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  • i ' ,

    1 • •

    Hydraulics and Stability of Tidal Inlets

    by

    Fro ncis F. Esco ffier

    GITI REPORT 13

    R_~_D ~

    August 1977

    Prepared for

    U.S. Army Coastal Engineering Research Center

    under

    Contract DACW72-74-C-0005

    GENERAL INVESTIGATION OF TIDAL INLETS

    A Program of Research Conducted Jointly by

    U.S. Army Coastal Engineering Research Center, Fort Belvoir, Virginia U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi

    Department of the Army Corps of Engineers

    APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED

  • or republieation of any eredit to U.S.

    this publieation available

    distribution

    National ATTN:

    authorized

    Drum

    United

    are not to

    the lJ .S.

    single Additional

    Service

  • CATALOG NUM8ER

    4. TITLE (limd Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT II PERIOD COVERED

    llYDR}\ULICS AND STABT LITY OF TIDAL INLETS inal

    6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER

    7. AU THOR(o) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUM8ER(8)

    Franc F. Escoffier DACW72-74-C-0005

    9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. TASK

    11.

    earch Center Belvoir, Vi

    F 31019

    12. REPORT DATE

    2 14. MONITORING AGENCY NAME Ii ADORESS(if different from Controlling Office) 15. SECURITY CLASS. (0/ this report)

    UNCLASSIFIED

    IS,.. DOWNGRADING

    16. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of this Report)

    for lie release, distribution unlimited.

    17, DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the abstract entered in Block 20, if different from Report)

    18, SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

    19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side if necessary and identIfy by block number)

    Functional des Inlet

    Tidal Tidal Tidal inlets

    20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side if neC'$994it'y and

    This report presents a summary 0 basic develop- ments to is of the and related stability of tidal inlets. ar, it covers the work Brown ( and Keulegan un inlet ic calculat • and O'Brien (1931, 1966), Jarrett (19 Bruun ( , Johnson (1973), O'Brien and Dean (19 ,and Es coffier ( on the of inlet channel stabU The original inlet tabi concept Escoffier is extended in Ii of recent

    DD EotTlON OF I NOV 65 IS OBSOLETE UNCLASSIFIED

  • UNCLASS TF TEO

    work. The report also contains brief discussions on tidal inlet characteristics and functional design requirements as well as case studies of selected inlets on the U.S. coasts.

    2 UNCLASSIFIED

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS

  • FOREWORD

    This results from work done under Contract No. DACW72-74-C- 0005 between the author and the Coastal Research Center (CERC). It is one of a series of from the of General Invest ion of elidal Inlets (GITI) > which is under the tech- nical surveillance of CERC and is conducted CERC, the U.S.

    Station ) other Government

    The retired, coastal

    Escoffier ic as a consultant in

    firms and the of

    Dr. R.r1. Sorensen, Chief, Coastal Structures Branch, was the con- tract monitor for the , under the s ion of R.P.

    , Chief, Research Division.

    Technical Directors of CERC and WES were T. Saville, Jr. and F.R. Brown, lye

    Comments on this publication are invited.

    lication in accordance with Public Law 166th, 79th 31 1945, as supplemented Public Law 172,

    7 November 1963.

    Colonel, of Commander and Director Commander and Director Waterways Station Coastal Research Center

    :3

  • PREFACE

    1. The of its Ci vii Works program sponsored, over the pas years, researcn into the behavior ar- acteristics of tidal inlets. The ' interest in ti let research stems its responsib es for navi on, beach erosion and control, and d Tasked wi the creation and of Ie U. S. w mil ions of

    of material each year from tidal inlets that conne the ocean with bays, estuaries, and lagoons. Design and construction

    exis tidal inlets are an ffices. In some red. Devel

    c ris cs of inlets is tion and inlet stabili

    s of storm surges role in the of

    but 0 because and egress of flood bays and lagoons.

    2. A research (GITl) was deve

    the General Inves of Tidal Inlets tative data for ~se in design

    of inlets and inlet i ectives:

    It is des to meet the fol

    the effects of wave action tidal inlet s tabili and

    characteristics necessary to design e

    new inlets, and and inlets; to evaluate il of tidal inlets; and

    inlet tabili

    The GITl is divided classification, ) inl

    fication s ics

    exist among c

    s inlet

    mental factors that control these characteristics. keeps the related

    an in in characteristics of inlets.

    b. The object are to define tide- flow

    tions in the vicinity of coastal inlets and to cleve these TIle inlet ics s is

    ( let

    three areas: (1) idealized inlet model s evaluation of state- of-the-art physical and numerical models. and ( inlet hydrauli cs.

