hybrid structure solution for the a400m wing attachment frames

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Matthijs Plokker / Derk Davers chot - ICAF 2009 20/05/2009 Hybr id st ructure solution for the A400M wing attachment frames From concept study to structural justification ICAF 2009, Rotterdam Presented by Matthijs Plokker / Derk Daverschot Fatigue and Damage Tolerance, Airbus

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Page 1: Hybrid Structure Solution for the A400M Wing Attachment Frames

8/9/2019 Hybrid Structure Solution for the A400M Wing Attachment Frames

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Matthijs Plokker / Derk Daverschot - ICAF 2009

20/05/2009

Hybrid structure solution for the A400M wingattachment frames

From concept study to structural justification

ICAF 2009, Rotterdam

Presented by

Matthijs Plokker / Derk DaverschotFatigue and Damage Tolerance, Airbus

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20/05/2009Matthijs Plokker / Derk Daverschot - ICAF 2009 Page 2 © A I R B U S D E U T S C H L A N D G M B H

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Contents

• Introduction A400M – GeneralProblem description

• Concept study

• Implementation

Design & MaterialProduction ProcessQuality Assurance

• Structural QualificationRequirements

AnalysisTest

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A400M – General

A400M General Configuration

Typical for A400M and deviating from common Airbus A/C:•Turboprop engines

•High wing

•T-tail

•MLG configuration

•Cargo Ramp & Door

•Militairy Systems:

Cargo Handling system, AAR

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A400M – General

• Comparison to other militairy airlifters

A400M C160 Transall C130J Hercules

Payload 37 t 16 t 22 t

MTOW 130 t 50 t 70 tRange 6 500 km 1 800 km 4 500 km

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A400M – General

• Comparison to „other airlifters“

length [m] 45 59wingspan [m] 42 60

height [m] 15 17

A400M C160 Transall C130J Hercules A330-200F

Payload 37 t 16 t 22 t 69 t

MTOW 130 t 50 t 70 t 228 tRange 6 500 km 1 800 km 4 500 km 7 400 km

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20/05/2009Matthijs Plokker / Derk Daverschot - ICAF 2009 Page 6 © A I R B U S D E U T S C H L A N D G M B H

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A400M – General

• Strategic airlift mission capability:Long range (to allow deployment flexibility),High cruise speed,Large cargo hold dimension and volume combined with.

High payload (to match the whole range of modern military vehicles, helicopters,containers and heavy engineering equipment),Flexible cargo handling system (to allow rapid internal configuration changes for differenttypes of loads) and the possibility of.In-flight refueling;

• Tactical airl ift mission capabili ty:Low speed characteristics (for airdrop and tactical flight).Short soft field performance,

Autonomous ground operation, aerial delivery of paratroops and cargo loads and.High survivability (damage-tolerant design of airframe and systems);

• Aerial tanker mission capability:2 or 3 point refueling system and.Wide altitude/speed flight envelope (allowing refueling of both helicopters and fighter aircrafts).

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A400M – General

• Aircraft Target Operational Usage

• 67% logistic - 20% tactical - 12% crew training• Tactical mission Low Level Flight

-> 1½ hr at 50m altitude

• Design Life: 10 000 FC / 30 000 FH / 30 years• Inspection Threshold: 5 000 FC / 15 000 FH• Inspection Interval: 2 500 FC / 7 500 FH

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U T S C H L A N D G M B H

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Wing attachment frames

Center Fuselage:

I/F with wing and MLG

Wing attachment frames

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U T S C H L A N D G M B H

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Problem description

• Problem description:

• Investigation showed that main frame under rear wing attachment is SLPstructure instead of MLP.

• Hence, frame had to be inspected on small cracks, instead of failed part.Design criterium had to be stricter, resulting in low allowable DT-stressesto ensure slow crack growth

• Design had to be improved => severe weight impact when concept of

integral frame would have been kept.

Rear wing attachment

Severe Wing Spectrum introduced in thisframe and surrounding structure.

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U T S C H L A N D G M B H

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Problem description

• Wing spectrum caused in frame inner flange below rear wingattachment:

1. High Fatigue Stresses in inner flange2. High tensional static loads

• Resulting in:1. To meet inspection interval detecable crack length 1-2 mm

– Risk due to low probability of detection2. Critical crack length is extremely small (enhanced by brittle alloy)

• Risk on Multiple Element Damage (MED) due to similar high stress levelin neighbouring frames

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Concept study

• Study was carried out on improvement of the main frame looking at:Safety (Inspectibility, DT-behaviour)Weight

Cost

• 3 options were investigated:1. Thickening of the aluminium inner flange to reach an acceptable stress

level.2. Riveted Titanium strap attached to the inner flange.3. FML strap adhesively bonded to the inner flange.

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Concept study

• Coupon test program performed to investigate crack growth behaviour of FML reinforced inner flange.

