hypersensitive reaction in plant and their mechanism

of 15 /15

Author: devendra-choudhary

Post on 17-Jul-2015

216 views

Category:

Science


3 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

Welcome You All

WelcomeHypersensitivity and its MechanismIntroduction The HR is a localized induced cell defense in the host plant at the site of infection by a pathogen.HR responsible for limiting the growth of the pathogen by this way it provide resistance to host against pathogen.

Most Hypersensitive response involve only single cell or very few cells.

3Contd..Whenever the virulent pathogen artificially injected to non host plant or resistant plant and when avirulent strain into susceptible host plant it induce hypersensitive response.

The HR is the culmination of the plant defense responses initiated by the recognition of specific pathogen signal molecules, known as elicitors by plant.The HR occur only in specific host-pathogen combination in which the host and pathogen are incompatible.Its occur only in Vertical resistance.Culmination=highest point4R gene and Pattern Recognition Receptor plant (Extra cellular /intra cellular)

Mechanism

PAMP / MAMP /elicitor of pathogenPlant cell has surveillance mechanism to sense invading pathogen.This sense non self molecule like flagellin, chitine,Pathogen like bacteria deliver effector molecule through t3ss.that recofnised by r protein.

In this compatible reaction ..start from phase 15

T3SS of BacteriaCompatible interaction between R gene product and Elicitor activates a cascade of biochemical reaction and activate defense related compound.

Phase 1. The activation of R genes triggers an ion flux (efflux of hydroxide and potassium, and influx of calcium and hydrogen ions) {Orlandi et al. 1992}

Phase 2. These generate an oxidative burst by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS). These compounds induce lipid peroxidation hence lipid damage, which degrade cellular membrane function. {Baker et al. 1993}

That results in the death of affected cells and the formation of local lesions.

Ros are directly toxic to microbes.superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals and nitrous oxide. 7

ROI = reactive oxygen intermediate explains this observation.

8This event increase biosynthesis of salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) which leads to long-lasting systemic acquired resistance (SAR).

Secondary metaboliteInhibitory proteinPhytoalexin9 JA-dependent defense responses activated by necrotrophic pathogens,and SA-dependent responses triggered by biotrophic pathogens .

10Conclusion of HRDepolarization of the membrane Electrolyte leakage Loss of selective membrane permeabilityApposition of material to the cell wallIncreased cytoplasmic streamingTranslocation of the nucleus to infection siteCallose deposition and papillae formationCondensation of Nucleoplasm and cytoplasm Disintegration of CytoskeletonCleavage of nuclear DNA

Nuclear migration and accumu-lation of cytoplasm underneath the pathogens appres-sorium was completed within 1.52 h after appearanceIn cut shot 11 In the absence of pathogen challenge, NPR1 (non-expresser of pathogenesis-related genes 1) is retained in the cytoplasm as an oligomer through redox-sensitive intermolecular di-sulphide bonds.

After induction, these di-sulphide bonds are reduced, releasing NPR1 monomers into the nucleus, where NPR1 acts as a cofactor for transcription factors to induce defense related genes.

Two receptors for salicylic acid NPR3 and NPR4 in cytoplasm.

NPR3 has high affinity with SA as compared to NPR4.

Why cell death occur only at the site of Infection

SA + NPR4 = di-sulphide bonds are reduced, releasing NPR1 monomers into the nucleus, where NPR1 acts as a cofactor for transcription factors to induce defense related genes.ReferenceGeorge N Agrios, 2005. Plant Pathology 5th Edition pp221- 237Andrea a . gust & thorsten nrnberger . The identification of two receptors for salicylic acid reveals how the hormone controls cell death and survival during plant immune responses, in tissues close to and distant from the site of infection. Plant immunology pp228.Zheng Qing Fu,2012. NPR3 and NPR4 are receptors for the immune signal salicylic acid in plants. Nature doi:10.1038/nature11162Elena T,2006. Hypersensitive cell death in plants its mechnisms and role in plant defence against pathogens Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research Vol. 13, 135 -158.Thank You