    4

  • "

    The Idealized Inlet Mode 1 the effect

    tructures on discharge, head loss and ve b of realistic inlet tide

    ests zoidal inlet was conducted order that subs inlet models

    number of

    on on

    ( Eval The ectives f this mine the usefulness and model in

    ay sys ems, determine whether economical are us in the

    Inlet would be used along

    exi techniques.

    to deter-

    and b c data was co at Masonboro Inlet f ical mode w initiated in 1969

    have been sin then. In additi three exis numerical models were applied to ct the inlet I cs • Extensive field data were collected Inlet in 74 for e evaluat-

    the c cal numerical models.

    of relationsh

    on thes

    c. In s s to invest

    wave action tion, channe into four bed mode and

    and ne spe

    The basic the interactions

    at tidal lets as

    ( studies o

    materials is of

    tides, draul mor-

    ( Model Materials Evaluation. This evaluation was initi- ated in 1969 to de data on the response of movable-bed mode mate- rials to waves and flow to allow se on of the b materials for inlet models.

    Movab le- Bed study is to evaluate the state-of-the-art of , in this case movable-bed inlet model Since, in many cases movable-bed mode is the on tool available for the response of an inlet to , the i li ties and limi tations of these mode Is must be established.

    5

  • ( a report entitled, of an Uncontrol Inlet Beach Erosion Board b to aid

    Pro of inlets are and a al on

    are studies to define the the respons f inlet navi

    Field and office studies 0 the e

    of natural sand channels to

    ance at inlets. natural , and the effects of inlets on acent beaches.

    is

    4 is published in the GITI report series becaus it presents summary plus additional insi on some of the more tant works on tidal inlet and tabili It utes to the inlet parts (3b. of the GITL

    6

  • CONTENTS

    CONVERSION FACTORS. U.S. CUSTOMARY TO METRIC

    SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS

    I INTRODUCTION. .

    II CHARACTERISTICS OF NATURAL INLETS

    III INLET HYDRAULICS.

    IV INLET STABILITY • •

    V FUNCTIONAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS.

    VI CASE STUDIES ......... . 1. Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina 2. Rollover Fish Pass, Texas .. 3. Mission Inlet, California

    LITERATURE CITED. . .

    APPENDIX SUGGESTIONS FOR INLET DESIGN.

    TABLES

    ) 9

    10

    15

    15

    19

    41

    53

    S5 57 S9 63

    66

    71

    1 Values of ~ and ........... 20

    2 Resistance coefficient as on bed form for flume • .• 23

    3 Coefficient C in tidal prism formula and ratio bay to ocean tidal range. · . . 31

    4 Value of band N for the O'Brien 31, 1966) equilibrium formula t, 1976) .... · .. 42

    S Tidal amp1i phase lags. and maximum head di at Gal ves ton Bay, Texas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

    FIGURES 1 barrier beach tidal inlet. 17

    2 Offset classification of an inlet. 18

    3 of quadratic and linear formulas. 26

    4 Surface level fluctuations of sea and basin. 30

    7

  • FI -Continued

    5 Sin T C versus the coeffi of etion ....

    6 from Brown (192 and Keu1egan ( versus the coefficient of repletion .

    7 \! from Brown 6 versus the coe

    8 Ph as from Brown coefficient of

    9 Schematic inlet and narrow uniform

    10 Tidal m-inlet area

    and (196 versus the

    b wi th

    11 des of inte limi ts and and

    1

    13

    and \! versus

    and various values of \! coeffic ent K"

    coefficien , K

    versus repletion

    14 Definition for the stability number, A.

    15 Nons channels, southern California

    16 Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina ...

    17 Area map show location of Rollover Fish Pass, Texas.

    18 Rollover Fish Pass, Texas, 1970.

    19 Mission Inlet, Cali fornia

    8

    36

    43

    46

    48

    48

    o

    56

    8

    o

    61

    64

  • cubic

    acres

    ounces

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