• The test results showed a constant crack growth rate for a wide range

of crack lengths. This is due to the „crack bridging“ effect.With metal isotropic material an increasing crack growth rate will befound for longer cracks.

At same stress level only FML

strap can meet the inspectionrequirement.

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Concept study - FML strap

Concept of FML Reinforcement:The aim of the bonded FML-strap is to control both the fatiguecrack growth behaviour of the frame and the residual strength

capability of the hybrid design.The FML strap will retard or stop any potential fatigue crack in theframe.

Frame Inner Flange

FML Strap

„Crack Bridging“ effect analogue to GLARE

Cross-section

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Concept study - Conclusions

Results of concept study:

• FML reinforcement was favourised:Lowest weightMeeting best all DT requirements. Static requirements were fulfilled aswell.Relatively low costs per lost kg per A/C.

• Titanium reinforcement:Heavier compared to FML strap solutionCould not satisfy with meeting all DT-requirements

• Integral frame:Could not meet DT requirements with acceptable weight.

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Concept study - Conclusions

--Integral Aluminium

++++FML Strap

--+Titanium Strap

Effort to detect

cracks

Weight

opportunity

Option

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Concept study - Conclusions

• In general the FML reinforcement bonded application is a solution forstructural parts that are highly loaded under tension.Without FML-reinforcement this structural part would be a SLP or astructure with poor damage containment feature at the most.

• Bonded FML-reinforcement is normally optimal for SLP frames,regarding:

1. Safety -> larger critical crack length, reducing risk of MED.2. Weight -> Higher Allowable Stresses for DT3. Cost -> Less inspection with lower inspection level

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Implementation - Design & Material

• The FML-Strap is bonded to the inner frame flange in an area which isfatigue design-driven.

• The upper end run-out is not a fatigue-driven location.

Run-out

Glare2A

•Thickness ratio inner flange toFML strap is 1:2

•Glass-Fibres are unidirectionalin hoop direction (GLARE2A)

•Strap Lay-up according to A380 Principles

Loft

web

inner flange

outer flange

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Implementation - Design & Material

• Anti-peeling fastenerNot load transfering rivetReducing net-section

Introduces fatigue sensible locationsRequest based on CS23.573(a) (although applicable to smalleraircraft and subparagraphe for composite material)

Bonded strap

with anti-peelingfasteners

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Implementation - Design & Material

CS23.573 (a) (5)

„(5) For any bonded joint, the failure of which would result in catastrophic loss ofthe aeroplane, the limit load capacity must be substantiated by one of thefollowing methods:-

(i) The maximum disbonds of each bonded joint consistent with the capability towithstand the loads in subparagraph (a)(3) must be determined by analysis,test, or both. Disbonds of each bonded joint greater than this must beprevented by design features ; or

(ii) Proof testing must be conducted on each production article that will apply thecritical limit design load to each critical bonded joint; or

(iii) Repeatable and reliable nondestructive inspection techniques must beestablished that ensure the strength of each joint.“

(i) -> Possible(ii) -> Not practical/economical(iii) -> Not feasible

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Implementation - Production Process

2) FML-straps milled out of panel1) Production of FML-panel

5) FML-strap bonded to frame

3) Frame pretreated with CAA 4) Frame primed with BR127

Distortion due to delta in CTE

First assemblies acceptable, some frameshave to be shimmed on shell level assy.

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Implementation - Production Process

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Implementation - Quality Assurance

Inspection during manufacturing:Step 1: Manufacturing of FML-strap laminateInspection of the laminate by ultrasonic through transmission in squirter technique

Step 2: Bonding of FML-strap to Aluminium frameInspection of bond line by manual ultrasonic through transmission technique

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Implementation - Quality Assurance

Principle of the ultrasonic through transmission methodPrinciple of the ultrasonic through transmission method – – single channel modesingle channel mode

water beamWater jet

water supp ly

transducer receiver

Squirter technique

xz

• Basic principle: ultrasonic through transmission method in squirter technique

• Both side accessibility of the inspected part required• Complete and reproducible documentation of test data• Display mode: C-scan (top-view)

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Implementation - Quality Assurance

Principle of the ultrasonic through transmission methodPrinciple of the ultrasonic through transmission method – – single channel modesingle channel mode

• Information on location and size of defect provided• Information on defect depth not provided

s i g n a

l a m p

l i t u d e

[ d B ]measured value result: C-scan image

x

z

•Display mode: C-scan (top view)

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Implementation - Quality Assurance

Principle of manual ultrasonic through transmission techniquePrinciple of manual ultrasonic through transmission technique – – singlesinglechannel mode using inspection tongs (for inchannel mode using inspection tongs (for in --production and inproduction and in --serviceserviceapplication)application)

• Basic principle: ultrasonic through transmission method in general comparable to

through transmission method in squirter technique, manual movement of thetransducers

• both-side accessibility required• Display mode: A-scan

• A-scan: Assessment of indications by means of sound attenuation relative to thedefect-free surrounding area

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Structural Qualification - Requirements

Basis for Certification

• JCRI (JAA Certification Review Item) is a selected identified item of the

civil CS regulation with rules and policies established in other civilprograms.• MCRI (Military Certification Review Item) is a selected extension of the

civil CS regulation with rules and policies derived from militaryregulations and standards.

