller than I am. She is much taller than I am.

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Pronouns - orderWhile confessing a fault – I,

you and he…I and Raman have made a

mistake.

.

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Pronouns - orderWhile expressing a positive

idea or praise – You, he and I…

You and I have scored the highest marks

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Pronouns – self words

As emphatic pronouns – He himself will ask you.

To indicate ‘on one’s own’ – I arranged it myself.

As reflexive pronouns – I hurt myself while shifting the furniture.

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Pronouns - ItIt’s /its

Even though it’s a new fan, its speed is not good.

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Pronouns – who/whomWho – subjectWhom – objectWho else is coming for this

meet?Whom do you want to meet?

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Pronouns – my/mineThis is my idea.This is mine idea. xThis idea is mine.

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Pronouns - IndefiniteOne must do one’s duty.Everyone must do his/her

duty.

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Pronouns - IndefiniteEach other for two personsOne another for more than two Either and neither when referring to

one out of twoAny, any one, none, no one when

referring to one out of more than two

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Pronouns - Who/which/thatThis the type of dictionary that I

have been looking for.This the dictionary which I have

liked.This is the person who gave it

to me.

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verbs

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verbsIn English grammar, verbs are

the most complex and varied part of speech.

They can be categorized in different ways.

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VerbsA doing verb tells you something

about the activities of its subject.Being and becoming verbs link

the subject with its complement or quality.

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VerbsAuxiliary verbs and Modals are

used as part of a verb phraseThe government is considering

all the options.The government should

consider all the options.

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Verbs – regular/irregular Regular verbs have –ed in their simple past

and past participle formsturn turned turned

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Verbs – regular/irregular Irregular verbs give rise to lot of difficultybegin began begunput put putcome came cometell told told(please refer to the pdf file of irregular

verbs in your courseware)

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Verbs – finite/non-finiteFinite forms are the verbs

used in normal way with a subject and tense – Reema writes legibly.

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Verbs – finite/non-finiteNon-finite forms are the verbs

used as nouns, adjectives and adverbs – Writing should be legible. I need written documents. He is going out to write the quote on the wall.

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Uses of finite verb formsBase form:I/You/We/They/The students,

etc. like fast food.

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S form:He/She/The student/Everybody

wants to see a movie.Simple past form:I/You/She/We/They/The students/ everybody wanted to see a

movie.

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Past Participle form: Mr Sharma has asked me to

contact you.The thief had escaped by

the time the police arrived.The road has been repaired.

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Present Participle form:Leena is working on a

different project.

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Verbs – non-finiteGerunds - nounsParticiples – adjectivesInfinitives – nouns, adjectives,

adverbs

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Uses of non-finite verbs

Reading is a good habit.It was a fascinating performance.Everyone wants to see a movie.It is difficult to write with a broken

pen.

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Problematic verbs Lie – lay, lain/ lied, lied Lay – laid, laid Was/were(were for a wish/ an uncertainty/

contrary to the fact Shall/will

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Adjectives & Adverbs

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Adjectives & Adverbs They function as modifiers.Adjectives modify nouns and

pronounsAdverbs modify verbs,

adjectives and other adverbs.

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Adjectives & Adverbs Use comparative form when

referring to twoUse superlative form when

referring to more than twoSome adjectives and adverbs

allow no comparison

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Adjectives & Adverbs Some adjectives and adverbs

allow no comparison unique, round, square, perfect,

perfectly, completely, universally, always, never, hardly etc.

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Adjectives & Adverbs Use comparative and any other

When comparing one with a group of which it is a part

K2 is higher than any other mountain peak in India.

Srinagar is more famous than any other hill station in the north.

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Adjectives & Adverbs Use Use moremore and not and not ‘-er’ ‘-er’ to form the to form the

comparative when comparing qualities of comparative when comparing qualities of the same person or thingthe same person or thing

Susan is more simple than honest.Susan is more simple than honest.

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Adjectives & Adverbs Do not use double comparatives and

superlatives – She is more taller than her sister. (wrong) Mukesh Ambani is one of the most richest men of the world. (wrong)

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Adjectives & Adverbs Many adverbs are formed by

adding ‘-ly’ to an adjective – neat/ neatly, careful/carefully

Some ‘-ly’ forms are only adjectives – leisurely, heavenly, friendly, motherly, lovely

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Adjectives & Adverbs Sometimes, adjectives and

adverbs have the same form – hourly, monthly, yearly, fast

Be careful while using only to avoid ambiguity.