• Note: Although A400M is a militairy transport aircraft, the basis forcertification is the civil CS25 – former JAR25.

Hence CS25.571 (b) is applicable, which implies requirement ofDamage Tolerant design.

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Structural Qualification - Analysis

• Main Frame with FML-Strap is a Structure with DamageContainment Feature (DCF).

• Calculated ComponentsJustification of FML strap (run-out and highest stressed location)Justification of Frame Inner Flange

• Failure CriteriaF&DT: Fatigue, Crack Growth, No Defect Growth, Residual Strength.Static: Material Strength, Stability

Analyses supported by Test Evidence

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Structural Qualification - Analysis

• Fatigue crack growth:Load divided between Strap and Inner flange by product ofstiffness and area

Crack growth corrected for “crack bridging” by additionalfunction α

Edge cracks from bore holes and edges calculated

Strap bridging versus crack length

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

c r a c k l e n g t h a ( m m )

S t ra p br idging f unc tion Expon. (S t ra p br idging f unc tion)

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d .

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Structural Qualification - Analysis

• Residual strength analysis

• Conclusion: Introducing an significant initial centred unbonded zone does notlead to delamination growth under tensile as well as compressive limit loadneither. Final maximum size of acceptable delamination could not be founddue to limits of the model.Based on this outcome the rivet pitch has been defined.

Frame stressdistribution atultimate positivemoment

Frame stressdistribution at

ultimate negativemoment

Frame Inner Flange with bondedreinforcement modelled.

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Structural Qualification - Test

• Full-scale Fatigue Test with MSN5001

• Frames on Left Hand (LH) and Right Hand (RH) with FML straps:

LH side: normal series standardRH side: small artificial delaminations in frame-strap bondline and Glare

• Simulating 2.5 DSG (25.000 FC)

Planned for Feb. 2010- Feb. 2011

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Structural Qualification - Test

Overview Static component tests (three) Aim of the static frame bending test series is to evaluate the bonding of the FML-strap in

the region of the highest stress level and at the run-outs.

1. Frame with continuous Glare strap – 1 specimen – Loaded with negative bending moment, ultimate load – Small artificial delaminations in frame-strap bondline

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Structural Qualification - Test

2. Frame with run-out of Glare strap, – 2 specimens

– Loaded with positive/negative bending moment, ultimate load – Small artificial delaminations in frame-strap bondline

3. Frame with continuous Glare strap

– 2 specimens – Loaded with positive/negative bending moment, limit load – Large artificial delamination in frame-strap bondline (determined from

FE-analysis)

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Structural Qualification - Test

Overview F&DT component tests (two)

1. Frame with continuous Glare strap – 1 specimen – Spectrum of 3 DSG and limit load (tension+compression) – Initial flaws installed (1.27mm through cracks) – Small artificial delaminations in frame-strap bondline

Strap

Frame innerflange

Frame outerflange

P4 P7P1

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D E U T S C H L A N D G M B H

. A l l r i g h t s r e s e r v e

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Structural Qualification - Test

2. Frame with run-out of Glare strap – 1 specimen – Spectrum of 3 DSG and limit load (tension+compression) – No initial flaws

– Small artificial delaminations in frame-strap bondline – Specimen without artificial delamination for crack initiation and crack

propagation investigation

FML-straps

Frame inner flange

Frame outer flange

P4P7P1

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D E U T S C H L A N D G M B H

. A l l r i g h t s r e s e r v e

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Structural Qualification - Test

• Overview Coupon Tests

• Material and static coupon tests – Tensile test thick Glare2A – Compression test Glare2A – Blunt notch test Glare2A – Bearing test Glare2A

• Fatigue coupon tests – Bonded+riveted specimens – 20 specimens with/without cold worked holes

• Crack growth tests – Coupon tests by external company in development phase

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D E U T S C H L A N D G M B H

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Summary

• FML strap establishes a safer, damage tolerant design of a highlyloaded frame.

• The new application has been introduced with an extensivequalification program. All disciplines have to coorperate closely.

Structure engineeringMaterialQuality AssuranceProcess

• The first Production and Assembly has been succesfull.

Thanks for your attention/

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D E U T S C H L A N D G M B H

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Thanks for your attention/Bedankt voor uw aandacht

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D E U T S C H L A N D G M B H

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© AIRBUS DEUTSCHLAND GMBH. All rights reserved.Confidential and proprietary document.

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