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Adjectives & Adverbs Few refers to numbers and

less to quantityAs many as refers to numbers

and as much as refers to quantity

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Adjectives & Adverbs Elder/eldest and older/oldest –

elder to, older thanNegatives – I barely knew no

one in the party. (wrong)I barely knew anyone in the

party.

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Articlesa/an/the

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Articles a/ an – indefinite Bring me a book.(any) I have a pen.(one) He is an honourable man. (one)This is a unique idea.

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Use of the definite article ‘THE’

To particularly refer to: I have the pen that you gave me.

Before the names of holy books and news papers : The Geeta, The Times of India

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Use of the definite article ‘THE’

Before the names of famous Buildings: The Tajmahal, The Red Fort

Before an adjective to represent a class (excluding man): The rich/The tiger …Man is a social animal.

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Use of the definite article ‘THE’

Before the descriptive names of countries -The U.S., the U.K.

Before the Superlatives: the tallest, the most successful person

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Use of the definite article ‘THE’

Before Ordinal numbers: the second answer, the third floor

Before the names of unique objects: The Universe, The World, The Earth

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Use of the definite article ‘THE’Before directions: The sun rises in

the east.Before the names of musical

instruments: Rohit plays the guitar beautifully.

Before collective nouns: the news, the crowd, the audience

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Use of the definite article ‘THE’Before names of Rivers, Seas,

Oceans, Mountain ranges: The Ganges, The Pacific Ocean, The Arabian Sea, The Himalayas.

Before other or others if the number after these words is specific.

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Use of the definite article ‘THE’THE is not used before abstract

nouns, material nouns, common uncountable nouns and common plural nouns if they are used in general sense.

Water is vital for survival.The water in this glass is

contaminated.

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Exam question(i) What kind of ______ animal is it?(ii) He will return in _____ hour.(iii) He is ______ richest man in our

street.(iv) Gold is not ______ useful metal.(v) While there is ______ life there is

hope.

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Exam question(i) What kind of __x____ animal is it?(ii) He will return in _an_ hour.(iii) He is _the__ richest man in our

street.(iv) Gold is not _a__ useful metal.(v) While there is _x_ life there is hope.

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Prepositions

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What is a preposition?little words – to, in, on…typically come before nouns or

pronounstell something about place, time,

reason etc.

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What is a preposition?at home, opposite my house,

until Saturday, by them etc.according to, in front of, apart

from

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Compared to/withCompare to – ‘liken to’ – to note

similarities between dissimilar things

Compare with – ‘to examine side by side with’ – both for similarities as well as differences

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Agree to/with/onagree to a thingagree with a personagree on/upon a point

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Good/bad - at/inGood at somethingBad at somethingRefer to the pdf file in your

courseware for a list of words with their appropriate prepositions.

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Common PrepositionsAmong , between, in, at, into, in

to, onto, on to, beside, towardWords that take to and not than

– junior, senior, prefer, prior, inferior, superior etc.

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Common Prepositionsbetween…..andfrom….tosince/from – indicates a point

of time for – indicates duration of time

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No prepositionWords such as outside, inside,

upstairs, downstairs, tomorrow, yesterday, last week, next week do not take prepositions before them.

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Exam question1.He boasts his achievements

now and then.2.The Principal was angry upon

the boys.3.Character is more preferable

than intelligence.

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Exam question1.He boasts of his achievements

now and then.2.The Principal was angry with

(upon) the boys.3.Character is more preferable

(than) to intelligence.

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Conjunctions

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What is a conjunction?Words such as and, but, or,

because, when which act as joining words are called as conjunctions.

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Types of conjunctions1. Coordinating – and, but…2. Subordinating – when,

because, if…3. Co-relative – both….and..

either…or…not only….but also

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Problematic correlativesUse a helping verb with a negative

correlative at the beginning of a sentence-

Not only was she……..but also…No sooner did the…………than…Scarcely did ……….when…

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Exam question1. Han is so short that he cannot

touch the ceiling. (Replace so by too)

2.Hard as he worked, he failed in the examination. . (Use though)

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Exam question1. Han is so short that he

cannot touch the ceiling. (Replace so by too)

2. Han is too short to touch the ceiling.

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Exam question2.Hard as he worked, he failed

in the examination. . (Use though)

Though he worked hard, he failed in the examination.

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Interjections

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What is an interjection?Words like…..oh, well, hello,

wow, etc.They live on their own –

outside the main structure of the sentence

Wow! It sounds good.

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Thousands of words…Notice their collocation while improving

your vocabulary.Notice how the prefixes and suffixes

change the meaning.Notice how the different parts of speech

are placed while framing sentences.

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Please refer to the pdf file in your courseware for practice.